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You are on page 1of 27

OBJECTIVES:

define functions;

distinguish between dependent

and independent variables;

represent functions in different

ways; and

evaluate functions

define domain and range of a

function; and

determine the domain and range

of a function

DEFINITION: FUNCTION

A function is a special relation such that every first

element is paired to a unique second element.

the same first element.

a set X of

real numbers x to a set Y of real

numbers y,

where the number y is unique for a

Functions

3

y x 1 y sin x

and

one value of y... value of y...

and each y is mapped from BUT many other x values map to

only one x. that y.

Functions

y x 1 3 y sin x

and

3

y x 1 is an example of a y sin x is an example of a

many-to-one function

one-to-one function

relation. Thus a function is a relation but not all

relation is a function.

In order to have a function, there must be

one value of the dependent variable (y) for

each value of the independent variable (x).

Or, there could also be two or more

independent variables (x) for every dependent

variable (y). These correspondences are

called one-to-one correspondence and many-

to-one correspondence, respectively.

Therefore, a function is a set of ordered pairs

of numbers (x, y) in which no two distinct

ordered pairs have the same first number.

Ways of Expressing a function

3. Equation

Example: Express the function y = 2x;x= 0,1,2,3

.

in 5 ways.

1. Set notation

(a) S = { ( 0, 0) , ( 1, 2 ) , ( 2, 4 ), ( 3, 6) }

or

(b) S = { (x , y) such that y = 2x, x = 0, 1, 2,

3}

2. Tabular

form

0 1 2 3

x

y 0 2 4 6

3. Equation: y = 2x

4. Graph 5. Mapping

y x y

5

4

3 0

0

2 1 2

1

x 2 4

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1

-1 1 2 3 4 5

3 6

-2

-3

-4

-5

MPLE:

rmine whether or not each of the following

represents a function:

= {(-1, -1), (10, 0), (2, -3), (-4, -1)}

E x, y | y 2 x 4

SOLUTIONS:

1. There

A is aare more than one element as

function.

the first component of the ordered

pair with the same second

component namely (-1, -1) and (-4,

-1), called a many-to-one

correspondence. One-to-many

correspondence is a not function but

many-to-one correspondence is a

2. function.

B is a not a function.

There exists one-to-many

correspondence

namely, (2, a), (2, -a) and (2, 2a).

3. C is not a

function.

There exists a one-to-many

correspondence in C such as (1, 1)

and (1, -1), (4, 2) and (4, -2),

4. (9, 3)aand (9, -3), etc.

D is

functi pairs with negative values

The ordered

on. c above are no longer

in solution

elements of C since a and b are given

as positive integers. Therefore, one-to-

many correspondence does not exist

5. anymore

E is not ainfunction

set D.

Because for every value of x, y will

have two

OTHER EXAMPLES:

Determine whether or not each of the

following

a) S = { sets

( 4, 7represents a 9function:

), ( 5, 8 ), ( 6, ), ( 7, 10 ),

( 8, 11 ) }

b) S = { ( x , y ) s. t. y = | x | ; x R }

c) y=x2 5

d) y | 2yx| = x

e) x2

f) y x 1

DEFINITION: FUNCTION

NOTATION

Letters like f , g , h, F,G,H and the likes are used

to designate functions.

the domain of f , f ( x ) denotes the image of x

under f .

EXAMPLE:

Evaluate each function

value.

1. If f ( x ) = x + 9 , what is the value of f ( x 2 ) ?

3. If h ( x ) = x 2 + 5 , find h ( x + 1 ).

Find: a) f(g(x)) b) g(f(x))

f (3), f (0), f (a ), f (a 1), f (a ) , f (a h)

2 2 2

following

6. Find (a) g(2 + h), (b) g(x g( x h) g( x )

.

+ h), (c) h

where h 0 g ( x ) x .

if x 1

1 k

F ( x) ,

7. Given that show k ) F ( x) 2

F ( x that

x x kx

8. Iff ( x , y ) x 3

4 xy 2

y 3

f ( ax , ay ) a 3

, show that f ( x, y )

uv 1 1

9. If f (u, v) , , f u, v

f find

uv u v

DEFINITION: Domain and Range

All the possible values of x is called the domain and all

the possible values of y is called the range. In a set

of ordered pairs, the set of first elements and second

elements of ordered pairs is the domain and range,

respectively.

following functions.

