Indian Institute of Welding ANB
Refresher Course Module 12
Construction And
Design
Contents
Behaviour of welded structures under
different types of loading
Design for static loading
Design for dynamic loading
Design of welded pressure equipment
"only the upper floors of the building were damaged, so why did the lower
floors collapse, and why did they fall so fast?"
3.5.1. Behaviour Of Welded Structures
Under Different Types Of Loading
All composite and fabricated structures work
under different environmental and loading
conditions such as :
Static or dynamic loading
Concentrated or distributed loading
Tension or compression or torsional loading
Combination of above loading
At normal temperature
At subzero temperature
At elevated temperature
Typical Welded construction .
Typical Welded structure .
3.5.2. Behaviour Of Welded Structures
Steels working under above mentioned
conditions of loading and temperatures behave
differently due to variation of the following
properties :
Tensile strength
Ductility
Impact strength or toughness
Creep resistance
Brittleness
Variations in the above properties occur mainly
due to the changes in the grain structures and
inter granular grain cohessiveness
3.6.5. Stress, Strain, Modulus Of Elasticity.
Stress is defined to be the load on a member
divided by the area of cross section and is
expressed in newton per mm sq. sq
Stress may be tensile or compressive or shear
Elongation or compression per unit length is
termed strain and is number.
The ratio of stress by strain is called modulus of
elasticity
The endurance limit is the maximum stress to
which the material can be subjected for an indefinite
service life.
3.6.6. MEMBERS UNDER TENSION AND
COMPRESSION
COMPRESSION
COMPRESSIO
N
TENSION CROSS SECIONAL
AREA
TENSILE FORCE
CROSS SECTIONAL AREA =P / a
ALLOWABLE TENSILE STRESS
=
UNIT TENSILE
UNIT ELONGATION OR =a / E
STRAIN = STRESS OF
MODULUS
ELASTICITY
NOTE : THE SLENDERNESS RATIO IS TAKEN TO BE
UNITY
3.5.4. Stress Strain Curve
Baldwin Hydraulic Machine for Tension & Compression test
3.5.4. Stress Strain Curve
Static strength
3.5.4. Stress Strain Curve
TUNGSTEN
S
T STEEL
R
E
CAST IRON
S
S RUBBER
STRAIN
3.5.4. Stress Strain Curve
3.5.4. Stress Strain Curve
3.5.4. Stress Strain Curve
3.5.4. Stress Strain Curve
3.5.4. Stress Strain Curve
Plate under bending
Plate under bending
Shaft under torsion
Shear strength
3.5.3. Static And Dynamic Loading
Under static loading condition the tensile
strength , compressive strength , shear
strength values are determinants of the section
of the material and that of the weld
But when the load varies in value , is repeated
at relatively high frequency or constitutes a
relatively high frequency the materials
endurance limit must be substituted for the
tensile strength
At a given high stress value the material has a
definite service or fatigue life expressed as n
cycles of operations.
Loading of beams
3.5.5. Stress Vs N Curve
S
T
R
E ENDURANC
E
S
S
N CYCLES OF
STRESS
Endurance limit
Endurance limit
3.5.6. Elevated Temperature Strength
At elevated temperatures secondary stresses
such as those due to thermal gradients or
due to nonuniform heating and cooling can
be relatively large and difficult to assess.
These stresses may affect service
performance of a structure with regard to
strength characteristics.
Design stresses are usually limited by yield
and tensile strengths upto a moderate
temperature of about 450 deg. To 535 deg.
Centigrade. At higher temperatures the
design stresses are limited by creep and
creep rupture strength.
Coefficient of Thermal expansion
Fractional expansion Fractional expansion
Material
per degree C x10^6 per degree F x10^6
Glass, ordinary 9 5
Glass, pyrex 4 2.2
Quartz, fused 0.59 0.33
Aluminum 24 13
Brass 19 11
Copper 17 9.4
Iron 12 6.7
Steel 13 7.2
Platinum 9 5
Tungsten 4.3 2.4
Gold 14 7.8
Silver 18 10
Coefficient of Thermal expansion
Thermal expansion coefficient
microinch
Unit Name per inch per Fahrenheit degree Symbol SI Equivalent
micron per meter per Celsi
us degree in/inF 1.8x106 /K
per Celsius de
gree
m/mC 1x106 /K
per Fahrenheit d
egree
per Kelv /C 1 /K
in
/F 1.8 /K
/K 1 /K
3.5.7. Elevated Temperature Design
In designing apparatus / structures at
elevated temperatures allowance must be
made for the thermal coefficient of
expansion of the component materials.
The tensile modulus of elasticity at room
temperature decreases linearly upto 450 deg.
