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19 Century American and

th

British Literature

PRIYAADARSHINI BALAKRISHNAN
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REVATHI THIRUMARAN
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PAVITRA SURIA KUMAR
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HIMADARSHINY RABINDRAN
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NUR HIDAYATUL NABILA MUHD HARUN
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WAN NUR SYAFIQA WAN MURDZANI
ENGLISH POET (JEAN INGELOW)

BORN IN 17 MARCH 1820 AT BOSTON,


LINCOLNSHIRE, UK
NATIONALITY ENGLISH
POET AND NOVELIST
DIED IN 20 JULY 1897 AT KENSINGTON,
LONDON, UK
HER SELECTED WORKS ARE MOPSA THE
FAIRY (A CELEBRATION OF WOMEN
WRITERS), THE PRINCES DREAM, AND
EARLY LIFE
THE DAUGHTER OF WILLIAM INGELOW (A
BANKER)
SHE CONTRIBUTED VERSUS AND TALES TO
MAGAZINES UNDER THE PSEUDONYM OF ORRIS, BUT
HER FIRST (ANONYMOUS) VOLUME, A RHYMING
CHRONICLE OF INCIDENTS AND FEELINGS, WHICH
CAME FROM AN ESTABLISHED LONDON PUBLISHER,
DID NOT APPEAR UNTIL HER THIRTIETH YEAR.
THIS WAS CALLED CHARMING BY TENNYSON, WHO
DECLARED HE SHOULD LIKE TO KNOW THE AUTHOR.
THEY LATER BECAME FRIEND
PROFESSIONAL LIFE
THE PUBLICATION OF HER POEMS IN 1863 THAT MADE
HER POPULAR.
IT RAN RAPIDLY THROUGH NUMEROUS EDITIONS AND
WAS SET TO MUSIC, PROVING VERY POPULAR FOR
ENGLISH DOMESTIC ENTERTAINMENT.
HER THEME OFTEN FOCUSED ON RELIGIOUS
INTROSPECTION.
HER BEST KNOWN POEMS ARE DIVIDED, THE
HIGH TIDE ON THE COAST OF LINCOLNSHIRE.
THE HIGH TIDE ON THE COAST OF LINCOLNSHIRE
AS A POEM FULL OF POWER AND TENDERNESS
ENGLISH WRITER (EDGAR ALLAN POE)

BORN IN JANUARY 19, 1809 AT BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, US


DIED IN OCTOBER 7, 1849 (AGED 40) AT BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, US
SPOUSE IS VIRGINIA ELIZA CLEMM POE
ALMA MATER ARE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA AND UNITED STATES MILITARY
ACADEMY
HE IS KNOWN FOR HIS TALES OF MYSTERY AND THE MACABRE.
HE IS WIDELY REGARDED AS A CENTRAL FIGURE OF ROMANTICISM IN US
AND AMERICAN LITERATURE AS A WHOLE
HE ALSO WAS ONE OF THE COUNTRYS EARLIEST PRACTITIONERS OF THE
SHORT STORY.
HE WAS THE FIRST WELL-KNOWN AMERICAN WRITER TO TRY TO EARN A
LIVING THROUGH WRITING ALONE, RESULTING IN FINANCIALLY DIFFICULT
LIFE AND CAREER.
THE GENRE USED ARE HORROR AND ALSO SCIENCE FICTION
HIS SELECTED WORKS ARE THE BLACK CAT, THE MASQUE OF THE RED
19th century
English poet:
Alfred tennyson
history
Was born on August 6, 1809 in Lincolnshire, England.
During teen years, his elder brothers and he begun
writing poems.
Shortly after, a collection of their poems were
published locally when Alfred was only 17 years old.
Alfred was educated at Louth grammar school and
Trinity college, Cambridge.
Alfred published his first solo book of poems in 1830,
however critics claimed they were over sentimental.
3 years later, one of Alfreds best known poems,
The Lady of Sharlotte was published in his second
collection.
In 1850, Alfred was declared Poet Laureate,
successor of William Wordsworth. The same year,
Alfred wrote his masterpiece In Memoriam A.H.H
dedicated to his friend Arthur Hallam.
Until his death, Alfred held the title Poet Laureate

