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Li - Fi

BY KAVYA GUPTA
WHAT IS LI-FI?
Li-Fi, as coined by Prof. Harald Haas during
his TED Global talk, is bidirectional, high
speed and fully networked wireless
communications similar to Wi-Fi. Li-Fi is a
subset of optical wireless
communication (OWC) and can be a
complement to RF communication (Wi-
Fi or Cellular network), or a replacement in
contexts of data broadcasting.
Existing wireless
technology - Why do we
need an alternate
technology?
CAPACITY
EFFICIENCY
AVAILABILITY
SECURITY
VISIBLE SPECTRUM

Wi-Fi works over a range of radio


waves while li-fi works over a range
of visible light whose spectrum is
10000 times larger that gives an
considerable advantage.
RECEIVER
RECEIVER
(PCB)
TRANSMITTER
TRANSMITTER(PCB)
COMPONENTS USED
LM386 (low voltage audio amplifier)

The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is
internally set to 20 to keep external part count low, but the addition of an external resistor and capacitor
between pins

To make the LM386 a more versatile amplifier, two pins (1 and 8) are provided for gain control.
With pins 1 and 8 open the 1.35 kW resistor sets the gain at 20 (26 dB).

If a capacitor is put from pin 1 to 8, bypassing the 1.35 kW resistor, the gain will go up to 200 (46 dB).

If a resistor is placed in series with the capacitor, the gain can be set to any value from 20 to 200.

For example, we can compensate poor speaker bass response by frequency shaping the feedback path.
This is done with a series RC from pin 1 to 5 (paralleling the internal 15 kW resistor).
LM 358 (low voltage audio amplifier)

These amplifiers have several distinct advantages over standard operational amplifier types in single supply
applications. They can operate at supply voltages as low as 3.0 V or as high as 32 V.

OPAMP A is used in the receiver circuit .

It is used in inverting amplifier configuration which converts


current input to voltage output.

As photodiode is used in reverse biased , so to compensate the


phase shift introduced due to the reverse current , inverting input of
the OPAMP is used which 180 (degrees) phase shift so that current
is converted to voltage is in phase with the original signal.
Fixed Gain 50db

This configuration is used in receiver circuit


where Fixed Gain is required.

Pins 1 and 8 are responsible for altering the gain


, as fixed capacitor is placed so gain is fixed at
50db

A 10F capacitor is placed at the input of LM386 for AC coupling of the receiver circuit.

To prevent loading effects 22k pot is used at the input of 2 nd stage and output of the 1st.
Gain - (20 200) db

This configuration is used in transmitter circuit


where High gain is required (20-200)db .

Pins 1 and 8 are responsible for altering the gain


, as fixed capacitor is placed with a variable
resistance so gain is variable .

A 10F capacitor is placed at the input of LM386 for AC coupling of the receiver circuit.

To prevent loading effects 22k pot is used at the input of 2 nd stage and output of the 1st.
BPW34 (photodiode)

BPW34 is a PIN photodiode with high speed and high radiant sensitivity in miniature, flat, top view, clear
plastic package.

It is sensitive to visible and near infrared radiation. BPW34S is packed in tubes, specifications like
BPW34.

It has a small Cathode marking on the leads , for distinguishing the ANODE and CATHODE.
WORKING
(CONTINUED)
Real Time Usage of Li Fi
LIFI OVER WIFI
Advantages of Li-Fi
The avoidance of the radio frequency spectrum crunch (10,000 times
more capacity);
Enabling very high peak data rates (10 Gbps)
The enabling of the Internet-of-Things (100 times more devices)
Significantly enhanced secure wireless communication (reduced
interception of signals)
Enhanced energy-efficiency by combining data communication and
illumination (100 times energy reduction)
Complete elimination of health concerns
DISADVANTAGES

Major Disadvantages of Li-Fi are


These signals cannot penetrate walls. So the person needs
wired bulb in that room also.
Only works if there is direct line of sight between source and
receiver.
Used for broadcast and it is difficult to uplink.
THANK YOU