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EMERGENCY

AND DISASTER /
FIRST
AID

BY:
FARAH MAE MEDINA, BSN, RN 1
FIRST AID FIRST AID
Immediate Care or Emergency Treatment
Self-help and Home Care if Medical Assistance is not
available or delayed
Establish Priorities
Asses, Monitors & Support
Priorities
WHO can be the FIRST AIDER?
Trained FIRST AIDER
SAFETY OFFICER
Good Samaritan
(Good Samaritan Law) this gives legal protection to the
rescuer who act in good faith and not guilty for
negligence or willful misconduct.
SUPPORT STAFFS
EMERGENCY MEDICINE PHYSICIAN
ROLE OF FIRST AIDER
Bridge that fills the gap between the physicians.
Monitors and continuously assesses acutely ill and
injured patients
The emergency health care staff members work as a
team in performing the highly technical, hands-on skills
required to care for patients in an emergency situation.
GOLDEN ROLE OF EMERGENCY CARE
Dos
Obtain Consent
Think of the Worst
Respect Victims Modesty & Privacy
Donts
let the patient see his own injury
Make any unrealistic promises
STEP in RESPONSE FOR
ACTION
I. Survey the Scene
Is the Scene Safe?
What Happened?
Are there any bystanders who can
help?
Identify as a trained first aider!
Asses for the Airway, Breathing &
Circulation
II. Activate Medical Assistance
III. Do Secondary Survey
5 DaRRaN
Artificial Respiration
a way of breathing air to
persons lungs when
breathing ceased or
stopped function.
Respiratory Arrest
a condition when the
respiration or breathing
pattern of an individual
stops to function, while the
pulse and circulation may
continue.

Causes: Choking,
Electrocution,
6 DaRRaN
Methods:
mouth to mouth

mouth to nose

mouth to stoma

mouth to mouth and nose

mouth to barrier device


DaRRaN 7
MINOR AILMENT, MAJOR AILMENT & their
Treatment
FEVER elevated or not normal body temperature of the well
being person. (Normal 37 % C)
TREAMENT
Asses and take the Vital Signs, Signs &Symptoms (vomiting,
,headache, cough& etc)
Rest the client.
Give paracetamol & Advise to drink more water.
IF the client experience convulsion, delirium &
unconsciousness, Refer to hospital.

BLEEDING- is due to cut, injuries and accidents.