Centigrade and then begins to drop at an
increasing rate.
rate
Creep ( continuous nonreversible plastic
deformation with time under load )
resistance is the most important property to
consider in designing a structure to operate
at elevated temperature.
CREEP STRENGTH
Two standards of creep strengths are
commonly used :
The stress to produce a minimum
creep rate of 0.00001 per cent per hour
( 1 per cent per 100,000 hours )
The stress to produce a total creep
strain of 1 per cent per 100,000 hours.
hours
SCHEMATIC CREEP CURVE
A ELASTIC
E EXTENSION
B CREEP AT
C DECREASING RATE
EXTENSION PER CENT
B D C CREEP AT
APPROXIMATELY
CONSTANT RATE
F D CREEP AT
INCREASING RATE
E ELASTIC
CONTRACTION
F PERMANENT
A CHANGE OF LENGTH
ELAPSED TIME IN HOURS
CREEP CURVE
Life at elevated temperatures ..
3.5.8. Low Temperature Strength
The terms low temperature and cryogenic
may be defined as involving temperatures to 100
degree and 273 deg.
deg Centigrade.
Design of structures operating at low temperatures
are based on the properties of yield and tensile
strength, fatigue limit, ductility and toughness
especially notch toughness.
toughness
Notch toughness is a property of steel reflected in
its resistance to brittle failure under conditions of
high stress concentration such as impact loading in
the presence of a notch.
3.5.9. Influence Of Notches And Weld Defects
Structures and welds are designed on the basic
assumptions that the steels and the welds are
defect free resulting normal tensile / yield
strength, ductility, toughness and homogenous
structures.
However defects such as notch in the steel
brings stress concentration resulting brittle
failure under impact load.
Similarly weld defects such as undercut,undercut
porosity, cracks, lack of fusion and penetration
will cause failure of the welded joint and the
structure at a load less than the designed value.
Material properties
 Charpy VNotch Test
Material properties
Charpy VNotch Test (continued)
Charpy Toughness(lbin)
Ductile
Behavior
Brittle Transition
Behavior Temperature
Temperature (F)
Material properties
Material properties
3.5.10.Types Of Fractures  I
Failure of structural members at stresses
well below their yield strengths indicates other
considerations besides the conventional
tensile properties. Analysis of the failures
indicates that the fractures usually are
initiated at notches caused by :
Design features rigidity of members
Fabrication procedures weld arc,
arc defects
Flaws in the materials flakes,
flakes seams
Fracture surfaces provide an indication
of the probable causes of failure
3.5.11. Types Of Fractures  II
Normal observations of fractured surfaces
of a structural member may be of :
Brittle fracture or low energy fracture surface
tends to show that there is little deformation .
the surfaces are flat and at right angles
having a shiny crystalline appearance.
Ductile or shear fracture occurs after plastic
deformation by a sliding action.
action There are
signs of yielding along edges of the fractured
surfaces normally at 45 deg. Angle with a dull
fibrous appearance.
Lamellar tearing  layers of plate seams
open up at fractured surfaces showing clean
separation.
Types Of Fractures
Fracture of an Aluminium Crank
Arm. Dark area: slow crack growth.
Micrographs showing how surface fatigue
Bright area: sudden fracture
cracks grow as material is further cycled
Micromechanics of failure
Micromechanics of failure
Macroscopic image of a brittle fracture
Micromechanics of failure
Macroscopic image showing
fatigue beachmarks
Scanning electron microscope
image of fatigue striations
3.5.12. TYPES OF CRYOGENIC STEELS
THE MOST COMMON RANGES OF COMPOSITIONS
OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS IN SUCH STEELS ARE :
CARBON0.06 TO 0.10 PERCENT
MANGANESE1.50 TO 9.00 PERCENT
SILICON NORMALLY 0.60 PERCENT
NICKEL 4.50 TO 18.00 PERCENT
CHROMIUM 17.00 TO 25.00 PERCENT
CRYOGENIC STEELS CONTAINING 9.00 PERCENT
NICKEL ARE CAPABLE OF RETAINING TOUGHNESS
AT A VERY LOW TEMPERATURES.
3.5.13. CREEP RESISTANCE
STEELS
CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM STEELS SUCH AS 2.25
Cr.,1.00 Mo STEELS ARE USED EXCLUSSIVELY FOR A
VARIETY OF TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS UPTO 450
DEG.
DEG CENTIGRADE
12.00 PERCENT Cr. STAINLESS STEELS ARE USED
UPTO A TEMPERATURE OF 705 DEG.
