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OF

FUNCTIONS

LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS

OBJECTIVES:

define limits;

illustrate limits and its theorems;

and

evaluate limits applying the given

theorems.

define one-sided limits

illustrate one-sided limits

investigate the limit if it exist or

not using the concept of one-

sided limits.

define limits at infinity;

DEFINITION: LIMITS

The most basic use of limits is to

describe how a

function behaves as the independent

variable f(x) x x1

2

let us examine the behavior of the

function

for x-values closer and closer to 2. It is

evident from the graph and the table in

the next slide that thevalues

f ( x ) x 2

x1 of f(x) get

closer and closer to 3 as the values of x

lim closer

are selected 3 closer to 2 on

x 2 x 1and

x2

y

f(x)

y x2 x 1

f(x)

x

O

2

x 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1

5 9 95 99 01 05 1 5

F(x) 2.71 2.85 2.97 2.98 2.99 3.00 3.01 3.03 3.15 3.31

2 5 7 3 5 1 2

left side right side

This leads us to the following general

EXAMPLE

Use numerical evidence to make a

x 1

conjecturelim

about the value of .

x 1 x 1

x 1

f(x)

Although the function is

x 1

undefined at x=1, this has no bearing on

the limit.

The table shows sample x-values

approaching 1 from the left side and from

the right side. In both cases the

x 1

corresponding

lim 2 values of f(x) appear to get

x 1 x 1

closer and closer to 2, and hence we

conjecture that

Figure 1.1.9 (p.

71)

1 1 1

F( 1.994 1.999 1.9999 1.9999 2.00000 2.0000 2.000 2.00491

x) 9 5 5 95 5 5 5 5

THEOREMS ON LIMITS

Our strategy for finding limits

algebraically has two parts:

First we will obtain the limits of some

simpler function

Then we will develop a list of theorems

that will enable us to use the limits of

simple functions as building blocks for

finding limits of more complicated

functions.

We start with the following basic

theorems, which are illustrated in

Fig 1.2.1

1.2.1 Theorem Let a and k be real numbers.

a lim k k

xa

b lim x a

xa

80)

Figure 1.2.1 (p.

80)

Example 1.

If f x k is a constant function, then the values of f(x)

remain fixed at k as x varies, which explains why

f(x) k as x a for all values of a.

For example,

lim 3 3 lim 3 3 lim 3 3

x -25 x 0 x

Example 2.

If f x x, then x a it must also be true that f x a .

For example,

lim x 0 lim x 2 lim x

x 0 x -2 x

The following theorem will be our

basic tool for finding limits

algebraically.

This theorem can be stated

informally as follows:

b) The limit of a difference is the difference of

the limits.

c) The limits of a product is the product of the

limits.

d)The limits of a quotient is the quotient of the

limits, provided the limit of the denominator

is not zero.

e) The limit of the nth root is the nth root of the

limit.

EXAMPLEEvaluate : the following

1. lim 2 x 5 limits.

lim 2 x lim 5 2. lim 6 x 12 lim 6 x lim 12

x 3 x 3 x 3

x 4 x 4 x 4

2 lim x lim 5 6( 3 ) 12

x 4 x 4

18 - 12

2( 4 ) 5

6

85

13

3. lim 4 x ( 5 x 2 ) lim 4 x lim 5 x 2

x 3 x 3 x 3

lim 4 lim x 5 lim x lim 2

x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3

x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3

4 3 5( 3 ) 2

1 13

13

2x 8x 1

4. lim

x 5 5 x 4 6. lim

x 1 x3

lim 2 x 2 lim x

x 5

x 5

8x 1

lim 5 x lim 4 5 lim x lim 4 lim

x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 1 x 3

2 5 10

9 3

25 4 21

4 2

x 3

3

5. lim 3 x 6 lim 3 x 6 3

x 3

3

lim 3 x lim 6

x 3 x 3

3

3 lim x lim 6

x 3 x 3

3 3 6 15

3 3

3375

OR

When evaluating the limit of a

function at a given value, simply

replace the variable by the

indicated limit then solve for the

value of the function:

x 3

2

lim 3 x 4 x 1 3 3 4 3 1

2

27 12 1

38

EXAMPLE:Evaluate the following

x 8 limits.

3

1. lim

x 2 x2

Solution:

x 3 8 2 8 8 8 0

3

lim (indeterminate)

x 2 x 2 22 0 0

Equivalent function:

2

x 2 x

2x 4

lim

x 2 x2

lim x 2 2 x 4

x 2

2 2 2 4

2

4 4 4 12

x3 8

lim 12

x 2 x 2

Note: In evaluating a limit of a quotient

0

which reduces to , simplify the

0

fraction. Just remove

0

the common factor in the numerator and

0

denominator which makes the quotient

.

To do this use factoring or rationalizing

the numerator or denominator, wherever

the radical is.

x2 2

2. lim

x 0 x

Solution:

x2 2 02 2 0

lim (indeterminate)

x 0 x 0 0

x2 2 x2 2 x22

lim lim

x 0 x

x 2 2 x 0 x x 2 2

x 1 1 1 2

lim lim

x 0 x

x2 2 x 0 x2 2 2 2 2 2 4

x2 2 2

lim

x 0 x 4

8 x 3 27

3. lim

x

3 4 x2 9

2

Solution: 3

3

8 27

8 x 3 27 2 27 27 0

lim3 (indeterminate)

x 2 4x 9

2

3

2

99 0

4 9

2

By Factoring: 2

3 3

9

lim

4

2 x 3 4 x 6 x 9 lim 4 x 6 x 9 2

2 2 6

2

x

3 2 x 3 2 x 3 x

3 2 x 3 3

2 2 2 3

2

999 27 9 3 3 2

33 6 2 2 2

8 x 3 27 3 2

lim

x

3 4x 9

2

2

2

x3 2x 3

4. lim

x2 x2 5

Solution:

