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Chapter 6

Cellular Respiration: Obtaining


Energy from Food

PowerPoint Lectures for


Campbell Essential Biology, Fifth Edition, and
Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology,
Fourth Edition
Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, and Jane B. Reece
Lectures by Edward J. Zalisko 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Biology and Society:
Marathoners versus Sprinters

Slow-twitch fibers
last longer,

do not generate a lot of quick power, and

generate ATP using oxygen (aerobically).

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Biology and Society:
Marathoners versus Sprinters

Fast-twitch fibers
contract more quickly and powerfully,

fatigue more quickly, and

can generate ATP without using oxygen


(anaerobically).

All human muscles contain both types of fibers but


in different ratios.

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ENERGY FLOW AND CHEMICAL CYCLING
IN THE BIOSPHERE
Animals depend on plants to convert the energy of
sunlight to
chemical energy of sugars and

other organic molecules we consume as food.

Photosynthesis uses light energy from the sun to


power a chemical process and

make organic molecules.

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Producers and Consumers

Plants and other autotrophs (self-feeders)


make their own organic matter from inorganic
nutrients.
Heterotrophs (other-feeders)
include humans and other animals that cannot
make organic molecules from inorganic ones.

Autotrophs are producers because ecosystems


depend upon them for food.
Heterotrophs are consumers because they eat
plants or other animals.
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Chemical Cycling between Photosynthesis and
Cellular Respiration

The ingredients for photosynthesis are carbon


dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).
CO2 is obtained from the air by a plants leaves.

H2O is obtained from the damp soil by a plants


roots.

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Chemical Cycling between Photosynthesis and
Cellular Respiration

Chloroplasts in the cells of leaves use light energy


to rearrange the atoms of CO2 and H2O, which
produces
sugars (such as glucose),

other organic molecules, and

oxygen gas.

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Chemical Cycling between Photosynthesis and
Cellular Respiration

Plant and animal cells perform cellular


respiration, a chemical process that
primarily occurs in mitochondria,

harvests energy stored in organic molecules,

uses oxygen, and

generates ATP.

The waste products of cellular respiration are


CO2 and H2O,

used in photosynthesis.
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Chemical Cycling between Photosynthesis and
Cellular Respiration

Animals perform only cellular respiration.


Plants perform
photosynthesis and
cellular respiration.
Plants usually make more organic molecules than
they need for fuel. This surplus provides material
that can be
used for the plant to grow or
stored as starch in potatoes.

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Figure 6.2
Sunlight energy
enters ecosystem

Photosynthesis
C6H12O6 CO2

O2
H2O

Cellular respiration

ATP drives cellular work


Heat energy exits
ecosystem
CELLULAR RESPIRATION:
AEROBIC HARVEST OF FOOD ENERGY
Cellular respiration is
the main way that chemical energy is harvested
from food and converted to ATP and
an aerobic processit requires oxygen.

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION:
AEROBIC HARVEST OF FOOD ENERGY
Cellular respiration and breathing are closely
related.
Cellular respiration requires a cell to exchange
gases with its surroundings.
Cells take in oxygen gas.

Cells release waste carbon dioxide gas.

Breathing exchanges these same gases between


the blood and outside air.

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Figure 6.3
O2 CO2

Breathing

Lungs

O2 CO2

Muscle
cells
Cellular
respiration
The Simplified Equation for Cellular Respiration

A common fuel molecule for cellular respiration is


glucose.
Cellular respiration can produce up to 32 ATP
molecules for each glucose molecule consumed.
The overall equation for what happens to glucose
during cellular respiration is
glucose & oxygen CO2, H2O, & a release of
energy.

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Figure 6.UN01

During cellular respiration, hydrogen and its


bonding electrons change partners from sugar
to oxygen, forming water as a product.

C6H12O6 6 O2 6 CO2 6 H2O ATP

Glucose Oxygen Carbon Water Energy


dioxide

Chemical reactions that transfer electrons from one


substance to another are called
oxidation-reduction reactions or
redox reactions for short.
Redox Reactions

The loss of electrons during a redox reaction is


oxidation.
The acceptance of electrons during a redox
reaction is reduction.
During cellular respiration
glucose is oxidized and
oxygen is reduced.

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Figure 6.UN02

Oxidation
Glucose loses electrons
(and hydrogens)

C6H12O6 6 O2 6 CO2 6 H2O

Glucose Oxygen Carbon Water


dioxide

Reduction
Oxygen gains electrons (and hydrogens)
Redox Reactions

Why does electron transfer to oxygen release


energy?
When electrons move from glucose to oxygen, it is
as though the electrons were falling.
This fall of electrons releases energy during
cellular respiration.

