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IC3 Internet and Computing Core Certification

Global Standard 4

Computing Key
Fundamentals Living Online


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IC3 Internet and Computing Core Certification
Global Standard 4

Subject Questions Time Max Pass

45 50 minutes 1000 650

43 50 minutes 1000 720

Living Online 45 50 minutes 1000 620

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IC3 Internet and Computing Core Certification
Global Standard 4

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IC3 Internet and Computing Core Certification
Global Standard 4


Lesson 1: Operating Systems

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Lesson Objectives

How an operating system works

How to start and exit Windows
What the Windows desktop is
How to use the Start button
How to navigate around the desktop
How to use the taskbar
How applications differ from operating systems

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What is an Operating System?
Collection of programs to control hardware and
application software, and manage computer
interaction and communication with user
Manages input devices, output devices, and storage
Manages files stored on computer
Every computer requires operating system to
Must load into computers memory before it can load any
application software or interact with user

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What is an Operating System?
Disk Operating System (DOS)
Original operating system developed for PC
Most operating systems use integrated graphical
user interface (GUI)
Functions and commands represented by menus and
clickable buttons or icons
Use "point and click" to perform most tasks

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What is an Operating System?
Software programs that run on particular operating
system use same buttons, symbols, or pictures for
common functions
Reduces time required to learn new software
Manages hardware, programs and files
Applicationsoftware allows user to be productive
User works in application program
Application program interacts with operating system
behind scenes

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Modern Operating Systems

Windows 7

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Modern Operating Systems

Mac OS

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Modern Operating Systems
One of the first multi-tasking, multi-user operating systems
Originally developed in 1969 for large mainframe
computers and servers
More recent versions for desktop systems include GUI
Widely used in universities, scientific or research
Often used on machines which support engineering or
computer-aided design (CAD) applications

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Modern Operating Systems
First developed in 1991
Freely available and modifiable
Packaged into formats called distributions
Includes operating system, various utilities and libraries, and
some application software
Widely used on supercomputers and high-end servers
Very popular with entrepreneurial software developers

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Modern Operating Systems
Handheld Operating Systems
Used on PDAs and Smartphones
Options vary depending on type of
handheld device
Popular handheld operating systems
include Apple iOS, Symbian, Windows
Mobile, Palm and Blackberry

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Modern Operating Systems
Embedded Operating Systems
Manage and control operations on specific type of
When equipment is turned on, embedded operating
system loads into memory
Designed to be compact and are highly specialized
Include only functions that are required by specific devices

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Operating System Capabilities and
File names can be up to 255 characters long
On PC, cannot include \ / : * < > ? | in file name
On Mac, cannot use colon in file names
Can open multiple programs at same time
Can customize to suit personal preferences
Stand-alone computer may be able to install
programs or download items from Internet
Networked computer may not have sufficient
rights to perform certain tasks

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Common Operating System
Can maintain separate accounts for each user,
keep track of user's documents and settings, and
keep user accounts secure
When first turn on Windows 7 computer:
If you are only user with no password, automatically log on
to account and Desktop appears
If using computer with multiple user accounts or requires
password, Windows displays icon and account name to log

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Common Operating System
Power On / Power Off
When first start computer, press power button
Computer runs set of self-diagnostic programs to ensure
critical hardware working properly, then loads operating
system to memory
Should never press power button to turn system off
Should always use operating system's Power Off or Shut Down
Ensures any changes made to system are properly saved, and
any temporary files no longer needed are deleted

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Common Operating System
Starting the Computer
Power switch usually at
front or top of system case
Power switch for monitor
usually at lower right corner
Some systems include Reset
button Power
Power button on notebook
at outside, front, or above
keyboard Reset

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Common Operating System Features

1. Turn on everything connected to system unit first.

Ensures steady flow of power to system unit when turned
2. Turn on system unit should be last power switch.
Diagnostic part of operating system checks everything is
Computer then starts looking for operating system files

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Common Operating System
Whats Happening in the Background?
Process of turning on computer and loading operating
system called booting
ROM-BIOS chips make bootup procedure possible
Loads instructions stored in ROM-BIOS into memory and then
executes instructions
Computer takes inventory of internal and external equipment,
performing self-tests known as power on self-test (POST)
BIOS program checks and counts memory, and then looks for
and loads operating system into memory

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Common Operating System Features

Whats Happening in the Background?

When operating system loaded, Windows displays
Welcome screen first
If computer connected to
network or set up for
multiple users, logon
screen displays
Click icon for user account
or enter login ID, type
password and press

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Common Operating System Features

Exiting the Computer Properly

Important to save files, close open programs, and log off or
shut down computer when finished working
Never turn off computer without closing files and software
programs properly
Click Start button to access Shut Down options
Computer closes all open files and programs safely, exits
operating system and then turns off computer

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Common Operating System Features

Exiting the Computer Properly

1 Shut down

2 Shut down
1 2

Switch Switch to another account without logging off

user current account.
Log off Close all open items, logs off current user
account, and returns to log on screen.
Lock Hides desktop behind logon screen until log back
into system.

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Common Operating System Features

Exiting the Computer Properly

Restart Closes all open items safely and restarts without
powering down; also called reboot or warm boot. Clears
memory and reloads operating system, but doesnt do
self-diagnostic tests.
Sleep Display turns off and fan stops; light on case may blink
or turn yellow to indicate status. All work and settings in
memory and draws low amount of power. May appear as
Hibernat Only on notebooks; draws no power. Like Sleep but
e writes work and settings to hard disk and then turns off
system. Press power button to start system and resume
from where you were before activating hibernation.

