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Sentence Structure

Part 1

Syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that

govern the structure of sentences in a given language,
specifically word order.
Parts of Speech

Parts of speech are sentence elements that work together to make up a sentence.

The thing is is, not all basic sentence partsor parts of speechhave to be
included all of the time to actually make up a complete and functioning sentence,
but its parts do have to work together accurately for a writer to convey his or her
intended ideas.
Parts of Speech
The basic parts of speech include:

1. Nouns

2. Pronouns

3. Verbs

4. Adjectives

5. Adverbs

6. Prepositions

7. Articles

A noun is a word describing who or what in a sentenceit can be a person, place

or thing.

A noun is usually an essential part of any basic sentence. Its typically who or what
the sentence is about, but other nouns are often also included in longer or more
complex sentences.
Proper nouns: A proper noun names a particular person, place or thing, and
the first letter of a proper noun is always capitalized.

Examples: Larry, Isabel, Animal Planet, Alaska, Austin, Texas, etc.

Common nouns: Common nouns are not specific and dont require

Examples: dogs, show, creatures, chair, corner, antique, iceberg, water, etc.
2. Pronouns

Pronouns can be used in place of nouns (when appropriate), and a pronoun

operates just like a noun in a sentence.

Lucas is a teacher. He is a great teacher.

2. Pronouns
Personal pronouns: Personal pronouns are always used to represent specific things
including individuals. The main thing to remember about personal pronoun usage
is that it is based on number, person and gender.

Object Pronoun: An object pronoun is not the subject of the sentence. It is usually
the object that is affected in some way by the subject of the sentence.

Reflexive Pronoun: Reflexive pronouns are used only to reflect or refer back to the
main noun of a sentence or the subjectwho or what the sentence is about.
2. Pronouns
2. Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns: Demonstrative pronouns are used to determine
number and proximity. They may also be used to replace a common noun
(or noun phrase) in a sentence as long as its first clear to readers who or
what the pronoun is referring to.

The fast roller coaster caused my stomach to ache.

That caused my stomach to ache.

3. Verbs

A verb is a word used in a sentence to explain what a nouna person, place, or

thingis doing or to explain whats being done to a noun.

Its usually an action word, but a verb or set of verbs can also explain an
emotional/physiological response or action, (like feel) or a mental action or state,
(like think) or a state of being, which may not typically be noticed or seen by
4. Adjectives
Adjectives are descriptive words used in sentences to modify or describe nouns or
pronouns, and they typically (but not always) precede them.

Descriptive adjective/Adjective of quality: These adjectives describe nouns

that refer to action, state, or quality.


beautiful black small

ugly white long

dangerous big fat

4. Adjectives
Adjective of quantity: An adjective of quantity tells us the number (how many)
or amount (how much) of a noun.


o He has eaten three apples.

o I don't have much money.

o There is so much wine for the guests.

o This long, thin centipede has many legs.
4. Adjectives
Demonstrative adjective: There are four words that are used as demonstrative
adjectives: this, that, these, those.


o This dog had no tail.

o That cat is fat.

o These giraffes have long necks.

o Those monkeys are noisy.
4. Adjectives
Possessive adjective: A possessive adjective expresses possession of a noun
by someone or something. Possessive adjectives + noun are the same as
possessive pronouns.
5. Adverbs
Adverbs are modifiers of verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, or sentences.

Adverbs of Time : Time adverbs tell us about when something happens.

Examples:early, recently, now, today, tomorrow, yesterday, etc.

Adverbs of Place: Place adverbs tell us about where something happens or

where something is.

Examples: here, there, somewhere, everywhere, indoors, outdoors, etc.

Adverbs of Manner: Manner adverbs tell us about the way something happens
or is done.

Examples: quickly, quietly, carefully, etc.

6. Prepositions
Prepositions join parts of sentences, and act as a bridge between two parts of a
sentence and provide readers with information, such as location and time.

Prepositions of Time: in, on, at, since, for, during, etc.

Preposition of Place: in, on, at, between, among, under, above, etc.

Preposition of Movement: to, toward, through, into

Preposition for Agent/Cause or Instrument: by, and with.

Prepositional Phrase = Verb + Preposition

7. Articles
Articles indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.

An article always precedes a singular noun unless a noun is universal or all-

encompassing. In some cases, plural forms of nouns are also preceded by an
article. This occurs when plural nouns are specific.

Definite Article: The

Indefinite Articles: A/An