Cellular respiration is
a controlled fall of electrons and

a stepwise cascade much like going down a


staircase.
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Figure 6.4
1
H2 2 O2

Release
of heat
energy

H 2O
NADH and Electron Transport Chains

The path that electrons take on their way down


from glucose to oxygen involves many steps.
The first step is an electron acceptor called NAD +.
NAD is made by cells from niacin, a B vitamin.
The transfer of electrons from organic fuel to
NAD+ reduces it to NADH.
The rest of the path consists of an electron
transport chain, which
involves a series of redox reactions and
ultimately leads to the production of large
amounts of ATP.
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Figure 6.5
e e Electrons from food

e e
Stepwise release
NADH
NAD of energy used
to make

ATP
2 H 2 e

El
ec
tr
on
tr
an
sp
or
t ch
a in

2 e

1
2 H 2
O2

Hydrogen, electrons,
and oxygen combine H2O
to produce water
Figure 6.5a
Stepwise release
ATP of energy used
2 H 2 e to make ATP

Electron
transport chain

2 e

1
2 H 2 O2

Hydrogen, electrons, and oxygen


H2O
combine to produce water
An Overview of Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration is an example of a metabolic


pathway, which is a series of chemical reactions in
cells.
All of the reactions involved in cellular respiration
can be grouped into three main stages:
1. glycolysis,

2. the citric acid cycle, and

3. electron transport.

BioFlix Animation: Cellular Respiration

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Figure 6.6
Mitochondrion Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm

Animal cell Plant cell

Cytoplasm
Mitochondrion

High-energy
electrons
via carrier
molecules

Glycolysis Citric
2 Acid Electron
Glucose Pyruvic Cycle Transport
acid

ATP ATP ATP


Figure 6.6a

Cytoplasm
Mitochondrion

High-energy
electrons
via carrier
molecules

Glycolysis Citric
2 Acid Electron
Glucose Pyruvic Cycle Transport
acid

ATP ATP ATP


Stage 1: Glycolysis

1. A six-carbon glucose molecule is split in half to


form two molecules of pyruvic acid.

2. These two molecules then donate high energy


electrons to NAD+, forming NADH.

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Figure 6.7

INPUT OUTPUT

NADH
P P 2 ATP
NAD
2 ADP

2 3
2 ATP P
2 ADP P
2 Pyruvic acid
1
P P
P
2 3
Glucose
2 ADP
NAD 2 ATP
P

NADH

Energy investment phase Energy harvest phase


Key
Carbon atom
P Phosphate group
High-energy electron
Figure 6.7a

INPUT OUTPUT

2 Pyruvic acid

Glucose
Figure 6.7b-1

2 ATP
2 ADP

1
P

Energy investment phase


Figure 6.7b-2


NADH
P P
NAD

2
2 ATP P
2 ADP P

1
P P
P
2

NAD P

NADH

Energy investment phase Energy harvest phase


Figure 6.7b-3


NADH
P P 2 ATP
NAD 2 ADP

2 3
2 ATP P
2 ADP P

1
P P
P
2 3

2 ADP
NAD 2 ATP
P

NADH

Energy investment phase Energy harvest phase


Stage 1: Glycolysis

3. Glycolysis
uses two ATP molecules per glucose to split the
six-carbon glucose and
makes four additional ATP directly when enzymes
transfer phosphate groups from fuel molecules to
ADP.

Thus, glycolysis produces a net of two molecules


of ATP per glucose molecule.

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Figure 6.8

Enzyme

P ADP
ATP

P P
Stage 2: The Citric Acid Cycle

In the citric acid cycle, pyruvic acid from glycolysis


is first groomed.
Each pyruvic acid loses a carbon as CO2.

The remaining fuel molecule, with only two carbons


left, is acetic acid.

Oxidation of the fuel generates NADH.

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Stage 2: The Citric Acid Cycle

Finally, each acetic acid is attached to a molecule


called coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
The CoA escorts the acetic acid into the first
reaction of the citric acid cycle.
The CoA is then stripped and recycled.