TREATMENT
1. Asses & lie down the person on her/his back.
2. Press on his/her pad o the site of bleeding (gauze, bandage or
clean cloth)
3. Find and Monitor the bleeding if persist send to nearest
hospital.
Diarrhea Frequently bowels movement a stool formed by liquid.
TREATMENT
1. Assess the client symptoms of dehydration
2. Give Anti diarrheal medications
3. Advise to drink ORESOL/WATER more than 8-12 glasses a day
4. If the diarrheal persist Refer Hospital (3-5 days)
Headache- severe symptoms of pain around the head and neck
area.
TREATMENT
1. Asses the Severe pain and Causes
2. Give Paracetamol, Rest the client.
3. If pain persist send Home (with or without accompanied by)
WOUNDS- an injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other impact,
typically one in which the skin is cut or broken.
TREATMENT
Wash the wound with running water or antiseptic solution.
Remove foreign bodies present in the wound
Bandage the wound
In case the wound is large and need suture Refer to the nearest Hospital.
MATERNAL CARE HEALTH To the pregnancy Women
TREATMENT
Asses the client experiencing nausea, dizziness & vomiting 7 Take for the
Vital Signs
Advise Crackers & Drink water 8-12 glasses
Advise Rest for a period
SORE THROAT- is inflammation of the throat due to infection, trauma &
sweets food.
TREATMENT
Asses the client (VS)
Advice to gargle warm water and salt & Drink warm lemonade
Advice lozenges medications
If the pain persist Refer to Physician.
COUGH- Common reflex action that clears the throat of mucus or foreign
irritants. (Allergies)
TREATMENT
Asses for the client (duration, type, color and consistency of sputum &
weight loss)
Advise to drink water 8-12 glasses a day & rest
Advice if the cough 5- 7 days or two weeks, kindly go to Health Center or
Hospital
INFLAMMED EYE/IRRITANTS EYE- is inflammation of the eye due to chemicals, bites and
irritants liquids, & solid materials.
Treatment
Chemicals- Rinse on a Running water to wash out the chemicals
Apply Eye Ointments if available.
Patch with sterile gauze
Refer to nearest hospital if the injuries are large.
TOOTHACHE- is a pain of the tooth or teeth due to cavities, infection & bacteria.
TREATMENT
Asses the pain (Give Analgesics for pain
Encourage to eat guava, orange, lemon &etc.
Minimize sweets foods
If the pain persists in 3 -5days after the medications consult your Dentist.
CONSTIPATION - a condition in which there is difficulty in emptying the bowels, usually
associated with hardened feces
Treatment
Advice to drink more liquids ( more than 8-12 glasses a day )
BLEEDING NOSE-Nosebleeds are common due to the location of thenoseon the face,
because of large amount of blood vessels in thenose. The most common causes of
nosebleeds are drying & cold environment.
TREATMENT
Let client sit and head tilt on the back
Apply Cold Compress
If the client is in cold place, let her in the normal humid area.
If nosebleed persists, refer.
Unconsciousness is when a person is unable to respond to people and
activities.
TREATMENT
Asses the ABC (airway, breathing & circulation)
Lie the patient of ventilated
Loosen the clothes (neck, waist and chest area)
4. If the client needs Artificial Respiration give (trained personnel)
BURNS - Is the damage caused to skin and deeper body structures by heat
(flames, scald, contact with heat), electrical, chemical or radiation
TREATMENT
CHEMICAL
a)Flood affected area with water for 20-30 min
b)Remove contaminated clothing
c)If possible, identify the chemical for possible subsequent neutralization
Avoid contact with the chemicals
Informed Do not blow your nose
Sunburn- a. Exposure to ultraviolet rays in natural sunlight is the main
cause of sunburn
TREATMENT
a. General skin damage and eventually skin cancer develops
b. The signs and symptoms of sunburn are pain, redness and fever
Smoke inhalation
Urgent treatment is required with care of the airway, breathing and
circulation
TREATMENT
When 02 in the air is used up by fire, or replaced by other gases, the oxygen
level in the air will be dangerously low.
Transfer the victim to humid air place.
Severe burns to the air passages causing swelling and obstruction
Victim will show signs and symptoms of lack of O2. He may also be confused
or unconscious
Electrical
TREATMENT
check for Danger
turn of the electricity supply if possible
avoid any direct contact with the skin of the victim or any conducting
material touching the victim until he is disconnected
once the area is safe, check the ABCs
if necessary, perform rescue breathing or CPR
Scald
burn caused by hot liquid
TREATMENT
immediately flush the burn area with water (under a tap or hose
for up to 20 min)
if no water is readily available, remove clothing immediately as
clothing soaked with hot liquid retains heat
Flame
TREATMENT
Smother the flames with a coat or blanket, get the victim on the
floor or ground (stop, drop, and Roll Over)
Prevent victim from running
If water is available, immediately cool the burn area with water
If water is not available, remove clothing; avoid pulling clothing
across the burnt face
Cover the burn area with a loose, clean, dry cloth to prevent
contamination
Do not break blisters or apply lotions, ointments, creams or
powder
FRACTURES is any broke in bone
TREATMENT
Asses for the deformities (characteristics, tenderness,
swelling & pain)
Apply Bandage, Splint & (as the fracture needs)
Report to hospital immediately for further treatment.
SPRAIN- when a ligament is torn or too stretched (site ankle,
knee & finger)
TREATMENT
REST-
Immobilize the affected area
Cold Compress 20 minutes (pain) and then Warm Compress
(swelling)
Elevate to decrease the swelling and pain
Advise to consult physician if swelling and pain persist for the
medication
Immobilize the affected area
Quality
Assessment
Safety Measures
THANK YOU