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OF

FUNCTIONS

VERTICAL AND

HORIZONTAL

ASYMPTOTES; SQUEEZE

THEOREM

OBJECTIVES:

define infinite limits;

illustrate the infinite limits ; and

use the theorems to evaluate the limits

of functions.

determine vertical and horizontal

asymptotes

define squeeze theorem

DEFINITION: INFINITE LIMITS

Sometimes one-sided or two-sided limits

fail to exist because the value of the

function increase or decrease without

1

bound.

For example, consider the behavior of

f ( x )

x

for

values of x near 0. It is evident from the

1

table and graph in Fig 1.1.15 that as x x f ( x )

from the right, the values of

1

are positive andf ( increase

x)

x

without bound;

and as

x-values are taken closer and closer to 0

In symbols, we write

1 1

lim and lim

x 0 x x 0 x

Note:

The symbols and here are not

real numbers; they simply describe

particular ways in which the limits fail to

exist. Thus

it

is

0 incorrect to write

.

Figure 1.1.15 (p.

74)

1.1.4 (p. 75) Infinite Limits (An Informal View)

Figure 1.1.2 illustrate graphically the limits for

1 1 1

rational functions of the , form ,

x a x a 2

x a 2

.

84)

EXAMPLE: Evaluate the following limits:

1 1

1. lim 4 4. lim 5

x 0 x x 0 x

1 1 1 1

lim 4 lim 5

x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0

1 1

2. lim 4 5. lim 5

x 0 x x 0 x

1 1 1 1

lim 4 lim 5

x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0

1 1

3. lim 4 6. lim 5

x 0 x x 0 x

3x x 2 means we take

7. a. lim value of x close to 2 from left , say 1.8

x2 x2

x 2 1.8 2 0.2

lim-

3x

3 2 6

x2 x-2 0 0

3x x 2 means we take

b. lim

x2 x2 value of x close to 2 from right , say 2.1

x 2 2.1 2 0.1

lim

3x

3 2

6

x2 x-2 0 0

3x

c. lim

x 2 x 2

SUMMARY:

R( x )

If f(x)

Q( x )

xa xa x a

EXAMPLE

2 2 1

1. lim and lim

x 3 x3 x 3 x3 3

2 2 1

then , lim

x 3 x3 x3 3

c

c

2x x3

2. lim and lim 1

x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1

2x x 3

then , lim 1

x 1 x 1 x 1

3x 2x 6 1

3. lim and lim

x2 x2 x2 x4 3

3x 2x 6 1

then , lim

x2 x2 x4 3

Note :

c c

c c

VERTICAL AND

HORIZONTAL

ASYMPTOTES

DEFINITION:

The linex a is a vertical asymptote of

the graph of f x function

y the if at least

one of the following statement is true:

a . lim f ( x )

xa

b. lim f ( x )

xa

c. lim f ( x )

xa

d . lim f ( x )

xa

The following figures illustrate the vertical

x a

asymptote .

0 0

x=a x=a

lim f ( x ) lim f ( x )

xa xa

The following figures illustrate the vertical

x a

asymptote .

0 0

x=a x=a

lim f ( x ) lim f ( x )

xa xa

DEFINITION:

The line is a horizontal asymptote of

yb

the graph of the function if

y f x

either

lim f ( x ) b or lim f ( x ) b

x x

The following figures illustrate the

yb

horizontal asymptote

y=b

0

y=b

0

lim f ( x ) b lim f ( x ) b

x x

The following figures illustrate the

yb

horizontal asymptote

y=b

0

y=b

0

lim

x

f(x) b lim f(x) b

x

Determine the horizontal and vertical

asymptote of

3

f x

the function and sketch the

x 2

graph.

a. Vertical b. Horizontal

Asymptote: Asymptote:

Equate the Divide both the

denominator numerator and the

to zero to solve for denominator by the

the highest power of x to

x2 0 x 2

vertical asymptote. solve for the horizontal

Evaluate the limit as x asymptote.

approaches 2

3 3 3

lim

x 2 x 2 22 0

3 3

x 0 Intercepts :

lim 0

x x 2 2 1 0

1 3 3

x x If x 0 , f x

02 2

3 3 3

0

If f( x ) 0 , 0 ; 03

lim x 0 x2

x x 2 2 1 0

1 therefore there is no x int ercept

x x

3

f x

x 2

HA:y=0

0

3

0 ,

2

VA: x=2

Determine the horizontal and vertical

asymptote of

2x 1

f x

the function and sketch the

x3

graph.

a. Vertical b. Horizontal

Asymptote: Asymptote:

2x 1

x3 0 x 3

x x 2

2x 1 7 lim 2

x x 3 1

lim

x 3 x 3 0 x x

x 3 is a vertical asymptote y 2 is a horizontal asymptote

Intercepts :

0 1 1

If x 0 , f x

03 3

2x 1 1

If f( x ) 0 , 0 ; x

x3 2

2x 1

f x

x3

HA:y=2

o

VA:x=3

SQUEEZE

THEOREM

LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS USING THE

SQUEEZE PRINCIPLE

The Squeeze Principle is used on limit

problems where the usual algebraic methods

(factoring, conjugation, algebraic

manipulation, etc.) are not effective. However,

it requires that you be able to ``squeeze'' your

problem in between two other ``simpler''

functions whose limits are easily computable

and equal. The use of the Squeeze Principle

requires accurate analysis, algebra skills, and

careful use of inequalities. The method of

squeezing is used to prove that f(x)L as xc

by trapping or squeezing f between two

functions, g and h, whose limits as xc are

SQUEEZE

PRINCIPLE :

Assume that functions f , g , and h satisfy g(x) f(x) h(x)

xa xa

xa

Theorem 1.6.5 (p.

123)

123)

EXAMPLE:

Evaluate the following limits.

tan x sin 2 x

1. lim 2. lim

x 0 x x 0 x

sin 3 x 2 - cos3x - cos4x

3. lim 4. lim

x 0 sin 5 x x 0 x

SOLUTION:

tan x sin x 1 sin 2 x sin 2 x 2

1. lim lim 2. lim lim

x 0 x x 0

x cos x x 0 x x 0

x 2

sin x 1 sin 2 x

lim lim 2 lim

x 0 x x 0 cos x

x 0 2x

1 1 1 2 1 2

sin 3 x

sin 3 x 2 - cos3x - cos4x

3. lim lim x 4. lim

x 0 sin 5 x x 0 sin 5 x

x 0 x

x

lim

1 1 cos 3 x cos 4 x

sin 3 x x 0 x

3

lim 3x

1 - cos3x 1 - cos4x

x 0

5

sin 5 x lim lim

5x x 0 x x 0 x

31 3 1 - cos3x 1 - cos4x

3 lim 4 lim

5 1 5 x 0 3x x 0 4x

3 0 4 0 0

EXERCISES: Evaluate the following limi

4 x2

1. lim

x 3 9 x 2

t2

2. lim 2

t 2 t 4

16 x 2

3. lim

x 4 x4

x2 x 2

4. lim 2

x 3 x 2 x 3

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