Alfred died on October 16, 1892.


themes
Death

Nature

Grief

Aristic Isolation

Spirituality

Time

Courage
List of Alfreds poems
Break, break, break an elegy about the death
of Arthur Hallan.
Crossing River a metaphor for life and death.
The eagle a dominant but lonely bird.
The Kraken a massive creature beneath the
sea.
Mariana a reference to Shakespeares
Measure for measure.
Marriage morning a fantastic wedding poem.
Maud about an unnamed lover.
The famous poem of Alfred
tennyson
The Lady of Shalott
BY ALFRED TENNYSON

I.

On either side the river lie Long fields of


barley and of rye, That clothe the wold and
meet the sky; And thro' the field the road
runs by To many-tower'd Camelot; And up
and down the people go, Gazing where the
lilies blow Round an island there below, The
island of Shalott.

http://www.poemofquotes.com/alfredt
19th century English writer:

Lewis carroll
history
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, a.k.a Lewis
Carroll.
Born on January 27, 1832 at Daresbury
parsonage in Cheshine, England.
Lewis likes to entertain his brothers and
sisters with elaborate games in the garden,
including poetry, stories and drawings.
He was educated at Rugby and Christ Church
College, Oxford.
Lewis wrote his first manuscript, Useful &
Instructive Poetry while he was just 13
years old included anticipants of Humpty
Dumpty and the Mouses Tail in Alices
Adventures in Wonderland.
theme

Growing Up
- Alices Adventures in Wonderland represents the childs
struggle to survive in the confusing world of adults. To
understand our adult world, Alice has to overcome the
open-mindedness that is characteristic for children.

Curiosity
- Alices motif for entering and intersecting Wonderland
is simply curiosity: she sees a White Rabbit and
decides to follow him because he has a watch and is
wearing a waistcoat.
List of famous wORKS

Alices Adventures in
Wonderland.
Through the Looking-Glass.
The Hunting of the Shark.
19th Century Poet
Emily Dickinson
(1830 1886)
HISTORY
She was born on December 10, 1830 in
Amherst, Massachusetts.
She admired the poetry of Robert and Elizabeth
Barrett Browning, as well as John Keats.
Dickinson was extremely prolific as a poet and
regularly enclosed poems in letters to friends,
she was not publicly recognized during her
lifetime.
The first volume of her work was published
posthumously in 1890 and the last in 1955.
Over 1800 individual poems her sister Vinnie
was surprised to find in Dickinsons bedroom
some of them bound into booklets by the poet.
The handwritten poems show a variety of dash-
like marks of various sizes and directions (some
THEMES
Humour
Puns
Irony
Satire
Flowers and gardens
The Master poems
Morbidity
Gospel poems
-he Undiscovered Continent
THE FAMOUS POEM OF
DICKINSON
I felt a Funeral, in my Brain
By EMILY DICKINSON

I felt a Funeral, in my Brain is one of Dickinsons most well-known poems on

mental health, using some of her favourite metaphors: death and the afterlife.

The poem has the trademark up-note ending, so that the reader must guess

where the breakdown leads to the heaven of well-being, or the hell of

continued mental anguish. There is a theory that Dickinson, like her nephew

Ned, was epileptic; she definitely suffered eye trouble and, as we know, she

had agoraphobic tendencies. Any of these, or just plain old depression, might

have sparked this poem. The melding of the physical and the mental is deftly

done with strong verbs like tread, break, beat and creak that lead down to that

final, breathless plunge.