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Common Operating System
Always let Windows complete Shut down or Restart
If power failure occurs while computer in Sleep or
Standby mode, will lose unsaved information
To turn off Standby and return to normal mode,
move mouse or press key on keyboard
To turn off hibernation, press Power button

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Looking at the Windows Desktop

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Looking at the Windows
Desktop Shortcuts to open frequently used programs, folders, or
Icons files.
Mouse Arrow that follows mouse movement to select or
Pointer activate items.
Desktop Work area or screen where windows, icons, menus, and
dialog boxes appear; this area can be customized.
Start Button Start programs, open documents, find items, get help,
and log off or shut down your computer.
Taskbar Horizontal bar at bottom of screen that includes Start
button, buttons for open programs and files, and
notification area.
Taskbar Includes clock, status icons of certain programs or
Notification computer settings, or shortcuts to programs or
Area Windows utilities.

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Navigating Around the Desktop
Using a Pointing Device
To select item, point arrow at item and press left mouse button
once; this is a single-click
To activate item, point arrow at item and press left mouse button
twice in quick succession; this is a double-click
To display shortcut menu with more options, point arrow at item
and press right mouse button once; this is a right-click

Using the Keyboard

Number of features can be accessed through keyboard shortcuts
Many keyboard shortcuts are standardized between applications

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Using the Start Button
Start programs, find files, access online help,
log off Windows, switch between users, or
shut down computer
To activate Start button:
Click the Start button, or
press Windows key, or
press CTRL+ESC

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Using the Start Button

1 Pinned Program Area

2 Recently Used

3 Useful System Folders

4 Search Box

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Using the Start Button
displays submenu when you click or point to it
icon indicate sub-list of options
To return to Start menu, point to menu or click
To select items from Start menu:
With mouse, click Start once, point to All Programs, click
folder to display list for program, then click option to start
With keyboard, press Windows key to display Start menu,
press arrow keys to move to command, press ENTER when

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Working with an Application Program

Use application programs to perform productive

Every operating system has method to start
When application program closed, memory used by
application released and available for operating
system to reallocate
Operating system monitors work to identify specific
requirements for memory or storage

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Using the Taskbar
By default, taskbar at bottom of Windows desktop
Includes Start button, notification area, clock, and
taskbar button for each open program
Windows also automatically installs some
commonly-used programs for easy access

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Using the Taskbar
Start Button Click to open menu and select items to
open programs, find files, or shut down
Taskbar Button displays for each open application
Buttons program, and some built-in Windows
applications. Click taskbar button to activate
program or window.
Notification Displays clock, icons and shortcuts.
Show Point at it to make all open windows
desktop transparent, or click to instantly minimize all
button open windows on Desktop. Click again to restore
all windows to previous state.

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Using the Taskbar
To move taskbar:
Position arrow on blank
area of taskbar and drag to
side of screen
To prevent changes, right-
click taskbar and click Lock
the taskbar
To customize taskbar:
Right-click taskbar and click
Properties, or
Right-click Start button and
click Properties

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Using the Taskbar
Click (Show hidden icons) to temporarily
display hidden icons
When program open, button appears
Preview window appears for each file when you point at
program button on taskbar

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The Software/Hardware Relationship

Any physical component or device that involves the

Operating system and application programs
Designed to work with specific types of computer
New software may not run correctly if older system is not
fast enough or doesnt provide required capacity
If need particular version of software, software choice may
dictate which computer system to use

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Understanding Updates
Programming file inserted into existing program to fix known
Immediate but temporary solution until problem permanently

Resolve security issues or improve performance; released as

Service Packs
Collection of updates typically released after enough updates

Windows Updates
Critical updates for security vulnerabilities, viruses or spyware
Others correct errors not related to security or enhance
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Understanding Updates
Automatic Updating
Can set to automatic or manual check to install latest
Can set to check and download updates and then alert
when ready to install
Update Categories
Important include security and critical updates
Recommended include software updates and new or
improved features
Optional include software you can install manually

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Lesson Summary

how an operating system works

how to start and exit Windows
what the Windows desktop is
how to use the Start button
how to navigate around the desktop
how to use the taskbar
how applications differ from operating systems

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Lesson Summary

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Review Questions
1. For which of the following tasks would you use an operating
a. To create a Contacts list.
b. To delete files from a folder.
c. To calculate the return on an investment.
d. To edit audio and video files.

2. How can you tell where the cursor is on the Windows

a. The Start button
b. Press the Spacebar to view it
c. The white arrow
d. The last button on the Windows taskbar

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Review Questions
3. How do you display a shortcut menu for an item on the
Windows desktop?
a. Click the left mouse button
b. Click the right mouse button
c. Double-click either mouse button
d. Tap the scroll wheel.

4. To see the programs installed on your system, which option

from the Start button would you use?
a. Documents
b. All Programs
c. Search
d. List of Quick Start items
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Review Questions
5. Circle in the following image which button you would use in
the notification area to display the desktop immediately:

6. What is the best way to shut down the computer?

a. Press the power switch on the computer case.
b. Click Shut down from the Start button and let it complete
the process.
c. Press CTRL+ALT+DELETE twice.
d. Press ESC.

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Review Questions
7. What is a service pack?
a. A collection of software updates.
b. A form of spyware.
c. A shut down mode designed to conserve battery power
d. An embedded operating system.

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