DEG CENTIGRADE
17.00 PERCENT Cr. STAINLESS STEELS ARE USED IN
APPLICATIONS UPTO A TEMPERATURE OF 816 DEG
CENTIGRADE
27.00 PERCENT Cr. STAINLESS STEELS ARE USED IN
APPLICATIONS FROM 870 to 1095 DEG CENTIGRADE
WHERE MOST SEVERE OXIDATION IS
ENCOUNTERED.
3.5.14. TENSILE PROPERTIES OF
CRYOGENIC STEELS
TENSILE YIELD LOWEST
STRENGTH STRENGTH SERVICE
AISI NO. (Mpa) (Mpa) TEMP DEG.
CENT.
201 655 310 195
304 L 483 172 270
316 517 207 270
3.5.15. CORRELATION BETWEEN ROOM TEMP.
TENSILE STRENGTH AND 100000 HRS RUPTURE
STRENGTH FOR 2.25 Cr1 Mo STEEL
TENSILE 100000 HR 427 RUPTURE STRENGTH
STRENGTH AT DEG. 482 DEG. H538 DEG.
27 DEG. CENT(Mpa) CENT(Mpa) CENT(Mpa)
(Mpa)
655 365 262 186
724 445 302 193
793 524 334 200
INTRODUCTION
Welding is one of the most important & versatile
means of Fabrication available to industries.
Welding technologists endeavour to achieve
defect free welds.
Origin of defects can be traced to
Welding Process
Improper design
It is generally acknowledged that defects in
welds are unavoidable
Hence, a good knowledge of influence of defects
on weld joint performance is essential.
Weldment ; Shape appropriate for the transfer of applied
Loads
Objectives of Weld Joint Design
Weld Joint design are ideally to provide an
assembly that :
Will perform its Intended Functions
Will have required Reliability &
Safety
Is capable of being Fabricated,
Inspected, Transported & placed
in service at minimum total cost.
cost
Total cost includes the cost includes the cost of
; Design,
Design Materials,
Materials Fabrication, Erection,
Inspection, Operation etc.,
Selection of Proper Joint design for the application .
..
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DESIGNER
Component should be designed to meet the
indented functional requirement.
Choose correct Materials
(Knowledge of Materials & their properties)
Choose correct Codes & Standards
(Knowledge of each Document & their
limitations)
Detail the Loadings & apply the Design Methodology
(Knowledge of design procedure & failure theories)
Choose appropriate Manufacturing
methods
(Knowledge of Modern Manufacturing processes)
Assess integrity of the component after
manufacture
(Knowledge of various destructive & NDE techniques)
Mechanical Properties ; Modulus of Elasticity, Ductility, Fracture,
(ASTM) . .
ROLE OF DESIGNER
Depends on Circumstances
Relatively Superficial in established & Proven
area
Critical application, more wide ranging and profound
range of responsibilities
Designer should also be Costconscious
Over Designed Plate/Pipe
Over Sized Fillet weld
Continuous weld when intermittent weld would
suffice
Excess Reinforcement
Expensive welding consumables, etc,.
Cutting of Metals, Weld acceptance Critieria, Inspection, Testing
DESIGN FOR WELDING
Welded Joint is designed to meet a certain
combination of properties required by end use.
use
Thus, Mandatory requirement are specified in
various Fabrication codes.
The majority of these codes specify the
following are the welded joints :
Type of Joints
Joint details
An allowable design stress based on the material
properties at service temperatures.
Manufacturing & Testing
requirements
No mention about detailed requirements for specific
environmental conditions.
ControlDesigner
of Distortion ; Communication
must look into this. of design Symbols & Safety St
ANALYSIS OF FAILURES
Fig. Schematic of crack growth stages
internal defect (lack of fusion)
initiated a fatigue crack
calculated design resistance
Fig. Diaphragm over the pier  bridge
CAUSES & LESSONS..
LESSONS
BASIC JOINT TYPES
The type of joint selected for any welding job may
materially affect :
the quality and strength of the weld
the cost of labor and
materials
Time and expense in preparing,
jigging, and positioning the work
The selection of the proper joint type depends on
a number of factors
joint thickness and material, desired physical
properties in the finished joint
size of the pieces being welded, accessibility of
the joint, fitup obtainable
available edge preparation equipment,
equipment number
of pieces to be welded, and specifications of
regulatory codes
Joint to be Post Weld Heat Treated relieve residual
stresses ?
Weld Definitions
Terminology used

BASIC JOINT TYPES
Distinction between the different welds is important ;
Allowable design stresses are often defined on the
basis of weld types.