THE ORIGINAL VERSION OF POEM
I felt a Funeral, in my Brain, (340) Related Poem Content Details
BY EMILY DICKINSON

I felt a Funeral, in my Brain,


And Mourners to and fro
Kept treading - treading - till it seemed
That Sense was breaking through -

And when they all were seated,


A Service, like a Drum -
Kept beating - beating - till I thought
My mind was going numb -

And then I heard them lift a Box


And creak across my Soul
With those same Boots of Lead, again,
Then Space - began to toll,
As all the Heavens were a Bell,
And Being, but an Ear,
And I, and Silence, some strange Race,
Wrecked, solitary, here

And then a Plank in Reason, broke,


And I dropped down, and down
And hit a World, at every plunge,
And Finished knowing - then -

BY EMILY DICKINSON
19 Century
th

Writer
Stephen Crane (1871
1900)
HISTORY
He was on November 1, 1871 in Newark, New
Jersey.
His full name is Stephen Townley Crane.
He is one of Americas most influential realist
writers.
Crane was the 14th and last child of
writer/suffragist Mary Helen Peck Crane and
Reverend Jonathan Townley Crane, a Methodist
Episcopal minister.
He was inspired by his family, his father,
mother, and a devout woman dedicated.
Stephen Crane best known for his novels The
Red Badge of Courage and Maggie: A Girl of
THEMES

Naturalistic and Realistic concerns

Ideals versus realities

Spiritual crises

Fear

Extreme isolation from society and community


THE FAMOUS POEM OF STEPHEN
CRANE
Civil War novel, Red Badge of Courage
By STEPHEN CRANE
Follow the trials and tribulations of Henry Fleming, a recruit in the American Civil
War in this impressionistic novel by American writer Stephen Crane. Considered
one of the most influential war stories every written, The Red Badge of Courage
was published in 1895, a full thirty years after the American Civil War had ended.
Although Stephen Crane was born after the war and never participated in battle
himself, he was highly praised by the Civil War veterans for having capture a
realistic impression of their actual battlefield experiences and emotions.
The Red Badge of Courage treats with the meaning of courage as the young
protagonist, Henry Fleming, is cast into a literal "trial by fire" that will take the full
measure of his courage. Crane carefully traces the development of our young
soldier, detailing the hopes and fears and rationalizations of his career.
When this novel has been completed and discussed, thoughtful teachers, students,
and readers should turn their attention to Crane's "unknown sequel" to the novel; a
short story centred on Henry Fleming later in life that allows Crane to get in a last
word on the meaning of courage and character of Henry Fleming; The Veteran.
THE ORIGINAL SHORT
STORY

Link of the story

https://americanliterature.com/
author/stephen-crane/book/the-
red-badge-of-courage/summary
ENGLISH POET:
ELIZABETH BROWNING
BRIEF HISTORY
Born in 1806 at Coxhoe Hall, Dunham, England.
Oldest of 12 children and first in her family to be born in England over 200
years.
Was educated at home.
Started reading passages from Paradise Lost and several Shakespearean
plays and other famous works by the age of 10.
She produced her first poem consisting of 4 books of rhyming couplets by the
time she was 12.
During her teenage years, Elizabeth learnt Hebrew to be able to read the Old
Testament and later shifted her focus to Greek studies.
Elizabeth published her collection An Essay on Mind and Other Poems in the
year 1826 and her translation of Prometheus Bound by the Greek dramatist
Aeschylus in 1833.
During the 1830s, Elizabeth started to gain popularity from her work. She
published her early volumes of poetry like Seraphim and Other Poems in
1838 and the The Cry of Children which received critical acclaim and made
her one of the most respected female poets.
In the year 1844, she published a collection of poems entitled Poems which
garnered the attention of Robert Browning(later they got married and settled
down in Florence, Italy in 1846).
Her famous work Sonnets From Portuguese which
was written before her marriage was published in
1850 and is regarded as one of the best works.

She went on to produce more fine works such as


Casa Guidi Windows in 1851, Aurora Leigh (longest
and well known collection of poems) in 1857 and
also Poems Before Congress in 1860.

