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Wireline Pressure Operations

Based on REW Wireline Pressure Standard 14


Standard REW-QHSE-14 released December 15, 2001

Wireline Operations - Requiring the use of Grease Control.


Perforating jobs inducing pressure, under balanced
Wells already under well pressure
Expected Pressure
This means anytime expected well pressure is to be seen.
Compulsory
Controls wellhead pressure around cable while:
Running in the well
Stopped in the well
Running out of the well
To safely enter into and exit from the well under continuous
pressure without losing well pressure fluids.
Main Topics

SAFETY
PERSONNEL
THEORY
WHE EQUIPMENT
NORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
SAFETY

THERE IS NOTHING SO IMPORTANT


THAT IT CANNOT BE DONE SAFELY
IF IT CANNOT BE DONE SAFELY

WE DO NOT DO IT!
SAFETY

ALWAYS FIRST PRIORITY


TAKE TIME TO DO IT RIGHT
PRESSURE KILLS
DO NOT TAKE SHORT CUTS
HOLD PRE-JOB SAFETY MEETINGS
Discuss maximum Wellhead Pressure Expected
Discuss Minimum I.D. tolerances in well
Discuss types of fluids expected
Discuss pressure test events
Discuss wellhead operation
DISCUSS SAFETY, SAFETY, SAFETY, SAFETY
SAFETY

We need to provide a safe means at the


surface to confine the fluids contained
in the wellbore and provide an absolute
seal so well pressure cannot escape and
blow free.
PERSONNEL
According to the new OFS QHSE Standard 14
All personnel operating equipment containing well pressure/well

flow equipment must be qualified for these duties.


Anyone not qualified shall not be allowed to proceed without

supervision by a qualified engineer/technician.


A crew shall be considered CERTIFIED if the supervisor and at

least 50% of the other crew members hold a valid qualification.


The three levels of certification based on
(Grease injection - Type 1 Pressure operations):
Level 1

All personnel directly involved in management, maintenance and

field operation of pressure control equipment


Level 2

For maximum allowable working pressure up to and equal to

10,000 psi
Level 3

For working pressures above 10,000 psi.


PERSONNEL
Certification Requirements
Level 1 Certification:
Complete a 2 hour presentation on the new QHSE Pressure Standard 14 and
the POM (Pressure Operations Manual)
Read through each document and review in details covering local
operations.
Successfully review the standards with your supervisor.
Level 2 Certification:
Have valid Level 1 certification
Attend and pass a minimum 3 day pressure school at one of the RTCs or a
course with an approved WLH Pressure Trainer
Pass electronic test grade of 80% or higher
Complete 2 Type 1-grease pressure jobs under supervision
Perform a minimum of 1 in-house pressure test on location WHE equipment
to full WP (or TP).
Level 3 Certification:
Have valid Level 1 and 2 Certificate for pressure operations
Attend an approved Level 3 Pressure school at one of the RTCs.
Attend a minimum of 2 HPHT jobs under supervision
Be involved in a minimum of one HPHT job design and preparation.
PERSONNEL
Certification Validity
If an employee holding a level 2 or 3 certification has not participated in field operations
for over one year he/she will need to be re-qualified.
Accomplished by participating in a job under qualified supervisor.
MAXIMUM VALIDITY OF CERTIFICATE IS 2 YEARS FROM ISSUE DATE

Re-certification
Pass a electronic theoretical quiz

Then if employee has been on a pressure job in last 12 months he/she is automatically re-
qualified. If not the employee must perform one job under supervision.

Administration
Records of personnel passing the on-line quiz is accessible through the
RTC/WLH websites.
It is the District Manager/Location Manager responsibility to:
Make sure crews have valid pressure qualification.
Follow up on employees certification status.
THEORY
Formation Pressure

Original pressure in a hydrocarbon reservoir is


associated with water pressure in:
The reservoir itself
Formations around the reservoir
Formations above the reservoir

Normal hydrostatic pressure gradient estimated


as:
.45 psi / foot
THEORY
Anomalous Pressure

OVER PRESSURED ZONES


Causes:
OVERBURDEN GEOLOGICAL FAULTING
Reasons: IMPERMEABLE FORMATION and/or
SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES
UNDER PRESSURED ZONES (Depleted)
THEORY
Well Pressure Data From:

CLIENT
LOCAL KNOWLEDGE
DRILL STEM TESTS (DST), RFT, MDT
MUD PROGRAM
higher than normal mud density
THEORY
WELL PRESSURE IS ALWAYS
TRYING TO FORCE YOUR CABLE Cable
OUT OF THE HOLE !!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Flowtube

