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LIMITS

OF
FUNCTIONS
VERTICAL AND
HORIZONTAL
ASYMPTOTES; SQUEEZE
THEOREM
OBJECTIVES:
define infinite limits;
illustrate the infinite limits ; and
use the theorems to evaluate the limits
of functions.
determine vertical and horizontal
asymptotes
define squeeze theorem
DEFINITION: INFINITE LIMITS
Sometimes one-sided or two-sided limits
fail to exist because the value of the
function increase or decrease without
1
bound.
For example, consider the behavior of
f ( x )
x
for
values of x near 0. It is evident from the
1
table and graph in Fig 1.1.15 that as x x f ( x )

values are taken closer and closer to 0

from the right, the values of
1
are positive andf ( increase
x)
x
without bound;
and as
x-values are taken closer and closer to 0
In symbols, we write
1 1
lim and lim
x 0 x x 0 x

Note:
The symbols and here are not
real numbers; they simply describe
particular ways in which the limits fail to
exist. Thus
it
is
0 incorrect to write
.
Figure 1.1.15 (p.
74)
1.1.4 (p. 75) Infinite Limits (An Informal View)
Figure 1.1.2 illustrate graphically the limits for
1 1 1
rational functions of the , form ,
x a x a 2
x a 2
.

Figure 1.2.2 (p.

84)
EXAMPLE: Evaluate the following limits:
1 1
1. lim 4 4. lim 5
x 0 x x 0 x

1 1 1 1
lim 4 lim 5
x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0
1 1
2. lim 4 5. lim 5
x 0 x x 0 x

1 1 1 1
lim 4 lim 5
x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0
1 1
3. lim 4 6. lim 5
x 0 x x 0 x
3x x 2 means we take
7. a. lim value of x close to 2 from left , say 1.8
x2 x2
x 2 1.8 2 0.2

lim-
3x

3 2 6

x2 x-2 0 0

3x x 2 means we take
b. lim
x2 x2 value of x close to 2 from right , say 2.1
x 2 2.1 2 0.1

lim
3x

3 2

6

x2 x-2 0 0

3x
c. lim
x 2 x 2
SUMMARY:
R( x )
If f(x)
Q( x )

xa xa x a

EXAMPLE
2 2 1
1. lim and lim
x 3 x3 x 3 x3 3

2 2 1
then , lim
x 3 x3 x3 3

Note : Addition / Subtraction

c
c
2x x3
2. lim and lim 1
x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1
2x x 3
then , lim 1
x 1 x 1 x 1

3x 2x 6 1
3. lim and lim
x2 x2 x2 x4 3
3x 2x 6 1
then , lim
x2 x2 x4 3

Note :
c c
c c
VERTICAL AND
HORIZONTAL
ASYMPTOTES
DEFINITION:
The linex a is a vertical asymptote of
the graph of f x function
y the if at least
one of the following statement is true:
a . lim f ( x )
xa

b. lim f ( x )
xa

c. lim f ( x )
xa

d . lim f ( x )
xa
The following figures illustrate the vertical
x a
asymptote .

0 0

x=a x=a

lim f ( x ) lim f ( x )
xa xa
The following figures illustrate the vertical
x a
asymptote .

0 0

x=a x=a

lim f ( x ) lim f ( x )
xa xa
DEFINITION:
The line is a horizontal asymptote of
yb
the graph of the function if
y f x
either
lim f ( x ) b or lim f ( x ) b
x x
The following figures illustrate the
yb
horizontal asymptote

y=b

0
y=b
0

lim f ( x ) b lim f ( x ) b
x x
The following figures illustrate the
yb
horizontal asymptote

y=b
0
y=b
0

lim
x
f(x) b lim f(x) b
x
Determine the horizontal and vertical
asymptote of
3
f x
the function and sketch the
x 2
graph.
a. Vertical b. Horizontal
Asymptote: Asymptote:
Equate the Divide both the
denominator numerator and the
to zero to solve for denominator by the
the highest power of x to
x2 0 x 2
vertical asymptote. solve for the horizontal
Evaluate the limit as x asymptote.
approaches 2
3 3 3
lim
x 2 x 2 22 0

3 3
x 0 Intercepts :
lim 0
x x 2 2 1 0
1 3 3
x x If x 0 , f x
02 2
3 3 3
0
If f( x ) 0 , 0 ; 03
lim x 0 x2
x x 2 2 1 0
1 therefore there is no x int ercept
x x

Thus , 0 is a horizontal asymptote.

3
f x
x 2

HA:y=0
0
3
0 ,
2

VA: x=2
Determine the horizontal and vertical
asymptote of
2x 1
f x
the function and sketch the
x3
graph.
a. Vertical b. Horizontal
Asymptote: Asymptote:
2x 1
x3 0 x 3
x x 2
2x 1 7 lim 2
x x 3 1
lim
x 3 x 3 0 x x
x 3 is a vertical asymptote y 2 is a horizontal asymptote

Intercepts :
0 1 1
If x 0 , f x
03 3
2x 1 1
If f( x ) 0 , 0 ; x
x3 2
2x 1
f x
x3

HA:y=2
o

VA:x=3
SQUEEZE
THEOREM
LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS USING THE
SQUEEZE PRINCIPLE
The Squeeze Principle is used on limit
problems where the usual algebraic methods
(factoring, conjugation, algebraic
manipulation, etc.) are not effective. However,
it requires that you be able to ``squeeze'' your
problem in between two other ``simpler''
functions whose limits are easily computable
and equal. The use of the Squeeze Principle
requires accurate analysis, algebra skills, and
careful use of inequalities. The method of
squeezing is used to prove that f(x)L as xc
by trapping or squeezing f between two
functions, g and h, whose limits as xc are
SQUEEZE
PRINCIPLE :
Assume that functions f , g , and h satisfy g(x) f(x) h(x)

xa xa

then lim f(x) L

xa
Theorem 1.6.5 (p.
123)

Figure 1.6.3 (p.

123)
EXAMPLE:
Evaluate the following limits.
tan x sin 2 x
1. lim 2. lim
x 0 x x 0 x
sin 3 x 2 - cos3x - cos4x
3. lim 4. lim
x 0 sin 5 x x 0 x

SOLUTION:
tan x sin x 1 sin 2 x sin 2 x 2
1. lim lim 2. lim lim
x 0 x x 0
x cos x x 0 x x 0
x 2
sin x 1 sin 2 x
lim lim 2 lim
x 0 x x 0 cos x
x 0 2x
1 1 1 2 1 2
sin 3 x
sin 3 x 2 - cos3x - cos4x
3. lim lim x 4. lim
x 0 sin 5 x x 0 sin 5 x

x 0 x
x
lim
1 1 cos 3 x cos 4 x
sin 3 x x 0 x
3
lim 3x
1 - cos3x 1 - cos4x
x 0
5
sin 5 x lim lim
5x x 0 x x 0 x
31 3 1 - cos3x 1 - cos4x
3 lim 4 lim
5 1 5 x 0 3x x 0 4x
3 0 4 0 0
EXERCISES: Evaluate the following limi
4 x2
1. lim
x 3 9 x 2

t2
2. lim 2
t 2 t 4

16 x 2
3. lim
x 4 x4

x2 x 2
4. lim 2
x 3 x 2 x 3