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# Content Outline (cont.

)
Idealization Structure -`simplified structure
Idealized support

## Idealized structural element

Idealized structure

Idealized load

Principle of Superposition
Equations of Equilibrium
Determinacy & Stability
Application of the Equations of Equilibrium

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2-1 Idealized Structure
IDEALIZED Structural Elements
Consider the framing
used to support a typical
floor slab in a building
as shown in Fig 2.6(a)

## The slab is supported by floor joists located

at even intervals
These are in turn supported by 2 side
girders AB & CD
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2-1 Idealized Structure
For analysis, it is reasonable to assume
that the joints are pin and/or roller
connected to girders & the girders are pin
and/or roller connected to columns
The structural framing plan
is shown in Fig 2.6(b)
HOW about fixed
connected?

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Example of Idealized structure
-slides refer-

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2-1 Idealized Structure
Idealized LOAD
Tributary Loadings
There are 2 ways in which the load on

elements
1-way system

2-way system

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2-1 Idealized Structure
IDEALIZED Tributary Loadings
1-way system

## Consider the framing shown in Fig

2.11(a)
Beams AB, CD & EF rest on girders AE
& BF
Uniform load = 4.8kN/m2
Load distribution is as shown in Fig
2.11(b)

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2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Member CD is subjected to a linear
distribution of load as shown in Fig
2.11(c)
The reaction from this beam (10.8kN)
would be applied to the center of girders

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2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Fig 2.11

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2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Fig 2.11

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2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Fig 2.11

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2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
For some floor systems, beams &
girders are connected at the same level
as shown in Fig 2.12(a)
For R.C. slab, if the reinforcement is in
one direction -> 1-way
If the reinforcement is in two directions,
load may be transmitted in 2-way
If L L & if L /L 2, the slab will
2 1 2 1
behave as a 1-way slab
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2-1 Idealized Structure
1-way system
Fig 2.12

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2-1 Idealized Structure
2-way system
If L /L 2, the load is assumed to be
2 1
delivered to the supporting beams &
girders in 2 directions
Consider the square R.C. slab in Fig
2.13(a)
L /L = 1
2 1
The tributary area for beam AB is as
shown in Fig 2.13(b)
This area is determined by constructing
diagonal 45o lines
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2-1 Idealized Structure
2-way system
Fig 2.13

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2-1 Idealized Structure
2-way system
If L /L = 1.5, it is necessary to construct
2 1
45o lines that intersect as shown in Fig
2.14(a)
Fig 2.14(b) and 2.14(c) show the
distributed load on AB & AC

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2-1 Idealized Structure
2-way system
Fig 2.14

TUTORIAL 2

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Example 2.1
The floor of a classroom is supported by the
bar joists shown in Fig 2.15(a)
Each joist is 4.5m long and they are spaced
0.75m on centers
The floor is made from lightweight concrete
that is 100mm thick
Neglect the weight of joists & the corrugated
metal deck, determine the load that acts
along each joist

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Example 2.1 - solution
Fig 2.15

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Example 2.1 - solution
Dead load, weight of concrete slab
(100)(0.015)
1.50kN / m 2
Live load 1.92kN / m 2
Total load 1.50 1.92 3.42kN / m 2
L1 0.75m, L2 4.5m
L1 / L2 2 1 - way slab
The tributary area for each joist is shown in Fig 2.15(b)
Uniform load along its length, w
3.42kN / m 2 (0.75m) 2.57 kN / m

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Example 2.1 - solution

## This loading & the end reactions on each joist

are shown in Fig 2.15(c)