Elizabeth passed away on the 29th of June 1861 in


Florence, Italy.
POEMS BY ELIZABETH BROWNING
Aurora Leigh
Cry of the Children
Sonnets From Portuguese
Not Death but Love
My Heavy Heart
O Princely Heart
The Face of All The World
Grief
Gods Universe
Go From Me
Thou Must Sing Alone
What Can I Give Back Thee
Yet Love
The Seraphim and Other Poems
THEMES OF SOME POEMS AND WHAT ITS ABOUT
Most of Elizabeths works revolves around love, spiritual, related
topics(she was a devout Christian and an active member of the
Church), her sufferings in life(her ailment and her brothers death),
her support towards anti slavery movements, child labor mines and
mills of England and oppression of Italians by the Austrians.
Here are some of the themes of her famous works and what they
are based upon:
a) Sonnets From Portuguese Dedicated to her husband Robert
Browning. Theme of this poem is about love.
b) Casa Guidi Windows Reflects her sympathy on the struggle
of unification of Italy, her support for Italian independence from
Austria. Theme of this poem focuses on politics.
c) Cry of the Children Reflects on manual child labor.
d) Grief This poem was written by Elizabeth after the death of her
brother Edward. It reflects on the grief and guilt she faced from the
loss of her brother because she felt that he died because of her. The
theme of this poem is sadness.
GRIEF
I tell you, hopeless grief is
passionless;
That only men incredulous of
despair,
Half-taught in anguish, through the
midnight air
Beat upward to Gods throne in loud
access
Of shrieking and reproach. Full
desertness,
In souls as countries, lieth silent-
bare
Under the blanching, vertical eye-
glare
Of the absolute heavens.
Deep-
hearted man, express
Grief for thy dead in silence
like to
death-
Most like a monumental
statue set
In everlasting watch and
moveless
woe
Till itself crumble to the dust
beneath.
Touch it; the marble eyelids
are not
wet:
ENGLISH WRITER:
JANE AUSTEN
BRIEF HISTORY
Born on 16th December 1775 at Steventon, Hampshire, England.
7th child and 2nd daughter in the family, parents Cassandra and
George Austen were well-respected members of the community.
During her young age, Jane and her siblings were encouraged by
their father to read from his library and they were also told to
perform plays and charades.
Jane and her sister Cassandra were very close and were sent to
boarding school together but their formal education was cut short
due to financial problems.
In the 1790s, Jane started to write her in bound notebooks. During
her adolescent age, she started writing her own novels and
produced Love and Friendship, a romantic fiction organized as a
series of love letters.
She also produced a 34 page historical writing entitled The
History of England which included illustrations drawn by her sister
Cassandra. This book was a collaboration between both the
sisters.
Janes notebooks which consisted of novels, short stories, plays
and poems are now known as Juvenilia.
She also started to write some of her major
works like Lady Susan and Elinor and
Marianne which was eventually published as
Sense and Sensibility. She also started to draft
First Impressions which was later published as
Pride and Prejudice and Susan later published
as Northanger Abbey.
During her 30s, Jane published some of her
major works which are Sense and Sensibility,
Pride and Prejudice (regarded as one of her
best works and her darling child), Mansfield
Park and Emma.
In the year 1816, Jane became ill with Addisons
disease but continued to work by editing her
previous works and producing 2 novels called
The Brothers which was published as
JANE AUSTENS FAMOUS
WORKS
Love and Friendship
History of England
Juvenilia
Lady Susan
Sense and Sensibility
Pride and Prejudice
Northanger Abbey
Mansfield Park
Emma
Sandition
Persuasion
THEME OF HER FAMOUS WORKS AND WHAT ITS
ABOUT
Lady Susan Tells the story of a manipulative woman who utilizes her
charm, intelligence and sexuality to manipulate other people and have her
own way.
Pride and Prejudice The story revolves around the five daughters of the
Bennet family, whereby the two main characters focused in this story is the
2 eldest daughters of the family, Elizabeth and Jane. The story tells us about
the decisions made by Elizabeth which she regretted later on and how she
realizes the difference between the right and wrong. The themes of this
story are love, importance of environment and right upbringing.
Sense and Sensibility The story revolves around 2 sisters Elinor and
Marianne and how they experience love and heartbreak along the way and
finally having a happy ending. The main theme of this story is love and
maturity.
Emma The story revolves around Emma who believes that she has a talent
in matchmaking and how her matchmaking abilities caused problems and
confusions in the lives of the people around her. Eventually towards the end
of the story her friend is able to settle down with the right person and Emma
herself manages to find her soulmate. The theme of this story is love and
being wise in choosing the right life partner .
Mark Twain
Name: Samuel Langhorne Clemens
Born: November 30 1835 (Florida)
Deceased: April 10 1910
(pneumonia)
Occupation: lecturer, writer,
publisher, entrepreneur and
humorist.
Notable work: Adventure of Tom
Sawyer, Adventure of Huckleberry
Finn.
History
Sam kept up his schooling until he was about 12 years
old, whenwith his father dead and the family needing a
source of incomehe found employment as an apprentice
printer at theHannibal Courier, which paid him with a
meager ration of food.
In 1851, at 15, he got a job as a printer and occasional
writer and editor at theHannibal Western Union, a little
newspaper owned by his brother, Orion.
Then, in 1857, 21-year-old Clemens fulfilled a dream: He
began learning the art of piloting a steamboat on the
Mississippi. A licensed pilot by 1859. However, his service
was cut short in 1861 by the outbreak of the Civil War,
which halted most civilian traffic on the river.
In February 1870, he improved his social status by
marrying 24-year-old Olivia (Livy) Langdon, the daughter
of a rich New York coal merchant.
In June 1904, while Twain traveled, Livy died after a long
illness.
Samuel Clemens died on April 21, 1910, at the age of 74,
at his country home in Redding, Connecticut. He was
buried in Elmira, New York.
Books
Louisa May Alcott
Background
Birth: 29th Nov 1832
Deceased: 6th March 1888
(age 55, vertigo)
Period: American Civil War
Pen name: A.M Barnard
Occupation: poet and writer
Genre: prose, poetry
Notable work: Little Woman
(her childhood experience with her three sisters)
History
At age 15, troubled by the poverty that plagued her
family.
Confronting a society that offered little opportunity to
women seeking employment, Louisa determined.
Whether as a teacher, seamstress, governess, or
household servant, for many years Louisa did any
work she could find.
Louisas career as an author began with poetry and
short stories that appeared in popular magazines. In
1854, when she was 22, her first bookFlower
Fableswas published. A milestone along her literary
path wasHospital Sketches(1863), based on the
letters she had written home from her post as a
nurse in Washington, DC during the Civil War.
When Louisa was 35 years old, her publisher in
Boston, Thomas Niles, asked her to write "a book for
girls."Little Womenwas written at Orchard House
fromMay to July 1868. The novel is based on Louisa
and her sisters coming of age and is set in Civil War
New England.
Poem
ROBERT FROST (POET)

Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 January 29, 1963) was an American poeT.
Robert Frost was born in San Francisco, California, to journalist William
Prescott Frost, Jr., and Isabelle Moodie.
he published his first poem in his high school's magazine.
In 1894 he sold his first poem, "My Butterfly. An Elegy"published in the
November 8, 1894
Frost's father was a teacher and later an editor of the San Francisco Evening
Bulletin
After his death on May 5, 1885, the family moved across the country
Frost graduated from Lawrence High School in 1892
Frost returned home to teach and to work at various jobs,
including helping his mother teach her class of unruly boys,
delivering newspapers, and working in a factory.
Frost's grandfather purchased a farm for Robert and Elinor in
Derry, New Hampshire; Frost worked the farm for nine years while
writing early in the mornings and producing many of the poems
that would later become famous.
Ultimately his farming proved unsuccessful and he returned to the
field of education as an English teacher at New Hampshire's
Pinkerton Academy from 1906 to 1911, then at the New
Hampshire Normal School (now Plymouth State University) in
Plymouth, New Hampshire.
His first book of poetry, A Boy's Will, was published
In 1915, during World War I, Frost returned to America, where
Holt's American edition of A Boy's Will had recently been
published, and bought a farm in Franconia, New Hampshire, where
he launched a career of writing, teaching, and lecturing.
In 1924, he won the first of four Pulitzer Prizes for the book New
Hampshire: A Poem with Notes and Grace Notes.
THEME
Major Themes of Robert Frost. Frost's poems deal with man in relation
with the universe. One of the most striking themes in Frost's poetry is
man's isolation from his universe or alienation from his environment.
NATURE, COMMUNICATION, EVERYDAY LIFE, ISOLATION OF AN
INDIVIDUAL, DUTY

