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LIMITS

OF
FUNCTIONS
LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS
OBJECTIVES:
define limits;
illustrate limits and its theorems;
and
evaluate limits applying the given
theorems.
define one-sided limits
illustrate one-sided limits
investigate the limit if it exist or
not using the concept of one-
sided limits.
define limits at infinity;
DEFINITION: LIMITS
The most basic use of limits is to
describe how a
function behaves as the independent
variable f(x) x x1
2

approaches a given value. For example

let us examine the behavior of the
function
for x-values closer and closer to 2. It is
evident from the graph and the table in
the next slide that thevalues
f ( x ) x 2
x1 of f(x) get
closer and closer to 3 as the values of x
lim closer
are selected 3 closer to 2 on
x 2 x 1and
x2
y

f(x)
y x2 x 1

f(x)

x
O
2

x 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1
5 9 95 99 01 05 1 5
F(x) 2.71 2.85 2.97 2.98 2.99 3.00 3.01 3.03 3.15 3.31
2 5 7 3 5 1 2
left side right side
This leads us to the following general

1.1.1 (p. 70) Limits (An Informal View)

EXAMPLE
Use numerical evidence to make a
x 1
conjecturelim
x 1 x 1
x 1
f(x)
Although the function is
x 1
undefined at x=1, this has no bearing on
the limit.
The table shows sample x-values
approaching 1 from the left side and from
the right side. In both cases the
x 1
corresponding
lim 2 values of f(x) appear to get
x 1 x 1
closer and closer to 2, and hence we
conjecture that
Figure 1.1.9 (p.
71)

x .99 .999 .9999 .99999 1 1.0000 1.000 1.00 1.01

1 1 1
F( 1.994 1.999 1.9999 1.9999 2.00000 2.0000 2.000 2.00491
x) 9 5 5 95 5 5 5 5
THEOREMS ON LIMITS
Our strategy for finding limits
algebraically has two parts:
First we will obtain the limits of some
simpler function
Then we will develop a list of theorems
that will enable us to use the limits of
simple functions as building blocks for
finding limits of more complicated
functions.
theorems, which are illustrated in
Fig 1.2.1
1.2.1 Theorem Let a and k be real numbers.
a lim k k
xa
b lim x a
xa

Theorem 1.2.1 (p.

80)
Figure 1.2.1 (p.
80)
Example 1.
If f x k is a constant function, then the values of f(x)
remain fixed at k as x varies, which explains why
f(x) k as x a for all values of a.
For example,
lim 3 3 lim 3 3 lim 3 3
x -25 x 0 x

Example 2.
If f x x, then x a it must also be true that f x a .
For example,
lim x 0 lim x 2 lim x
x 0 x -2 x
The following theorem will be our
basic tool for finding limits
algebraically.

Theorem 1.2.2 (p.

This theorem can be stated
informally as follows:

a) The limit of a sum is the sum of the limits.

b) The limit of a difference is the difference of
the limits.
c) The limits of a product is the product of the
limits.
d)The limits of a quotient is the quotient of the
limits, provided the limit of the denominator
is not zero.
e) The limit of the nth root is the nth root of the
limit.
EXAMPLEEvaluate : the following
1. lim 2 x 5 limits.
lim 2 x lim 5 2. lim 6 x 12 lim 6 x lim 12
x 3 x 3 x 3
x 4 x 4 x 4

2 lim x lim 5 6( 3 ) 12
x 4 x 4
18 - 12
2( 4 ) 5
6
85
13
3. lim 4 x ( 5 x 2 ) lim 4 x lim 5 x 2

x 3 x 3 x 3

lim 4 lim x lim 5 x lim 2

lim 4 lim x 5 lim x lim 2
x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3

x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3

4 3 5( 3 ) 2
1 13
13
2x 8x 1
4. lim
x 5 5 x 4 6. lim
x 1 x3
lim 2 x 2 lim x
x 5
x 5
8x 1
lim 5 x lim 4 5 lim x lim 4 lim
x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 1 x 3
2 5 10
9 3
25 4 21
4 2

