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# FUNCTIONS

OBJECTIVES:
define functions;
distinguish between dependent
and independent variables;
represent functions in different
ways; and
evaluate functions
define domain and range of a
function; and
determine the domain and range
of a function
DEFINITION: FUNCTION
A function is a special relation such that every first
element is paired to a unique second element.

## It is a set of ordered pairs with no two pairs having

the same first element.

## A function is a correspondence from

a set X of
real numbers x to a set Y of real
numbers y,
where the number y is unique for a
Functions

3
y x 1 y sin x

and

## Each value of x maps to only Each value of x maps to only one

one value of y... value of y...
and each y is mapped from BUT many other x values map to
only one x. that y.
Functions

## Consider the following graphs

y x 1 3 y sin x

and

3
y x 1 is an example of a y sin x is an example of a
many-to-one function
one-to-one function

## One-to-many is NOT a function. It is just a

relation. Thus a function is a relation but not all
relation is a function.
In order to have a function, there must be
one value of the dependent variable (y) for
each value of the independent variable (x).
Or, there could also be two or more
independent variables (x) for every dependent
variable (y). These correspondences are
called one-to-one correspondence and many-
to-one correspondence, respectively.
Therefore, a function is a set of ordered pairs
of numbers (x, y) in which no two distinct
ordered pairs have the same first number.
Ways of Expressing a function

## 2. Tabular form 5. Mapping

3. Equation
Example: Express the function y = 2x;x= 0,1,2,3
.
in 5 ways.

1. Set notation
(a) S = { ( 0, 0) , ( 1, 2 ) , ( 2, 4 ), ( 3, 6) }
or
(b) S = { (x , y) such that y = 2x, x = 0, 1, 2,
3}
2. Tabular
form
0 1 2 3
x
y 0 2 4 6
3. Equation: y = 2x

4. Graph 5. Mapping
y x y
5
4
3 0
0
2 1 2
1
x 2 4
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1
-1 1 2 3 4 5
3 6
-2
-3
-4
-5
MPLE:
rmine whether or not each of the following
represents a function:
= {(-1, -1), (10, 0), (2, -3), (-4, -1)}

## = {(a, b)| a and b are positive integers and a

E x, y | y 2 x 4
SOLUTIONS:
1. There
A is aare more than one element as
function.
the first component of the ordered
pair with the same second
component namely (-1, -1) and (-4,
-1), called a many-to-one
correspondence. One-to-many
correspondence is a not function but
many-to-one correspondence is a
2. function.
B is a not a function.
There exists one-to-many
correspondence
namely, (2, a), (2, -a) and (2, 2a).
3. C is not a
function.
There exists a one-to-many
correspondence in C such as (1, 1)
and (1, -1), (4, 2) and (4, -2),
4. (9, 3)aand (9, -3), etc.
D is
functi pairs with negative values
The ordered
on. c above are no longer
in solution
elements of C since a and b are given
as positive integers. Therefore, one-to-
many correspondence does not exist
5. anymore
E is not ainfunction
set D.
Because for every value of x, y will
have two
OTHER EXAMPLES:
Determine whether or not each of the
following
a) S = { sets
( 4, 7represents a 9function:
), ( 5, 8 ), ( 6, ), ( 7, 10 ),
( 8, 11 ) }

b) S = { ( x , y ) s. t. y = | x | ; x R }

c) y=x2 5
d) y | 2yx| = x
e) x2
f) y x 1
DEFINITION: FUNCTION
NOTATION
Letters like f , g , h, F,G,H and the likes are used
to designate functions.

## When we use f as a function, then for each x in

the domain of f , f ( x ) denotes the image of x
under f .

## The notation f ( x ) is read as f of x .

EXAMPLE:
Evaluate each function
value.
1. If f ( x ) = x + 9 , what is the value of f ( x 2 ) ?

## 2. If g ( x ) = 2x 12 , what is the value of g ( 2 )?

3. If h ( x ) = x 2 + 5 , find h ( x + 1 ).

## 4.If f(x) = x 2 and g(x) = 2x2 3 x 5 ,

Find: a) f(g(x)) b) g(f(x))

## 5. If f ( x) x 2 1 find each of the

f (3), f (0), f (a ), f (a 1), f (a ) , f (a h)
2 2 2
following
6. Find (a) g(2 + h), (b) g(x g( x h) g( x )
.
+ h), (c) h
where h 0 g ( x ) x .

if x 1
1 k
F ( x) ,
7. Given that show k ) F ( x) 2
F ( x that
x x kx

8. Iff ( x , y ) x 3
4 xy 2
y 3
f ( ax , ay ) a 3
, show that f ( x, y )

uv 1 1
9. If f (u, v) , , f u, v
f find
uv u v
DEFINITION: Domain and Range
All the possible values of x is called the domain and all
the possible values of y is called the range. In a set
of ordered pairs, the set of first elements and second
elements of ordered pairs is the domain and range,
respectively.