F=PxA
Grease
Force = Pressure x Area
Force = # (lbs)
Pressure = psi
Area = in 2 Force from the well pressure
THEORY
Cable Specifications

Cable
Cable
Diameter Area
~D2
2 4
type (inch) (inch)

1-22 .221 .038


1/2-23 .233 .043
1-25 .257 .052
1/2-32 .319 .080
7-39 .395 .123
7-46 .464 .169
THEORY
Minimum Theoretical Weight vs. Well Pressure

.22
14,000
.23
12,000
Wellhead Pressure (psi)

10,000 .25

8000
.32
6000
.39
4000
.46
2000

0 50# kicker
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Minimum Weight (pounds)
THEORY
Tool Weight +Weight Bars
Cable counteract the force acting on the cable.

Grease injection must counteract


Flow tube the well fluid forces from getting
around the cable.

Grease

Weight
Bars
Tools
THEORY
Force on Grease is Equal to Well
Pressure multiplied by area of
space between the Cable (O.D.)
and the Flow tube (I.D.).

Flow tube
(.240 I.D.)

Grease

Cable ( .233 OD.)


THEORY

Example:
Line O.D. = .233
Flow Tube I.D. = .240
Well Pressure = 5000 psi
.233
How much force is against
grease ? .240

F=PxA
F = 5000 x ~ ( .24
II
4
) - ~ ( .233)
2
II
4
2

F = 5000 x ( .045 - .043 )


F = 5000 x .002 = 10 pounds (#)

*NOTE: THE LESS FORCE AGAINST THE GREASE THE EASIER TO SEAL.
THEORY
Grease Seal Principle

1.2P Gr e
Injection ase
Pressure
Flo
w
>
Well P
w
Pressure Flo

Grease In >
se
ea
Gr
<

Atmos.
Pressure 0
L 2L

To Well >

Grease Out Grease In


Atmos. press 1.2x WP
THEORY
Grease Seal Principle

Grease Out (P1) Grease In (P2)


COUETTES EQUATION
P2 = grease injection pressure @ flow tube
P2 - P1 = 6 Lu Q P1 = grease outlet pressure @ flow tube
Rch L = Length of flow tube
u = grease viscosity
h = clearance between Flow tube & cable
Rc = cable radius
Q = quantity of grease injected
THEORY
Thrust Force Comparison Chart

Pressure Thrust
Slickline @ 5000 33
Monocable @ 5000 190

2 7/8 Riser @ 1500 16567


3 1/2 Riser @ 1500 22550
5 1/2 Riser @ 1500 34036
7 5/8 Riser @ 1500 66268

2 7/8 Riser @ 5000 55223


3 1/2 Riser @ 5000 75165
5 1/2 Riser @ 5000 113453
7 5/8 Riser @ 5000 220893
WHE EQUIPMENT
Categories of Wireline and Testing Pressure Containing Equipment
Relevant Codes:
Category 1.1 -API Spec. 6A
-API Spec. 14D & RP 14C Category 1.1 = Handles
Wellhead Equipment (WHE) or -NACE Stan. MR-0175 only internal pressures
Pressure Control Equipment
Category 1.2 = Handles
internal pressure and flow
from christmas tree to choke
Category 2
Category 1.2
Category 1.3 = subsea
equipment, below rig floor

Category 2 = Handles
surface pressure and flow,
Category 1.3 production equipment.

Category 3 = Handles
Category 3 pressure and flow, but is
located below drill floor.
DST equipment.

Category 0 Category 0 = Handles


pressure inside of downhole
sample bottles.
Line Wiper
WHE
Stuffing Box / Packoff
Check Valve EQUIPMENT

>
Flow Tubes
Grease Return

Check Valve (always at injection points)

>
Grease Pump
Head Catcher

XX
Air In
Waste Riser Grease Injection Line
Oil Honey
Oil
Tool Trap

Wireline Valves

Wellhead Adapter
WHE EQUIPMENT
Operating Service Types:

Standard Service:
Temperature rating = -20 F to 250 F
API 6A Fluid Class AA
H2S Service:
NACE MR0175, current edition
Temperature rating = -20 F to 250 F
API 6A Fluid Class DD
Hostile Service:
NACE MR0175, current edition
Temperature rating = -20 F to 350 F
API 6A Fluid Class DD
WHE EQUIPMENT
Fundamentals of Job Design
PRESSURE
WHE should be able to handle maximum surface pressure
20% (safety margin) above MPWHP
(Maximum Potential shut-in Wellhead Pressure)
But, never to exceed Working Pressure (WP) rating on the wellsite.
Equipment is tested at a maximum pressure greater than or equal to WP,
defined as Test Pressure (TP).
API specifies TP = 2 x WP or TP = 1.5 x WP for most surface equipment
concerned to this standard.
Minimum allowable pressure rating is 5000 psi. (one exception)
WHP is surface induced & controlled
WHP is nil, but in contingency case MPWHP is less than or equal to 2500psi
Where well killing facilities are available readily on site
THEN EQUIPMENT CAN BE RATED FOR 3000 PSI
WHE EQUIPMENT
Fundamentals of Job Design
PRESSURE TEST SCHEDULE
WHE EQUIPMENT
Materials

Majority of the steel used in pressure control


equipment is 4140 or 4130 low alloy steel
Provides:
Optimum strength
Weight
Cost Ratio

Other Materials Used:


Stainless Steel
Monel

Brass
WHE EQUIPMENT
Material Purchasing

All equipment shall be purchased exclusively from Schlumberger


Tech Centers / or approved vendors. Such as:
Hydrolex/Texas Oil Tools
Elmaretc
Link to approved vendors

REW Operations support/QHSE are responsible to ensure


purchasing and manufacturing specs are established and distributed
to these vendors.
WHE EQUIPMENT
New Material Traceability
New equipment delivered to the field should have:
Listing of all components (Part #, WP, TP, service type, etc..)
General Drawing of each component / spare parts/bill of materials
Mechanical specs
Design approval certificates (IRC, DVR, TA) if applicable
Certificate of conformity standards ( API 6A, NACE MR-01-75)
Material traceability certificates
Lifting specs, if needed
Welding inspection and certificates , if needed
PSV (Pressure Safety Valve) cal certificate, when applicable
Integrity (Hydrostatic) and operational pressure test certificates
HYDROSTATIC BODY TEST AT TEST PRESSURE
OPERATIONAL AND VALVE SEAT TEST AT WORKING PRESSURE
Test Certificates should include:
Listing of all assets tested
Date of test and pressure Name and signature of person
Type of test and fluid performing the test
Manufacturers retains quality & traceability records for 10 yrs (min) API-6A
WHE EQUIPMENT
Identification
Each single item of pressure Containing Equip. shall be DOT
stamped (on low stress area) as follows:
Schlumberger Asset Code (See appendix H in POM)
Serial Number or Item Number & Manufacturers Number (exam: 01)
Service Type (exam: S, H)
Working Pressure ( compulsory, exam: 10k)
Test Pressure ( optional, exam: 15K)
Date of Manufacture (exam: 05/15/01)
example: WBG01 S 10k 05/15/01
Color Codes shall be used :

Shop Pressure Test Subs are to be painted all GRAY


WHE EQUIPMENT
Identification - Mylar Tape

3000 psi WP (STD) 5000 psi WP (STD)


5000 psi WP (H2S) 10000 psi WP (STD)
10000 psi WP (H2S) 15000 psi WP (STD)
15000 psi WP (H2S)

15000 PSI WP H2 S 15000 PSI WP H 2S


1st QUARTER 2nd QUARTER
3rd QUARTER 4th QUARTER

CERTIFIED Q1
WHE EQUIPMENT
Rental & Client supplied
Rented Equipment
Minimum Working Pressure rating same
Threaded Connection Unions shall have O-ring seals.
Locations that do not have O-Ring primary seal connection
can only be used with approved exemption as per standard 10.
Equipment must be certified to comply with API Spec 6A
Pressure test certificate not older than three months.
Must be delivered with equipment to field location
Equipment for long term lease (6 months) conforms to all our
standards

Client Supplied
Schlumberger shall not operate equipment without
documented proof of our compliance standards.
Client remains responsible.
WHE EQUIPMENT
Things Never To Do To Pressure Equipment

NEVER CUT ON
NEVER STAMP ON

(DOT STAMP ONLY)


NEVER WELD ON (see comment below)
NEVER OVERPRESSURE PAST TEST
PRESSURE

*Note: If any of the above takes place:


- Have equipment recertified or
- Get rid of it
WHE EQUIPMENT
Types of Pressure Tests
DESIGN QUALIFICATION and CERTIFICATION TEST
Usually Performed on prototype tools for design criteria.

FACTORY ACCEPTANCE, CERTIFICATION TEST


Proof Test usually carried out by manufacturer.