Interaction with Fabricating Shop
Weld Types
Types of Butt Joint Welds
Square Groove SingleVee Groove Groove angle is sufficient to allow the
electrode into the joint
Single Vee Double Vee Groove Double V preparation time is
Groove without
Root Face greater, but you use less filler metal
60 deg. for plate and 75 deg. for
pipe
SingleU Groove
Types of Lap Joint Welds
Strength of the weld depends Double Fillet Welded Double Fillet Joggle Lap Joint
on the size of the fillet
Subjected to heavy loads,
loads
doublefillet lap joint Continuous Through
Welded Lap Joint
Adjacent Sheet Edges
to Backing Structure Single Sheet To Backing Structure
Groove welds with complete joint penetration all types of
Weld Types
TeeJoint in Horizontal Position
singlebevel tee joint can
withstand more severe loadings
than the square tee joint, because
of better distribution of
stresses.
Horizontal Fillet Weld DoubleVee, Groove Weld
Single Vee Groove
Square Groove Corner Joint Types of Corner Joint Welds
Thick plate beveling both
members to reduce the
Corner Fillet Joint
tendency of Lamellar tearing.
J Groove Corner Joint (Single or Double J)
With Backing
Select the Joint design requires least amount of weld metal . .
Weld Types
Applications of
Plug Weld Joining Two Plates Plug Weld Used to Attach Staybolt in
Plug Welding Pressure Vessel Fabrication
Hole Beveling When Plate Plug Weld Reinforcing Joint
Thickness is Over 1 inch Primarily Attached by Fillet Welding
A PARTIAL JOINT penetration groove weld has an unwelded portion at the
root of the weld. ; Eccentricity of Shrinkage forces Angular distortion
Use Lap & Fillet welds instead of Groove weld if FATIGUE is not a
Welding Calculations
Fundamental
assumptions
Welds are homogeneous and
isotropic elements
Welds are rigid and their
deformations are negligible
Effects of residual stresses,
stress concentrations and
shape of the welds are
neglected in static design.
Welds are sized to withstand static or cyclic
Welding Calc. . .
Full Penetration Butt Partial Penetration Butt
Welds Welds
Throat thickness is equal to Throat thickness depth of the
thickness of the plate butt preparation minus 2mm
Varying stress
distribution
along the weld;
the tensile stress
at centre is
greater than the
avg. stress.
Total throat thickness is >
than material thickness
No edge prepn large electrodes, high welding current, high
Welding Calc. . .
Good engineering practice
Avoiding stress concentrations
is important if the connection
will be subject to fatigue loads
Joints welded from one side : Do
not use in bending with the root
in tension, nor transverse
fatigue nor impact loading.
Partially penetrated joints : Do
not expose to corrosive condns.
Effective Throat is never greater than the depth of joint
Welding Calc. . .
T FILLET WELDS
Throat area is the product of the
throat thickness and the effective
length of the weld.
Welds with effective lengths shorter
than 40mm or 6 times the throat
thickness, whichever is larger, should
be ignored for transmission of
forces.
forces
Double fillet welding :Limits
rotation of the member about the
axis of the joint, less tension stress
at the root, can be cyclically loaded
parallel to the weld
Size to carry load & accommodate shrinkage during cooling to avoid
Welding Calc. . .
LAP JOINT
Weld subject to longitudinal
shear
Peak stress tends to equalize during
loading by localized plastic deformation.
Length = 100 x Throat thickness
Welds are sized to withstand static or cyclic
Welding Calc. . .
CANTILEVER
Welds Subject to both bending and shear
L
Failure Plane
Web stiffeners can be fillet welded inside
the column to evenly distribute the transfer
of load
The stress induced in fillet weld joint is complex;
complex
eccentricity of appl. Load, weld shape & notch;
Shear, tension, compressn.
Fillet : Throat is in shear for all types of load ; St=L/A
Welding Calc. . .
Lap Joint Subject To
Torsion
Welds Subject to both bending and
shear
The pivot point is the centroid
of the weld area : Welds of
different sizes, (or) three welds,
pivot has to calculated taking
moments of the weld area.
The allowable shear stress in
steel weld metal in groove & fillet
welds is about 30% of the
nominal tensile st. of the base
weld metal.
Detailed analysis based on plastic behaviour : more accurate for
Welding Calc. . .
Rectangular Block Subject To Torsion
T Butt Weld Subject to Torsion
Torsion is the same as an applied moment
Shear stress=Txr/J
Bending stress is a peak stress,
maximum at outer fibres, it can
usually exceed design stress by
upto 1.5 x Allowable design
stress.
ANSI/AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code
Welding Calc. . .
Butt Weld With Offset
Lap Joint Subject To Bending and Shear
A Vertical Shear force caused by the offset load creating a moment about
the mid point between the welds as well as horizontal shear force.