x 3
3

5. lim 3 x 6 lim 3 x 6 3

x 3
3
lim 3 x lim 6

x 3 x 3
3
3 lim x lim 6
x 3 x 3

3 3 6 15
3 3

3375
OR
When evaluating the limit of a
function at a given value, simply
replace the variable by the
indicated limit then solve for the
value of the function:
x 3
2

lim 3 x 4 x 1 3 3 4 3 1
2

27 12 1
38
EXAMPLE:Evaluate the following
x 8 limits.
3
1. lim
x 2 x2
Solution:
x 3 8 2 8 8 8 0
3
lim (indeterminate)
x 2 x 2 22 0 0
Equivalent function:
2
x 2 x
2x 4
lim
x 2 x2

lim x 2 2 x 4
x 2

2 2 2 4
2

4 4 4 12
x3 8
lim 12
x 2 x 2
Note: In evaluating a limit of a quotient
0
which reduces to , simplify the
0
fraction. Just remove
0
the common factor in the numerator and
0
denominator which makes the quotient
.
To do this use factoring or rationalizing
the numerator or denominator, wherever
x2 2
2. lim
x 0 x
Solution:
x2 2 02 2 0
lim (indeterminate)
x 0 x 0 0

Rationalizing the numerator:

x2 2 x2 2 x22
lim lim
x 0 x
x 2 2 x 0 x x 2 2
x 1 1 1 2
lim lim
x 0 x
x2 2 x 0 x2 2 2 2 2 2 4

x2 2 2
lim
x 0 x 4
8 x 3 27
3. lim
x
3 4 x2 9
2
Solution: 3
3
8 27
8 x 3 27 2 27 27 0
lim3 (indeterminate)
x 2 4x 9
2
3
2
99 0
4 9
2
By Factoring: 2
3 3
9
lim
4
2 x 3 4 x 6 x 9 lim 4 x 6 x 9 2
2 2 6
2
x
3 2 x 3 2 x 3 x
3 2 x 3 3
2 2 2 3
2
999 27 9 3 3 2

33 6 2 2 2

8 x 3 27 3 2
lim
x
3 4x 9
2
2
2
x3 2x 3
4. lim
x2 x2 5
Solution:
2 2 2 3
3
x 2x 3
3
lim
x 5 2 5
x 2 2 2

843

45
15

9
15

3
x3 2 x 3 15
lim
x2 x 5
2
3
DEFINITION: One-Sided Limi
The limit of a function is called two-
sided limit if it requires the values of
f(x) to get closer and closer to a number
as the values of x are taken from either
side of x=a. However some functions
exhibit different behaviors on the two
sides of an x-value a in which case it is
necessary to distinguish whether the
values of x near a are on the left side or
on the right side of a for purposes of
investigating limiting behavior.
x 1, x0
Consider the f(x)
x 1, x0
function

As x approaches 0 from the

1
right, the
values of f(x) approach a limit
of 1, and
-1
similarly , as x approaches 0
from the
In symbols
left,, the values of f(x) approach
xa x
lim 1 and
limit of lim 1
-1.
xo x

xo x
This leads to the general idea of a one-

1.1.2 (p. 72) One-Sided Limits (An Informal View)

1.1.3 (p. 73) The Relationship Between One-Sided and Two-
Sided Limits
EXAMPLE:
x
1. Find if the two sided limits existf ( x )
x
given
SOLUTION
x x
lim 1 and lim 1
xo x xo x

1 x x
since the lim lim
xo x xo x

then the two sidedlimit doesnotexist

-1
x
or lim doesnotexist.
xo x
EXAMPLE:
2. For the functions in Fig 1.1.13, find the
one-sided
limit and the two-sided limits at x=a if
SOLUTION
they exists.
The functions in all three figures have
the same xa
one-sided limits as , since the
functions are
These lim its are
Identical,
lim except
f ( x ) 3 atand
x=a.lim f ( x ) 1
xa xa

In all three cases the two-sided limit does no

xa because the one sided limits are not
Figure 1.1.13
(p. 73)
EXAMPLE:
3. Find if the two-sided limit exists and sketch
the graph of 6+x if x < -2
g(x ) =
x 2
if x -2

