Chi-Square:
Test of Homogeneity
This lesson explains how to conduct a chi-square test of homogeneity. The test is applied to a single categorical variable from two different populations. It is used to determine whether frequency counts are distributed identically across different populations.
When to Use Chi-Square Test for Homogeneity
For each population, the sampling method is simple random sampling.
The variable under study is categorical.
If sample data are displayed in a contingency table (Populations x Category levels), the expected frequency count for each cell of the table is at least 5.
This approach consists of four steps: (1) state the hypotheses, (2) formulate an analysis plan, (3) analyze sample data, and (4) interpret results.
Sample Problem
In a study of the television viewing habits of children, a developmental psychologist selects a random sample of 300 first graders - 100 boys and 200 girls. Each child is asked which of the following TV programs they like best: The Lone Ranger, Sesame Street, or The Simpsons.
Step 1: State the Hypotheses
Every hypothesis test requires the analyst to state a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. The hypotheses are stated in such a way that they are mutually exclusive. That is, if one is true, the other must be false; and vice versa.
Suppose that data were sampled from r populations, and assume that the categorical variable had c levels. At any specified level of the categorical variable, the null hypothesis states that each population has the same proportion of observations. Thus,
H0: Plevel 1 of population 1 = Plevel 1 of population 2 = . . . = Plevel 1 of population r
H0: Plevel 2 of population 1 = Plevel 2 of population 2 = . . . = Plevel 2 of population r . . .
H0: Plevel c of population 1 = Plevel c of population 2 = . . . = Plevel c of population r
Solution
Null hypothesis: The null hypothesis states that the proportion of boys who prefer the Lone Ranger is identical to the proportion of girls. Similarly, for the other programs. Thus,
H0: Pboys who prefer Lone Ranger = Pgirls who prefer Lone Ranger H0: Pboys who prefer Sesame Street = Pgirls who prefer Sesame Street H0: Pboys who prefer The Simpsons = Pgirls who prefer The Simpsons
Alternative hypothesis: At least one of the null hypothesis statements is false.
Step 2: Formulate an Analysis Plan
The analysis plan describes how to use sample data to accept or reject the null hypothesis. The plan should specify the following elements.
Significance level. Often, researchers choose significance levels equal to 0.01, 0.05, or 0.10; but any value between 0 and 1 can be used
Test method. Use the chi-square test for homogeneity to determine whether observed sample frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies specified in the null hypothesis. The chi-square test for homogeneity is described in the next section.
Solution
For this analysis, the significance level is 0.05. Using sample data, we will conduct a chi-square test for homogeneity.
Step 3: Analyze Sample Data
Degrees of freedom. The degrees of freedom (DF) is equal to:
DF = (r - 1) * (c - 1)
where r is the number of populations, and c is the number of levels for the categorical variable.
Expected frequency counts. The expected frequency counts are computed separately for each population at each level of the categorical variable, according to the following formula. Er,c = (nr * nc) / n
where Er,c is the expected frequency count for population r at level c of the categorical variable, nr is the total number of observations from population r, nc is the total number of observations at treatment level c, and n is the total sample size.
Solution
Applying the chi-square test for homogeneity to sample data, we compute the degrees of freedom, the expected frequency counts, and the chi-square test statistic. Based on the chi-square statistic and the degrees of freedom, we dete