Design the weld size to carry 1/3rd1/2 of the load capacity of the
BASE METAL CHECKING
Welding Calc. . .
Select joint types that will transmit the service stresses successfully
Welding Calc. . .
Rule Of Thumb Fillet Weld Sizes
Minimum Weld Sizes
Source: Design of weldments by Omer W. Blodgett
The allowable stress is fixed fraction of the shear yield strength of the metal.
metal
Welding Formulae
Welding Formulas
(Reprinted
Reprinted from Design Data, PSG Tech,1995
A generous factor of safety
should be used
An allowable stress is used
whether loading is tension,
compression, or shear
Use the minimum amount of
filler material consistent
with the job requirement
Try to design joint such that
load path is not through
the weld
Typically for Mild steel the
allowable stress is 266MPa for
butt welds and 215MPa for
fillet welds (BS)
Approach adopted by design codes : Maximum Principal stress
Welding Calc. . .
Weld size
Permissable stress based on
type of weld
Geometric Shape Imperfections
Excess weld metal
TYPES AND CAUSES
Acceptable from the unacceptable
excess weld metal
Excess weld metal limits for quality levels:
Severity of service Moderate, D Stringent, B
Limit (up to maximum) h = 1mm + 0.25 b h = 1mm + 0.25 b
Undercut
Maximum 10 mm 3 mm
Transition required smooth smooth
Where: h = height of excess & b = width of bead (see figure)
Linear misalignment
Overlap
Welds are sized to withstand static or cyclic
Shape Imperfections . .
FILLET WELDED JOINTS
Oversize fillet weld Excess convexity
Asymmetric fillet weld Undersized fillet weld Poor fitup
Calc. maximum acceptable flaw size according to fitness for service principles
Shape Imperfections . .
Lap joints welded with fillet welds
Effect of Weld Penetration on Stress
concentration in 11/2 in. Fillet Welds
Lamellar tearing
In T or cruciform joints, full penetration
butt welds will be particularly
susceptible.
susceptible
In butt joints, as the stresses on welding
do not act through the thickness of the
plate, there is little risk of lamellar
tearing
Good practice in the design
For corner joint where fillet weld is not adequate Bevel both
member
Fatigue of weldments
S/N curves for welded and unwelded specimens
Examples of joint classificn.
from BS 7608
Stress concentrating effect of a
change in thickness
Avoid Joints that create extremely deep grooves
Fatigue of weldments
Improvement in fillet weld
fatigue life
Effects of joint classification on
fatigue life
Burr machining of weld toes
Use Lap & Fillet welds instead of groove if fatigue is not a design
prob.
Improving Fatigue St.
Reduce Stress Concentration Use smooth shapes,transitions
Flush machining in butt welds (100% Put welds in low stress areas
improvement)
Toe grinding in fillet welds (80% impr.) Check weld joint classifications
Melt smoothing ;TIG Torch (140% impr.) Fatigue strength of welds does
not depend on the yield and
Introducing Compressive stresses tensile strengths of parent
Shot or grit blasting (25100% impr.) metal.
Peening (80 % improvement)
Spot heating in region adjacent to weld
(200% impr. very difficult to control in
practice)
Overloading Plastic deformn. relaxes
residual stresses (50% impr.)
Joint design in CODES
Circumferential (Hoop) Forces acting on thin Cylinder under Internal Pressure
ASME modified formulae; close agreement of LAMES equation.
ASME recognises the significance of defects in welds & attempted to
overcome the reduction in strength by incorp. Joint efficiency.
Codes & Stds apply to weldments designed for certain
Joint design in CODES
Weld or joint efficiency = joint strength / parent strength 
which varies from 100% for a perfect weld (ie. virtually
seamless) through 7585% for a tolerably good weld.
Joint efficiency factor dep. on type of weld
& degree of its radiographic inspection.
Joint efficiency E for arc & gas welded joints in code
Unequal thickness : Parts, Nozzles, pipes..
Pressure parts with butt welded hubs
Stress concn due to abrupt changes
in c/s
Translation slope of 1 in 3
Acceptable type of weld nozzle to shells
Joint design in CODES
ASME UW12 JOINT EFFICIENCIES UW13 ATTACHMENT DETAILS
REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED FOR OPENINGS
Structural discontinuity
UW15 WELDED CONNECTIONS
Area compensation; material Reduces stresses at
reinforcement the junction
UW16 Minimum requirements for Attachment welds at
Openings..
REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED FOR OPENINGS
Acceptance Criteria for Pressure vessel weld joint
UW14 OPENINGS IN OR ADJACENT TO WELDS
Effects of Weld Reinforcements
Reinforcement & undercut serious
discont. Affecting fatigue life
Acceptance criteria for reinforcement
& offset in ASME Sec VIII Div 1
Ground eliminate minute discont.
Code specifies max. possible height of reinforcement . .
Effect of Geometry on fatigue performance
Stress concentration factors
for Lack of penetration butt
welds defects
Improper fitup, fixturing. Increses the direct stresses by introducing a
sec bending stress
Angular misalignment further increases the stress at the
junction..
Dissimilar Weld Locn.
Matching CTE
Distribute CTE
over several
interfaces.
Joint to be Post Weld Heat Treated relieve residual
stresses ?
Crevices and Corrosion & Mechanical design aspect
A crevice is a narrow gap between a piece of metal and another piece of
metal or tightly adhering material like plastic or a film of bacterial growth
Crevice corrosion is a localized form of corrosive attack
Case Studies..
CASE STUDIES
Consider direction of Loading when sizing Fillet welds
Maximise Performance while minimizing costs..
Case Studies..
Consider Penetration when determining Fillet weld size
Case Studies..
Caution when specifying seal welds
Fillet welds that are too long
The minimum heat input requirements
Unconservative to assume imposed by AWS D1.1 may be violated
full length of the weld is when the seal weld is made.
effective
Seal welds may affect inspection practices, in
particular, the interpretation of ultrasonic
inspection results.
Alternate Load path
Case Studies..
Welded Lap Joints
Case Studies..
Tack & Temporary Welds
Remelted tack welds
Case Studies..
Dihedral
Skewed T joint Z loss
NOTHIN Welds Case Studies..
T joints with poor fitup
Increasing the root opening of a Tjoint without increasing the
fillet weld size increases the stress on the throat.
When machining tolerances
are critical
The AWS D1.198 Structural Welding
Code addresses
SOFTWARES : MODELING
Structural Steel design software LT!
CATIA Weld Design 1 (WD1)
AutoCAD LT from CADlogic  LT
Structural
SYSWELD : Introduction
Thermal,
Thermal Metallurgical and Mechanical
Characteristics
To Find these data 3 possibilities are offered :
Use the SYSWELD Material Data Base
Find these Data in the bibliography
Perform experimental tests to characterize
all these thermal, metallurgical and
mechanical Data
Heat Source for Welding
A volume heat source defined by a double
ellipsoid is advised to simulate welding processes
with material deposit : MIG, TIG
x2 y2 z2
Q x, y,z Qf exp
a2f b2 c2
Q x, y,z Qr exp x2 y2 z2
ar2 b2 c2
Translation, Rotation, Helix
Al sheet
1.5mm
Temp.
simulatio
n
Displacements, norm U, Display of the stresses in
on deformed shape, welding direction
with amplification
factor 5
SYSWELD
Hardenable steel: Volume changes
Welding: Removal of the material history Mises stresses after cooling
Martensite at the end
In this area, the failure risk
is higher due to increased
hardness and grain size
MultiPass methodologies
Prescribed thermal cycle
T2
T3
T1
Thermocouples location
Computed/measured thermal cycles
MultiPass methodologies
Running heat source
W2
W1
W3
Welding of a Tjoint
3.6.1. Typical Types Of Loads
TENSION LOAD
BENDING
ON LOAD
SI
ES
R
MP
CO
SHEAR
LOAD
3.6.2. Types Of Load
STATIC IMPAC
T
VARIABLE
3.6.3. Types Of Joints
WELD
SINGLE T
JOINT DOUBL
CORNE WELD WELD ET
R JOINT JOINT
SQUARE BUTT
JOINT
WELD DOUBLE VEE BUTT
JOINT
SINGLE VEE BUTT JOINT
REINFORCEME
FLANGE JOINT NT
3.6.4. Joint Design
4 60
5
B
A ROOT
GAP D
C
LAND SPACER
E RIGH WRONG
T
F
BACK GOUGING
3.6.7. SHEAR STRENGTH OF WELD
HORIZONTAL SHEAR FORCE ON EACH
WELD Va
r N/
h = yI n m
WHERE :
V TOTAL SHEAR ON SECTION AT A
= GIVEN POSITION ( N )
2
a = AREA OF FLANGE HELD BY WELD
(m
y = )DISTANCE BETWEEN THE C.G. OF FLANGE
AREA AND N.A. OF THE WHOLE SECTION
(m) 4
I = MOMENT OF INERTIA OF THE WHOLE SECTION
(m)
n = NUMBER OF WELDS JOINING EACH FLANGE TO
WEB
3.6.8. WORKED EXAMPLE ON 3.6.7.
GIVEN :
Width of the flange= 250 mm. Thickness of the flange =
70 mm
Thickness of the web = 15 mm. 3Depth of the6web =
1200mm
h
Total shear on section = 860 Kn 3
3
Then : r = (V.a.Y)/I.n ( 860/10) x (70 x 250)/10
x 1270/2000
=
{ ( 250/12000) x (1.340 )
2.35 x 1.2 } x 2/12
= 0.2934712 MN/m
If the size of the fillet is w, and allowable shear strength
= 96 MN/m2
Then, 0.707 w x 96 = 0.2934712.