FAMOUS POEM
ROAD NOT TAKEN
"The Road Not Taken" is a poem by Robert Frost,
published in 1916 as the first poem in the collection
Mountain Interval
STOPPING BY THE WOOD ON A SNOWY EVENING
"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" is a poem
written in 1922 by Robert Frost, and published in 1923 in
his New Hampshire volume. Imagery, personification,
and repetition are prominent in the work.
HENRY JAMES(WRITER)

Henry James, OM (15 April 1843 28 February 1916) was an


American-born British writer.
He was the son of Henry James, Sr. and the brother of
philosopher and psychologist William Jam.
He is best known for a number of novels showing Americans
encountering Europe and Europeanses and diarist Alice
James.
consciousness and perception, and his style in later works
has been compared to impressionist painting.
James claimed that a text must first and foremost be
realistic and contain a representation of life that is
recognisable to its readers. Good novels, to James, show
life in action and are, most importantly, interesting.
James alternated between America and Europe for the
first twenty years of his life; eventually he settled in
England, becoming a British subject in 1915, one year
before his death.
The first period of James's fiction, usually considered to
have culminated in The Portrait of a Lady, concentrated
on the contrast between Europe and America.
In 1873, James moved to England and continued
publishing reviews while writing many more novels,
including The American (1877) and the popular Daisy
Miller (1878). In 1881, he published his masterpiece The
Portrait of a Lady, his first novel.
THEME
James's works, many of which were first serialised in the
magazine The Atlantic Monthly include narrative romances
with highly developed characters set amongst illuminating
social commentary on politics, class, and status, as well
as explorations of the themes of personal freedom,
feminism, and morality. In his short stories and novels
he employs techniques of interior monologue and point of
view to expand the readers' enjoyment of character
perception and insight.

His fundamental theme was the


1)innocence
2)exuberance
FAMOUS WRITTING
1. The Portrait of a Lady (1881)
When James began this book he was a promising young writer with a
special line in depicting the lives of Americans in Europe. When he finished
it he had become a figure in the history of the novel itself. This story of a
young American woman in England and Italyof her stifling marriage and
her desperate fight for freedomstands as a link between two centuries.
Its the bridge on which the loose expansive Victorian novel flowed over
into the formal concentration of modernism; the link, say, between George
Eliot and Virginia Woolf.
2. The Golden Bowl (1904)
Sure, its hard, and youll feel proud of yourself when you finish. Its
meant to be hard, because James characters are all trying to figure out
what the others know about a situation that none of them can quite bring
him or herself to name. Maggie Ververs best friend is sleeping with her
husband; the best friend who has also just married her fabulously rich
widowed father. Watching Maggie awake into a pained consciousness of
the world around herwell, its like an enormous wave that grows and
grows and never quite breaks.
THANK YOU