## Example: Identify the domain and range of the

following functions.
1.) S = { ( 4, 7 ),( 5, 8 ),( 6, 9 ),( 7, 10 ),( 8, 11 ) }

## Answer : D: { 4,5,6,7,8} R:{7,8,9,10,11}

2.) S = { ( x , y ) s. t. y = | x | ; x R }
Answer: D: all real nos. R: all real nos. > 0
(,) [0,)
3) y=x2 5
Answer. D: all real nos. R: all real nos. > -5
(,) [5,)
Answer:
2x D: all real nos. except -2
4. y
x2 R: all real nos. except 2
D : (,)except 2 R : (,)except 2

Answer :
5. y x 1 D: all real nos. > 1
R: all real nos. > 0
D : [1,) R : [0,)
Answer:
3x
6. y D: all real nos. <3
x 3 R: all real nos. <0
D : (,3) R : ,0
From the above examples, you can draw
conclusions and formulate the following
theorems on the domain
determination of functions.
Theorem 1. The domain of a polynomial
function is the set of all real numbers or (-,
+).
Theorem 2. The domain n
f ( of
x) is the set
of all real numbers satisfying the inequality f(x)
0 if n is even integer and the set of all real
numbers
Theoremif3. n is odd integer.
A rational function f is a ratio of two
polynomials:
The domain of a rational function consists of all
values of x P( x )
such that the denominator is ) equal to zero
f ( xnot
Q( x )
KINDS
1.An OF FUNCTIONS:
algebraic function is the result
when the constant function, (f(x) = k, k
is constant) and the identity function
(g(x) = x) are put together by using a
combination of any four operations, that
is, addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, and raising to powers and
extraction of roots. x
Example: f(x) = g( x )
2x2 7 x 4
5x 4,
Generally, functions which are not
classified as algebraic function are
considered as transcendental
functions namely the exponential,
logarithmic,
trigonometric, inverse trigonometric,
hyperbolic and
inverse hyperbolic functions.
EXERCISES :
A. Which of the following represents a
function?
1.A = {(2, -3), (1, 0), (0, 0), (-1, -1)}
2.B = {(a, b)|b = ea}

3.C = {(x, y)| y = 2x 2+ 1}
4. D a, b | b 1 a
5. E = {(x, y)|y = (x -1)2 + 2}
6. F = {(x, y)|x = (y+1)3 2}
7. G = {(x, y)|x2 + y2 = } 1
8. H = {(x, y)|x y} x 7
y 3
9. I = {(x, y)| |x| + |y| = 1}
10. J = {(x, y)|x is positive integer and
B. Given the function f defined by f(x) =
2x2 + 3x 1, find:
a. f(0) f. f(3 x2)
b. f(1/2) g. f(2x3)
c. f(-3) h. f(x) + f(h)
d.f(k + 1) i. [f(x)]2 [f(2)]2
e. f(h 1) h) f ( x )
f ( x j.
;h 0
h
C. GivenF ( x) 2 x 3, find
1.F ( 1),
2.F ( 4),
3.F ( 2 x 3),
1
4.F ,
2
F ( x h) F ( x )
5. ;h 0
h
EXERCISES:
Find the domain and range of the following fu
1. f ( x ) 4 x 3 x3
x 1 if
7.F ( x)
2.F ( x) 1 x 2 x 1 if x3
3.G ( x) 1 2 x 3 if x 1

8. f ( x) 1 if 1 x 2
4.h( x) x 3
2
3 if x 2

x 2x 1
2
5. f ( x ) 9.g : y 4 x
x 1

10.H : y 2
x 2 3x 4 x 2 9
6. g : y 4 x x x 12 x 3
2 2
Exercises: Identify the domain and
range of the
1. {(x,y) | y = x 2 following
4} functions.
6 y=|x7| .

2. ( x, y ) y 3 x 7. y = 25 x 2

3. ( x, y ) y x9 8. y = (x 2 3) 2

3x 3x 5
4. ( x, y ) y 9. y
x
2 x
2
25
5. ( x, y) y x 2
3x 4 10.
y
x
x5