or w = 4.32 mm
3.7.1. Behaviour Of Welded Structures
Under Dynamic Loading
When the load on a member is constantly varying
in value or is repeated at relatively high frequency
or constitutes a complete reversal of stresses
with each operating cycle the materials
endurance limit must be substituted for the
ultimate strength where called for by the design
formula
Under high load values the variable or fatigue
mode of loading reduces the materials effective
ultimate strength as the number of cycles
increases
At a given high stress value the material has a
definite service or fatigue life expressed as n
cycles of operations
3.7.2. ANALYZING THE FATIGUE LOAD
A TYPICAL S aAv+
FATIGUE T
LOAD a
PATTERN
R Av
CURVE E a a MAX
MIN
S
S
THERE ARE TWO WAYS TO TIM
REPRESENT THE FATIGUE LOAD : E
1. AS A MEAN OR AVERAGE STRESS
WITH A SUPERIMPOSED VARIABLE
STRESS
2. AS A STRESS VARYING FROM A
MAXIMUM VALUE TO A MINIMUM
VALUE . HERE THE CYCLE CAN BE
REPRESENTED BY THE RATIO
K = a Min / a Max
3.7.3. VARIABLE STRESS AND MEAN
STRESS RELATIONSHIP
b
d
f
c e a
a = ULTIMATE STRENGTH UNDER STEADY LOAD (YIELD
STRENGTH)
STRENGTH
b = FATIGUE STRENGTH FOR A COMPLETE REVERSAL OF
STRESS
f = VARIABLE STRESS SUPERIMPOSED ON STEADY STRESS
e = MEAN STRESS ( AVERAGE STRESS )
A LINE CONNECTING POINTS b AND a WILL INDICATE THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VARIABLE STRESS AND THE
MEAN STRESS FOR ANY TYPE OF FATIGUE CYCLE FOR A
RELATIVE FATIGUE STRENGTH
%
80
70
85
90
75
95
100
1
X 100
ALLOWABLE FATIGUE STRESS
KNOWN FATIGUE STRENGTH
2
7
3
ab
N
4
/ N
3.7.4. Fatigue Strength
6
3.7.5. FATIGUE STRENGTH AS RELATED
TO THE NUMBER OF CYCLES
IF , a = FATIGUE STRENGTH FOR N CYCLES
A A
a = FATIGUE STRENGTH FOR N CYCLES
B B
c = 0.13 FOR BUTT WELDS AND
= 0.18 FOR PLATES IN AXIAL LOADING,
TENSION AND
COMPRESSION
c
THEN ,
A B B A
a = a x(N /N )
3.7.6. Improving Fatigue Strength
Fatigue strength of welded structures can be
improved by :
1. Using butt joints rather than lap joints
2. Avoiding
Avoid intermittent fillet welds
3. Minimizing the size of the fillet welds
4. Peening the weld immediately after
welding
5. Post weld heat treatment to remove built
in stresses
6. Tumbling small welded components
7. Giving preference to structures with
multiple load paths.
3.8.1. Design Of Dynamically Loaded
Structures: Applications
Most common and widely used welded
constructions working under moderate to
heavy dynamic loading are
1. Bridge structurals
2. Automobiles
3. Railway wagons and coaches
4. Sea going vessels
5. Offshore drilling platforms
6. Stationary and mobile cranes
7. Tall chimneys
8. Towers
3.8.2. Fatigue Strength In Cyclic Loads
FATIGUE DESIGN STRESS N / mm
KIND OF
6 5 5
WELD AND 2 x 16 6x 10 10 BUT NOT
TO
STRESS CYCLES CYCLES CYCLES EXCEED
BUTT WELD 112/
112 120 / 127/ a
TENSION 1 0.8r 1 0.7r 1 0.5r
t
BUTT WELD 126/ 127 / 127 / a
COMPRESSION 1r 1 0.8 r 1 0.5r c
FILLET WELD 36 w / 50 w / 62 w / 62 w
ALL 1 0.5r 1 0.5r 1 0.5r
3.8.3. STRENGTH OF WELDED JOINT
THE STRENGTH OF WELDED JOINT AT ALTERNATING
LOAD MAY APPROXIMATELY BE OBTAINED BY
MULTIPLYING THE STRESS VALUES GIVEN IN SLIDE NO.