SOLUTION
a . lim g ( x ) lim 6 x b. lim g( x ) lim x 2
x 2 x 2
x 2 x 2

- 2
2
6 2
4 4
since the limg(x) limg(x)
x 2 x 2

thenthe two sidedlimit existandis equalto 4

or lim
x 2
g(x) 4
y

x
-6 -2 4
EXAMPLE:
ind if the two-sided limit exists and sketch the graph
3 + x 2 if x < -2

of f (x) = 0 if x = -2 and sketch the grap
11 - x 2 if x > -2

SOLUTION
a . lim f ( x ) lim 3 x 2 b. lim f ( x ) lim 11 x 2
x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2

3 2 11 - 2
2 2

7 7
sin ce the lim f ( x ) lim f ( x )
x 2 x 2

then the two sided lim it exist and is equal to 7

or lim f ( x ) 7
x 2
EXAMPLE:
5. If f(x) 3 2x 4 , determine if limf(x)exist,
x2

andsketchthegraph.

SOLUTION
a . lim f ( x ) lim 3 2 x 4 b. lim f ( x ) lim 3 2 x 4
x2 x2 x2 x2

3 2 2 4 3 2 2 4
3 3

x 2 x 2

then the two sided lim it exist and is equal to 3

or lim f ( x ) 3
x 2
f(x)

(2,3)

x
2
DEFINITION: LIMITS AT INFINITY
If the values of the variable x increase
without bound, then x we
write ,
x
and if the values of x decrease without
bound, then we write f ( x ) .
The behavior of a function as x
increases or decreases without bound is
sometimes called the end behavior of
the function.
For example ,
1 1
lim 0 and lim 0
x x x x
x

1 1
lim 0 lim 0
x x x x
In general, we will use the following notation

1.3.1 (p. 89) Limits at Infinity (An Informal View)

Fig.1.3.2 illustrates the end behavior of the functio
lim f ( x ) L or lim f ( x ) L
x x

Figure 1.3.2 (p.

89)
EXAMP x
1
LE y 1of
Fig.1.3.2 illustrates the graph . As
x
suggested by
x
this graph, 1
lim 1 e and
x
x

x
1
lim 1 e
x
x

Figure 1.3.4 (p.

90)
EXAMPLE ( Examples 7-11 from
pages 92-95)
3x 5
1. lim
x
6x 8
5. xlim

x
6
5 x3

4x2 x
6. lim
2. lim 3
x
2x 5 x
x 5x x
6 3 3

5x3 2x2 1
3. lim
x
1 3x
x2 2
4. lim
x
3x 6
EXERCISES:
A. Evaluate the following
3x 1
1. lim 4 x 5 x 2
limits. 2
6. lim 2
x 3 1 9x 1
x
3

2x 1 2x 3 3x 2 2x 3
2. lim 2 7. lim
x 1 x 3 x 4 x 1 x2 1
x 2 3x 4 y 1 y 2 2 y 3
3. lim 8. lim
x 1 x3 1 y 1 y2 2y 1
1
4 y3 8 y

3 1

4. lim 9. lim 2 x 4 9 x 3 19 2
y 2
y4 x 5

x3 8 w2 7 w 7
5. lim 10. lim 2
x 2 x 2 w 1 w 4 w 5
EXERCISES:
B. Sketch the graph of the following
.

functions and the indicated limit if

it exists.
4 find
x if x -4
1. f ( x )
x 4 if x - 4
a. lim f(x) b. lim f(x) c. lim f ( x )
x 4 x 4 x 4

2 x 3 if x1

2. g ( x ) 2 if x1
7 - 2x if x1

a . lim g(x) b. lim g(x) c.lim g( x )
x 1 x 1 x 1
.
x if x 0
3. f ( x )
3 if x 0
a . lim f(x) b. lim f(x) c.lim f ( x )
x 0 x 0 x 0

4. g ( x ) 4 x
a. lim f(x) b. lim f(x) c.lim f ( x )
x 4 x 4 x 4

5. g ( x ) 2 x 1
a. lim f(x) b. lim f(x) c. lim f ( x )
1 1 1
x x x
2 2 2