2 2 2 3

3

x 2x 3

3

lim

x 5 2 5

x 2 2 2

843

45

15

9

15

3

x3 2 x 3 15

lim

x2 x 5

2

3

DEFINITION: One-Sided Limi

The limit of a function is called two-

sided limit if it requires the values of

f(x) to get closer and closer to a number

as the values of x are taken from either

side of x=a. However some functions

exhibit different behaviors on the two

sides of an x-value a in which case it is

necessary to distinguish whether the

values of x near a are on the left side or

on the right side of a for purposes of

investigating limiting behavior.

x 1, x0

Consider the f(x)

x 1, x0

function

1

right, the

values of f(x) approach a limit

of 1, and

-1

similarly , as x approaches 0

from the

In symbols

left,, the values of f(x) approach

xa x

lim 1 and

limit of lim 1

-1.

xo x

xo x

This leads to the general idea of a one-

1.1.3 (p. 73) The Relationship Between One-Sided and Two-

Sided Limits

EXAMPLE:

x

1. Find if the two sided limits existf ( x )

x

given

SOLUTION

x x

lim 1 and lim 1

xo x xo x

1 x x

since the lim lim

xo x xo x

-1

x

or lim doesnotexist.

xo x

EXAMPLE:

2. For the functions in Fig 1.1.13, find the

one-sided

limit and the two-sided limits at x=a if

SOLUTION

they exists.

The functions in all three figures have

the same xa

one-sided limits as , since the

functions are

These lim its are

Identical,

lim except

f ( x ) 3 atand

x=a.lim f ( x ) 1

xa xa

xa because the one sided limits are not

Figure 1.1.13

(p. 73)

EXAMPLE:

3. Find if the two-sided limit exists and sketch

the graph of 6+x if x < -2

g(x ) =

x 2

if x -2

SOLUTION

a . lim g ( x ) lim 6 x b. lim g( x ) lim x 2

x 2 x 2

x 2 x 2

- 2

2

6 2

4 4

since the limg(x) limg(x)

x 2 x 2

or lim

x 2

g(x) 4

y

x

-6 -2 4

EXAMPLE:

ind if the two-sided limit exists and sketch the graph

3 + x 2 if x < -2

of f (x) = 0 if x = -2 and sketch the grap

11 - x 2 if x > -2

SOLUTION

a . lim f ( x ) lim 3 x 2 b. lim f ( x ) lim 11 x 2

x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2

3 2 11 - 2

2 2

7 7

sin ce the lim f ( x ) lim f ( x )

x 2 x 2

or lim f ( x ) 7

x 2

EXAMPLE:

5. If f(x) 3 2x 4 , determine if limf(x)exist,

x2

andsketchthegraph.

SOLUTION

a . lim f ( x ) lim 3 2 x 4 b. lim f ( x ) lim 3 2 x 4

x2 x2 x2 x2

3 2 2 4 3 2 2 4

3 3

x 2 x 2

or lim f ( x ) 3

x 2

f(x)

(2,3)

x

2

DEFINITION: LIMITS AT INFINITY

If the values of the variable x increase

without bound, then x we

write ,

x

and if the values of x decrease without

bound, then we write f ( x ) .

The behavior of a function as x

increases or decreases without bound is

sometimes called the end behavior of

the function.

For example ,

1 1

lim 0 and lim 0

x x x x

x

1 1

lim 0 lim 0

x x x x

In general, we will use the following notation

Fig.1.3.2 illustrates the end behavior of the functio

lim f ( x ) L or lim f ( x ) L

x x

89)

EXAMP x

1

LE y 1of

Fig.1.3.2 illustrates the graph . As

x

suggested by

x

this graph, 1

lim 1 e and

x

x

x

1

lim 1 e

x

x

90)

EXAMPLE ( Examples 7-11 from

pages 92-95)

3x 5

1. lim

x

6x 8

5. xlim

x

6

5 x3

4x2 x

6. lim

2. lim 3

x

2x 5 x

x 5x x

6 3 3

5x3 2x2 1

3. lim

x

1 3x

x2 2

4. lim

x

3x 6

EXERCISES:

A. Evaluate the following

3x 1

1. lim 4 x 5 x 2

limits. 2

6. lim 2

x 3 1 9x 1

x

3

2x 1 2x 3 3x 2 2x 3

2. lim 2 7. lim

x 1 x 3 x 4 x 1 x2 1

x 2 3x 4 y 1 y 2 2 y 3

3. lim 8. lim

x 1 x3 1 y 1 y2 2y 1

1

4 y3 8 y

3 1

4. lim 9. lim 2 x 4 9 x 3 19 2

y 2

y4 x 5

x3 8 w2 7 w 7

5. lim 10. lim 2

x 2 x 2 w 1 w 4 w 5

EXERCISES:

B. Sketch the graph of the following

.

it exists.

4 find

x if x -4

1. f ( x )

x 4 if x - 4

a. lim f(x) b. lim f(x) c. lim f ( x )

x 4 x 4 x 4

2 x 3 if x1

2. g ( x ) 2 if x1

7 - 2x if x1

a . lim g(x) b. lim g(x) c.lim g( x )

x 1 x 1 x 1

.

x if x 0

3. f ( x )

3 if x 0

a . lim f(x) b. lim f(x) c.lim f ( x )

x 0 x 0 x 0

4. g ( x ) 4 x

a. lim f(x) b. lim f(x) c.lim f ( x )

x 4 x 4 x 4

5. g ( x ) 2 x 1

a. lim f(x) b. lim f(x) c. lim f ( x )

1 1 1

x x x

2 2 2

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