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Chi-Square:
Test of Homogeneity
This lesson explains how to conduct a chi-square test of homogeneity. The test is applied to a single categorical variable from two different populations. It is used to determine whether frequency counts are distributed identically across different populations.
When to Use Chi-Square Test for Homogeneity
For each population, the sampling method is simple random sampling.
The variable under study is categorical.
If sample data are displayed in a contingency table (Populations x Category levels), the expected frequency count for each cell of the table is at least 5.
This approach consists of four steps: (1) state the hypotheses, (2) formulate an analysis plan, (3) analyze sample data, and (4) interpret results.
Sample Problem
In a study of the television viewing habits of children, a developmental psychologist selects a random sample of 300 first graders - 100 boys and 200 girls. Each child is asked which of the following TV programs they like best: The Lone Ranger, Sesame Street, or The Simpsons.
Step 1: State the Hypotheses
Every hypothesis test requires the analyst to state a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. The hypotheses are stated in such a way that they are mutually exclusive. That is, if one is true, the other must be false; and vice versa.
Suppose that data were sampled from r populations, and assume that the categorical variable had c levels. At any specified level of the categorical variable, the null hypothesis states that each population has the same proportion of observations. Thus,
H0: Plevel 1 of population 1 = Plevel 1 of population 2 = . . . = Plevel 1 of population r
H0: Plevel 2 of population 1 = Plevel 2 of population 2 = . . . = Plevel 2 of population r . . .
H0: Plevel c of population 1 = Plevel c of population 2 = . . . = Plevel c of population r
Solution
Null hypothesis: The null hypothesis states that the proportion of boys who prefer the Lone Ranger is identical to the proportion of girls. Similarly, for the other programs. Thus,
H0: Pboys who prefer Lone Ranger = Pgirls who prefer Lone Ranger H0: Pboys who prefer Sesame Street = Pgirls who prefer Sesame Street H0: Pboys who prefer The Simpsons = Pgirls who prefer The Simpsons
Alternative hypothesis: At least one of the null hypothesis statements is false.
Step 2: Formulate an Analysis Plan
The analysis plan describes how to use sample data to accept or reject the null hypothesis. The plan should specify the following elements.
Significance level. Often, researchers choose significance levels equal to 0.01, 0.05, or 0.10; but any value between 0 and 1 can be used
Test method. Use the chi-square test for homogeneity to determine whether observed sample frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies specified in the null hypothesis. The chi-square test for homogeneity is described in the next section.
Solution
For this analysis, the significance level is 0.05. Using sample data, we will conduct a chi-square test for homogeneity.
Step 3: Analyze Sample Data
Degrees of freedom. The degrees of freedom (DF) is equal to:
DF = (r - 1) * (c - 1)
where r is the number of populations, and c is the number of levels for the categorical variable.
Expected frequency counts. The expected frequency counts are computed separately for each population at each level of the categorical variable, according to the following formula. Er,c = (nr * nc) / n
where Er,c is the expected frequency count for population r at level c of the categorical variable, nr is the total number of observations from population r, nc is the total number of observations at treatment level c, and n is the total sample size.
Solution
Applying the chi-square test for homogeneity to sample data, we compute the degrees of freedom, the expected frequency counts, and the chi-square test statistic. Based on the chi-square statistic and the degrees of freedom, we dete

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You are on page 1of 21

Test of

Homogeneity

This lesson explains how to

conduct achi-square test

of homogeneity. The test is

applied to a single

categorical

variablefrom two

different populations. It

is used to determine

whether frequency

When to Use Chi-Square

Test for Homogeneity

For each population, the sampling method

issimple random sampling.

The variable under study iscategorical.

If sample data are displayed in acontingency

table(Populations x Category levels), the

expected frequency count for each cell of the

table is at least 5.

This approach consists of four steps: (1) state

the hypotheses, (2) formulate an analysis plan,

(3) analyze sample data, and (4) interpret

results.

Sample Problem

In a study of the television

viewing habits of children, a

developmental psychologist

selects a random sample of 300

first graders - 100 boys and 200

girls. Each child is asked which of

the following TV programs they

like best: The Lone Ranger,

Sesame Street, or The Simpsons.

Step 1: State the Hypotheses

Every hypothesis test requires the analyst to

state anull hypothesisand analternative

hypothesis. The hypotheses are stated in

such a way that they are mutually exclusive.

That is, if one is true, the other must be false;

and vice versa.

Suppose that data were sampled

fromrpopulations, and assume that the

categorical variable hadc levels. At any

specified level of the categorical variable, the

null hypothesis states that each population

has the same proportion of observations.

Thus,

H0: Plevel 1 of population 1= Plevel 1 of

population 2= . . . = Plevel 1 of population r

population 2= . . . = Plevel 2 of population r

. . .

H0: Plevel c of population 1= Plevel c of population

2= . . . = Plevel c of population r

Solution

Null hypothesis: The null hypothesis states

that the proportion of boys who prefer the

Lone Ranger is identical to the proportion of

girls. Similarly, for the other programs. Thus,

H0: Pboys who prefer Lone Ranger= Pgirls who prefer Lone Ranger

H0: Pboys who prefer Sesame Street= Pgirls who prefer Sesame

Street

H0: Pboys who prefer The Simpsons= Pgirls who prefer The Simpsons

null hypothesis statements is false.