3.8.2. BY :
1 FOR BUTT
WELDED JOINTS
1 0.3 x { P(min)/ P(max)}
AND BY :
1 FOR CORNER
AND SLOT
1.3 0.3 x { P(min)/ P(max)} WELDED
JOINTS
HERE P(min) AND P(max) APPEAR IN THE FORMULA
EACH WITH ITS SIGN. HENCE, P(min)/ P(max) < 0 AND
THEREFORE THE FACTOR BECOMES LESS THAN 1 .
3.8.4. WORKED EXAMPLE ON FATIGUE
LOADING
100 LOAD 45 kN
xxxxxxx 100
PROBLEM xx
100
A PLATE IS ATTACHED TO
THE FRAME OF A MACHINE xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
AS SHOWN IN THE FIGURE 150 SOLUTION
SHOWN WITH A VERTICAL CONSULTING THE TABLE GIVEN
LOAD OF 45 Kn. TO FIND IN 3.8.2.:
OUT THE SIZE OF THE ALLOWABLE LOAD
FILLET IF THE LIFE OF
5 THE = (50 w)/( 1 0.5r) N /mm
COMPONENT IS 6 x 10 = (50 w)/{1 0,5(0.3)} N/mm
CYCLES AT = 43.5 w N/mm
P(min)/P(MAX) = 0.30 = 795 N/mm (FOR STATIC
LOADING)
RESULTANT FORCE= 795 HENCE w = 18.3 mm.
N/mm FOR PRACTICAL PURPOSES THE
FILLET SIZE TO BE TAKEN AS
20mm
3.9.1. Design Of Welded Pressure Equipment
Welded pressure equipment are close containers
carrying or containing steam, pressurised fluids or
gases exerting uniform pressure in all directions.
Such containers must be tight and have sufficient
strength to withstand internal pressure to which it is
subjected. In arc welded construction the joints are
made as tight and strong as the plates joined.
Tanks, boilers, pipe lines, hydraulic cylinders, steam
chests are some of the examples of pressure vessels in
use.
Containers are required to work at normal, elevated or
even at subzero temperatures
3.9.2. Unfired Pressure Vessels
Any pressure container of any importance
undoubtedly must conform to the minimum
requirements of the asme section 8 unfired
pressure vessels. IN GENERAL THIS COVERS
CONTAINERS FOR PRESSURES EXCEEDING
15 psi UPTO A MAXIMUM OF 3000 psi AND
HAVING A DIAMETER EXCEEDING 150 mm
In the next slides formulas for calculating the
minimum required wall thickness of cylindrical
shells and spherical shells are given.
3.9.4. WALL THICKNESS OF CYLINDRICAL
SHELL
THIN SHELL : WHEN t < r /2
s i
AND p < 0.385 a E
a
i p r
ri
THEN : t = a E  O.6 p
a ro
s
THICK SHELL : WHENs t i > r /2
AND p > 0.385 a ts
a
E
1/2
s i
THEN : t = r {Z  1}
a a
WHERE : Z = (a E + p) / ( a E
p)
3.9.3. FORMULAS FOR SHELL THICKNESS
ts = THICKNESS OF THE SHELL IN INCH
rc = MEAN RADIUS OF CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE SHELL IN
INCH
m
r = MEAN RADIUS OF THE MERIDIAN OF THE SHELL IN
INCH
p = INTERNAL PRESSURE IN psi
aa = ALLOWABLE STRESS ( ASME SEC. 8 PAR USC 23 )
Em = JOINT EFFICIENCY ( ASME SEC. 8 PAR UW 12 )
p
acp= TENSILE STRESS IN THE DIRECTION OF THE
MERIDIAN
arp = TENSILE STRESS IN THE DIRECTION OF A TANGENT
TO A
CIRCUMFERENCE
a = TENSILE STRESS IN THE RADIAL DIRECTION
Weld bead profile: Convex or Concave?
Solidification of molten bead leads to shrinkage
Shrinkage of a concave bead leads to tension on surface tends to crack
Shrinkage of a convex bead leads to compression on surface does not crack
Generally, slightly convex beads are preferred.
Lincoln Electric
SUMMARY
PFBR Safety Vessel under erection..
PFBR Safety Vessel under erection..
PFBR Safety Vessel under erection..
CONCLUSION
The Integrity of welded fabrication depend
ultimately on proper designing of welded
joints
Thank you for your
attention!