You are on page 1of 21

Content Outline (cont.

)
Idealization Structure -`simplified structure
Idealized support

Idealized structural element

Idealized structure

Idealized load

Principle of Superposition
Equations of Equilibrium
Determinacy & Stability
Application of the Equations of Equilibrium

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 1


2-1 Idealized Structure
IDEALIZED Structural Elements
Consider the framing
used to support a typical
floor slab in a building
as shown in Fig 2.6(a)

The slab is supported by floor joists located


at even intervals
These are in turn supported by 2 side
girders AB & CD
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 2
2-1 Idealized Structure
For analysis, it is reasonable to assume
that the joints are pin and/or roller
connected to girders & the girders are pin
and/or roller connected to columns
The structural framing plan
is shown in Fig 2.6(b)
HOW about fixed
connected?

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 3


Example of Idealized structure
-slides refer-

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 4


2-1 Idealized Structure
Idealized LOAD
Tributary Loadings
There are 2 ways in which the load on

surfaces can transmit to various structural


elements
1-way system

2-way system

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 5


2-1 Idealized Structure
IDEALIZED Tributary Loadings
1-way system

Consider the framing shown in Fig


2.11(a)
Beams AB, CD & EF rest on girders AE
& BF
Uniform load = 4.8kN/m2
Load distribution is as shown in Fig
2.11(b)

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 6


2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Member CD is subjected to a linear
distribution of load as shown in Fig
2.11(c)
The reaction from this beam (10.8kN)
would be applied to the center of girders

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 7


2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Fig 2.11

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 8


2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Fig 2.11

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 9


2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Fig 2.11

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 10


2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
For some floor systems, beams &
girders are connected at the same level
as shown in Fig 2.12(a)
For R.C. slab, if the reinforcement is in
one direction -> 1-way
If the reinforcement is in two directions,
load may be transmitted in 2-way
If L L & if L /L 2, the slab will
2 1 2 1
behave as a 1-way slab
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 11
2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Fig 2.12

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 12


2-1 Idealized Structure
2-way system
If L /L 2, the load is assumed to be
2 1
delivered to the supporting beams &
girders in 2 directions
Consider the square R.C. slab in Fig
2.13(a)
L /L = 1
2 1
The tributary area for beam AB is as
shown in Fig 2.13(b)
This area is determined by constructing
diagonal 45o lines
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 13
2-1 Idealized Structure
2-way system
Fig 2.13

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 14


2-1 Idealized Structure
2-way system
If L /L = 1.5, it is necessary to construct
2 1
45o lines that intersect as shown in Fig
2.14(a)
Fig 2.14(b) and 2.14(c) show the
distributed load on AB & AC

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 15


2-1 Idealized Structure
2-way system
Fig 2.14

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 16


TUTORIAL 2

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 17


Example 2.1
The floor of a classroom is supported by the
bar joists shown in Fig 2.15(a)
Each joist is 4.5m long and they are spaced
0.75m on centers
The floor is made from lightweight concrete
that is 100mm thick
Neglect the weight of joists & the corrugated
metal deck, determine the load that acts
along each joist

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 18


Example 2.1 - solution
Fig 2.15

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 19


Example 2.1 - solution
Dead load, weight of concrete slab
(100)(0.015)
1.50kN / m 2
Live load 1.92kN / m 2
Total load 1.50 1.92 3.42kN / m 2
L1 0.75m, L2 4.5m
L1 / L2 2 1 - way slab
The tributary area for each joist is shown in Fig 2.15(b)
Uniform load along its length, w
3.42kN / m 2 (0.75m) 2.57 kN / m

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 20


Example 2.1 - solution

This loading & the end reactions on each joist


are shown in Fig 2.15(c)

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 21