Step 2: Formulate an Analysis Plan

The analysis plan describes how to use sample

data to accept or reject the null hypothesis.

The plan should specify the following elements.

Significance level. Often, researchers

choosesignificance levelsequal to 0.01,

0.05, or 0.10; but any value between 0 and 1

can be used

Test method. Use thechi-square test for

homogeneityto determine whether observed

sample frequencies differ significantly from

expected frequencies specified in the null

hypothesis. The chi-square test for

homogeneity is described in the next section.

Solution

For this analysis, the

significance level is 0.05.

Using sample data, we

will conduct achi-

square test for

homogeneity.

Step 3: Analyze

Sample Data

Degrees of freedom.The

degrees of freedom(DF) is equal to:

DF = (r - 1) * (c - 1)

where r is the number of

populations, and c is the number of

levels for the categorical variable.

Expected frequency counts.The

expected frequency counts are

computed separately for each

population at each level of the

categorical variable, according to the

where Er,cis the expected frequency

count for population r at levelcof

the categorical variable, nris the

total number of observations from

population r, ncis the total number of

observations at treatment levelc,

and n is the total sample size.

Solution

Applying the chi-square test for homogeneity to

sample data, we compute the degrees of freedom,

the expected frequency counts, and the chi-square

test statistic. Based on the chi-square statistic and

the degrees of freedom, we determine the P-

value.

DF = (r - 1) * (c - 1) = (2 - 1) * (3 - 1) = 2

E1,1= (100 * 100) / 300 = 10000/300 = 33.3

E1,2= (100 * 110) / 300 = 11000/300 = 36.7

E1,3= (100 * 90) / 300 = 9000/300 = 30.0

E2,1= (200 * 100) / 300 = 20000/300 = 66.7

E2,2= (200 * 110) / 300 = 22000/300 = 73.3

E2,3= (200 * 90) / 300 = 18000/300 = 60.0

Step 3: Analyze Sample

Data

Test statistic.The test statistic is a chi-square

random variable (2) defined by the following

equation.2= [ (Or,c- Er,c)2/ Er,c]

where Or,cis the observed frequency count in

populationrfor levelcof the categorical variable,

and Er,cis the expected frequency count in

populationrfor levelcof the categorical variable.

P-value.The P-value is the probability of

observing a sample statistic as extreme as the

test statistic. Since the test statistic is a chi-

square, use the Chi-Square Distribution Tableto

assess the probability associated with the test

statistic. Use the degrees of freedom computed

above.

Solution

2= [ (Or,c- Er,c)2/ Er,c]

2= (50 - 33.3)2/33.3 + (30 - 36.7)2/36.7 + (20 - 30)2/30

+ (50 - 66.7)2/66.7 + (80 - 73.3)2/73.3 + (70 - 60)2/60

2= (16.7)2/33.3 + (-6.7)2/36.7 + (-10.0)2/30 + (-

16.7)2/66.7 + (3.3)2/73.3 + (10)2/60

2= 8.38 + 1.22 + 3.33 + 4.18 + 0.61 + 1.67 = 19.39

The P-value is the probability that a chi-square statistic

having 2 degrees of freedom is more extreme than

19.39.

We use theChi-Square Distribution Table to find P( 2>

19.39) = 0.0000. (The actual P-value, of course, is not

exactly zero. If the Chi-Square Distribution Calculator

reported more than four decimal places, we would find

that the actual P-value is a very small number that is

less than 0.00005 and greater than zero.)

Step 4: Interpret Results

If the sample findings are unlikely,

given the null hypothesis, the

researcher rejects the null

hypothesis. Typically, this involves

comparing the P-value to

thesignificance level, and rejecting

the null hypothesis when the P-value

is less than the significance level.

Solution

Since the P-value (0.0000) is

less than the significance

level (0.05), we reject the null

hypothesis.

THE

?

END

Quiz

1. Chi-square: Test of

Homogeneity is

applied to a _____ from

2 different populations

2. This test is used to

determine whether

_______ are distributed

identically across

different populations.

3-5. When to use the

Chi-square: Test of

Homogeneity

6-9. This approach

consists of steps,

what are these

steps?

10. How are babies

formed? (Without

using the concept of

Science)

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