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Figure 6.9

INPUT OUTPUT
2 Oxidation of the fuel
(from (to citric
generates NADH
glycolysis) acid cycle)

NAD NADH
CoA

1 Pyruvic acid Acetic 3 Acetic acid


loses a carbon acid attaches to Acetyl CoA
Pyruvic acid as CO2 coenzyme A
CO2 Coenzyme A
Figure 6.9a

INPUT OUTPUT
(from (to citric
glycolysis) acid cycle)

CoA

Acetyl CoA
Pyruvic acid
Figure 6.9b

2 Oxidation of the fuel


generates NADH
OUTPUT

NAD NADH

1 Pyruvic acid Acetic 3 Acetic acid


loses a carbon acid attaches to
as CO2 coenzyme A
CO2 Coenzyme A
Stage 2: The Citric Acid Cycle

The citric acid cycle


extracts the energy of sugar by breaking the acetic
acid molecules all the way down to CO2,

uses some of this energy to make ATP, and

forms NADH and FADH2.

Blast Animation: Harvesting Energy: Krebs Cycle

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Figure 6.10

INPUT OUTPUT
Citric
acid

1 Acetic
acid 2
2 CO2

ADP P ATP 3
Citric
Acid
Cycle

3 NAD 3 NADH 4


FAD FADH2 5

6
Acceptor
molecule
Figure 6.10a

INPUT OUTPUT

1 Acetic
acid 2
2 CO2

ADP P ATP 3


3 NAD 3 NADH 4


FAD FADH2 5
Figure 6.10b

INPUT Citric OUTPUT


acid

Citric
Acid
Cycle

Acceptor
molecule
Stage 3: Electron Transport

Electron transport releases the energy your cells


need to make the most of their ATP.
The molecules of the electron transport chain are
built into the inner membranes of mitochondria.
The chain
functions as a chemical machine, which
uses energy released by the fall of electrons to
pump hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial
membrane, and
uses these ions to store potential energy.

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Stage 3: Electron Transport

When the hydrogen ions flow back through the


membrane, they release energy.
The hydrogen ions flow through ATP synthase.

ATP synthase
takes the energy from this flow and

synthesizes ATP.

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Figure 6.11

Space H
between
H H H H H
membranes H
H
Electron H
carrier H H 3 H 5 H
Protein
complex
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane

FADH2 FAD
H
Electron 2 1
flow 2
O2 2 H H2O 6

4
NADH NAD
ADP P ATP
1
H H H H
H
Matrix Electron transport chain ATP synthase
Figure 6.11a

Space H
between
H H H H H
membranes
H H
Electron
H
H 3 H
carrier H H 5
Protein
complex
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
FADH2 FAD
H
Electron 2
1
flow O2 2 H

H2O 6
2

4
NADH NAD
ADP P ATP
1
H H H H
H

Matrix Electron transport chain ATP synthase


Figure 6.11b

Space H
between H
H H H H
membranes
H
Electron H
H H 3 H
carrier
Protein
complex

Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
FADH2 FAD
H
Electron 2
1
flow O2 2 H
2

4
NADH NAD
1
H H H
H

Matrix Electron transport chain


Figure 6.11c

H
H
H
H
H 5 H

1
O2 2 H H2O 6
2

4
ADP P ATP

H H

ATP synthase
Stage 3: Electron Transport

Cyanide is a deadly poison that


binds to one of the protein complexes in the
electron transport chain,
prevents the passage of electrons to oxygen, and

stops the production of ATP.

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Figure 6.12

Cytoplasm

Mitochondrion

6 NADH
2 NADH 2 NADH

2 FADH2

Glycolysis 2
2 Electron
Acetyl Citric
Glucose Pyruvic Transport
CoA Acid
acid
Cycle Maximum
per
glucose:

2 2 About About
ATP ATP 28 ATP 32 ATP

by direct by direct by ATP


synthesis synthesis
synthase
Figure 6.12a

Glycolysis 2
2 Electron
Acetyl Citric
Glucose Pyruvic Transport
CoA Acid
acid
Cycle

2 2 About
ATP ATP 28 ATP

by direct by direct
by ATP
synthesis synthesis
synthase
The Results of Cellular Respiration

In addition to glucose, cellular respiration can


burn
diverse types of carbohydrates,

fats, and

proteins.

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Figure 6.13
Food

Polysaccharides Fats Proteins

Sugars Glycerol Fatty acids Amino acids

Acetyl Citric
Glycolysis Acid Electron
CoA
Cycle Transport

ATP
FERMENTATION: ANAEROBIC HARVEST
OF FOOD ENERGY
Some of your cells can actually work for short
periods without oxygen.
Fermentation is the anaerobic (without oxygen)
harvest of food energy.

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Fermentation in Human Muscle Cells

After functioning anaerobically for about 15


seconds, muscle cells begin to generate ATP by
the process of fermentation.
Fermentation relies on glycolysis to produce ATP.