1.) S = { ( 4, 7 ),( 5, 8 ),( 6, 9 ),( 7, 10 ),( 8, 11 ) }

2.) S = { ( x , y ) s. t. y = | x | ; x R }

Answer: D: all real nos. R: all real nos. > 0

(,) [0,)

3) y=x2 5

Answer. D: all real nos. R: all real nos. > -5

(,) [5,)

Answer:

2x D: all real nos. except -2

4. y

x2 R: all real nos. except 2

D : (,)except 2 R : (,)except 2

Answer :

5. y x 1 D: all real nos. > 1

R: all real nos. > 0

D : [1,) R : [0,)

Answer:

3x

6. y D: all real nos. <3

x 3 R: all real nos. <0

D : (,3) R : ,0

From the above examples, you can draw

conclusions and formulate the following

theorems on the domain

determination of functions.

Theorem 1. The domain of a polynomial

function is the set of all real numbers or (-,

+).

Theorem 2. The domain n

f ( of

x) is the set

of all real numbers satisfying the inequality f(x)

0 if n is even integer and the set of all real

numbers

Theoremif3. n is odd integer.

A rational function f is a ratio of two

polynomials:

The domain of a rational function consists of all

values of x P( x )

such that the denominator is ) equal to zero

f ( xnot

Q( x )

KINDS

1.An OF FUNCTIONS:

algebraic function is the result

when the constant function, (f(x) = k, k

is constant) and the identity function

(g(x) = x) are put together by using a

combination of any four operations, that

is, addition, subtraction, multiplication,

division, and raising to powers and

extraction of roots. x

Example: f(x) = g( x )

2x2 7 x 4

5x 4,

Generally, functions which are not

classified as algebraic function are

considered as transcendental

functions namely the exponential,

logarithmic,

trigonometric, inverse trigonometric,

hyperbolic and

inverse hyperbolic functions.

EXERCISES :

A. Which of the following represents a

function?

1.A = {(2, -3), (1, 0), (0, 0), (-1, -1)}

2.B = {(a, b)|b = ea}

3.C = {(x, y)| y = 2x 2+ 1}

4. D a, b | b 1 a

5. E = {(x, y)|y = (x -1)2 + 2}

6. F = {(x, y)|x = (y+1)3 2}

7. G = {(x, y)|x2 + y2 = } 1

8. H = {(x, y)|x y} x 7

y 3

9. I = {(x, y)| |x| + |y| = 1}

10. J = {(x, y)|x is positive integer and

B. Given the function f defined by f(x) =

2x2 + 3x 1, find:

a. f(0) f. f(3 x2)

b. f(1/2) g. f(2x3)

c. f(-3) h. f(x) + f(h)

d.f(k + 1) i. [f(x)]2 [f(2)]2

e. f(h 1) h) f ( x )

f ( x j.

;h 0

h

C. GivenF ( x) 2 x 3, find

1.F ( 1),

2.F ( 4),

3.F ( 2 x 3),

1

4.F ,

2

F ( x h) F ( x )

5. ;h 0

h

EXERCISES:

Find the domain and range of the following fu

1. f ( x ) 4 x 3 x3

x 1 if

7.F ( x)

2.F ( x) 1 x 2 x 1 if x3

3.G ( x) 1 2 x 3 if x 1

8. f ( x) 1 if 1 x 2

4.h( x) x 3

2

3 if x 2

x 2x 1

2

5. f ( x ) 9.g : y 4 x

x 1

10.H : y 2

x 2 3x 4 x 2 9

6. g : y 4 x x x 12 x 3

2 2

Exercises: Identify the domain and

range of the

1. {(x,y) | y = x 2 following

4} functions.

6 y=|x7| .

2. ( x, y ) y 3 x 7. y = 25 x 2

3. ( x, y ) y x9 8. y = (x 2 3) 2

3x 3x 5

4. ( x, y ) y 9. y

x

2 x

2

25

5. ( x, y) y x 2

3x 4 10.

y

x

x5

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