Glycolysis
does not require oxygen and

produces two ATP molecules for each glucose


broken down to pyruvic acid.

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Fermentation in Human Muscle Cells

Pyruvic acid, produced by glycolysis,


is reduced by NADH,

producing NAD+, which

keeps glycolysis going.

In human muscle cells, lactic acid is a by-product.

Animation: Fermentation Overview

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Figure 6.14

INPUT OUTPUT
2 ADP 2 ATP
2 P

Glycolysis


2 NAD 2 NADH 2 NADH 2 NAD
2 Pyruvic acid
2 H 2 Lactic acid
Glucose
Figure 6.14a

INPUT OUTPUT
2 ADP 2 ATP
2 P

Glycolysis


2 NAD 2 NADH 2 NADH 2 NAD
2 Pyruvic acid
2 H 2 Lactic acid
Glucose
Figure 6.15
Battery Battery

Force Force
measured measured

Frog
muscle
stimulated
by electric
current

Solution prevents Solution allows


diffusion of lactic acid diffusion of lactic acid;
muscle can work for
twice as long
The Process of Science:
What Causes Muscle Burn?

Results: When lactic acid could diffuse away,


performance improved greatly.
Conclusion: Lactic acid accumulation is the
primary cause of failure in muscle tissue.
However, recent evidence suggests that the role of
lactic acid in muscle function remains unclear.

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Fermentation in Microorganisms

Fermentation alone is able to sustain many types


of microorganisms.
The lactic acid produced by microbes using
fermentation is used to produce
cheese, sour cream, and yogurt,

soy sauce, pickles, and olives, and

sausage meat products.

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Fermentation in Microorganisms

Yeast is a microscopic fungus that


uses a different type of fermentation and
produces CO2 and ethyl alcohol instead of lactic
acid.
This type of fermentation, called alcoholic
fermentation, is used to produce
beer,
wine, and
breads.

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Figure 6.16

INPUT OUTPUT
2 ADP
2 ATP
2 P
2 CO2 released
Glycolysis


2 NAD 2 NADH 2 NADH 2 NAD
2 Ethyl alcohol
2 Pyruvic 2 H
Glucose acid
Figure 6.16a

INPUT OUTPUT
2 ADP
2 ATP
2 P
2 CO2 released
Glycolysis



2 NAD 2 NADH 2 NADH 2 NAD
2 Ethyl alcohol
2 Pyruvic 2 H
Glucose acid
Evolution Connection:
Life before and after Oxygen

Glycolysis could be used by ancient bacteria to


make ATP
when little oxygen was available, and

before organelles evolved.

Today, glycolysis
occurs in almost all organisms and

is a metabolic heirloom of the first stage in the


breakdown of organic molecules.

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Figure 6.17
0

Earths atmosphere
O2 present in
Billions of years ago
2.1 First eukaryotic organisms
2.2 Atmospheric oxygen reaches 10% of modern levels
2.7 Atmospheric oxygen
first appears

3.5 Oldest prokaryotic


fossils

4.5 Origin of Earth


Figure 6.17a
0

Earths atmosphere
O2 present in
Billions of years ago

2.1 First eukaryotic organisms


2.2 Atmospheric oxygen reaches 10% of modern levels
2.7 Atmospheric oxygen
first appears

3.5 Oldest prokaryotic


fossils

4.5 Origin of Earth


Figure 6.UN03

Citric
Acid Electron
Glycolysis Transport
Cycle

ATP ATP ATP


Figure 6.UN04

Citric
Acid Electron
Glycolysis Transport
Cycle

ATP ATP ATP


Figure 6.UN05

Citric
Acid Electron
Glycolysis Transport
Cycle

ATP ATP ATP


Figure 6.UN06

Heat
C6H12O6

Sunlight O2
ATP

Photosynthesis
Cellular
respiration

CO2 H2O
Figure 6.UN08

Oxidation
Glucose loses electrons
(and hydrogens)

C6H12O6 CO2

Electrons ATP
(and hydrogens)

O2 H 2O
Reduction
Oxygen gains
electrons (and
hydrogens)
Figure 6.UN09
Mitochondrion

O2



6 NADH
2 NADH 2 NADH

2 FADH2

Glycolysis 2 Citric
2 Acetyl Electron
Acid
Glucose Pyruvic CoA Transport
acid Cycle

2 CO2 4 CO2
H 2O
About
2 by direct by direct 2 28 ATP by ATP
ATP ATP
synthesis synthesis synthase

About
32 ATP