REGULAR PRESSURE TESTS


Carried out at reception of equipment and at regular intervals
throughout the life of that piece of equipment, include:
INTEGRITY TEST
Hydrostatic body test (note: all valves on assembly open
including Wireline rams) to TP -Test Pressure
OPERATIONAL TEST
Hydrostatic test across valves seats, closed rams To W.P.-
Working Pressure.
WELLSITE TEST
WHE EQUIPMENT
PRESSURE TESTING - Wellsite
MUST BE CARRIED OUT AFTER EACH SET-UP, AND AT
REGULAR INTERVALS FOR LONG-DURATION OPERATIONS.
(Usually once a day after 24 hours of operation).
ADEQUATE WARNINGS MUST BE POSTED IN THE AREA
WHILE PRESSURE TESTING.
ALL UNNECESSARY PERSONNEL MUST CLEAR THE TEST
AREA.
LINES OF FIRE MUST BE IDENTIFIED AND STAY CLEAR OF:
Valves
Pressure Ports
Fittings
DISCUSS WITH CLIENT WHAT (MPWHP) Maximum Potential
shut-in Wellhead Pressure could be.
WELLSITE PRESSURE TEST 20% ABOVE THAT PRESSURE IF
POSSIBLE, BUT NEVER PRESSURE UP PAST (WP) Working
Pressure
WHE EQUIPMENT
PRESSURE TEST FLUIDS Wellsite
WATER: (Fresh or Sea)
May include:
CORROSION INHIBITORS
ANTIFREEZE ADDITIVES SUCH AS ETHYLENE
GLYCOL FOR HYDRATE PROBLEMS

DIESEL IS FORBIDDEN !!!


WELL EFFLUENTS ARE FORBIDDEN !!!
NITROGEN GAS IS STRONGLY DISCOURAGED !!!
WHE EQUIPMENT
PRESSURE TEST PROCEDURES -Wellsite
RIG UP ALL EQUIPMENT , MAKING SURE EQUIPMENT FUNCTIONS PROPERLY.
MAKE SURE TOOL IS BUMPED UP NEAR HEAD CATCHER
FILL RISER UP WITH NON-VOLATILE FLUID, WATER OR ETHYLENE GLYCOL. (IF GAS WELL).
CLOSE GREASE RETURN LINE, ALLOW AIR TO VENT OUT OF PACKOFF/LINE WIPER.
CLOSE PACKOFF AND PRESSURE SYSTEM UP TO 1.2 x EXPECTED PRESSURE.
HOLD 3-5 MINUTES.
START GREASE INJECTION, OPEN RETURN LINE, OPEN PACKOFF
BLEED OFF SYSTEM AND/OR OPEN WELL WITH LITTLE DIFFERENTIAL ACROSS SWAB VALVE.
IF BLEEDING, MAKE SURE BLEED OFF HOSE HAS T-PIECE AT THE END TO AVOID WHIPPING EFFECT WHILE BLEEDING DOWN.
THE T-PIECE WILL BE MADE WITH A TIE-DOWN CONNECTION AND ONLY A PROPER SIZED CHAIN OR WIRE WILL BE USED FOR
FIXATION.
PRESSURE TEST ONCE EVERY 24 HOUR PERIOD ON CONSECUTIVE OPERATIONS.
NAM POLICY: PERFORATING GUNS MUST NOT BE EXPOSED TO PRESSURE GREATER THAN 80% OF THE GUN SYSTEM RATING
WHILE AT THE SURFACE. TECNET #703 3/8/94
A QUICK TEST SAFETY SUB MAY BE USED
WHE EQUIPMENT
Mandatory Shop Pressure Test
(ANNUAL SURVEY )
ALL WHE PRESSURE BEARING EQUIPMENT MUST BE PRESSURE TESTED TO TEST
PRESSURE AT A QUALIFIED PRESSURE TEST SHOP BAY OR APPROVED VENDOR.
5K WHE HAS TO BE TESTED AT LEAST ONCE A YEAR
OVER 5K , WHE HAS TO HAVE CURRENT TEST RECORDS IN THE LAST THREE MONTHS BEFORE THE JOB.
BESIDES HYDROSTATIC TESTING INCLUDES:
Visual Inspection
Thread checking
Possible NDE (non destructive Examinations) example: magnaflux

REMEMBER:
PRESSURE TEST ALL TREE SWAGES AND FLANGE CONNECTIONS ALSO. NOTE:
IF OUTSIDE VENDORS ARE DOING THE TEST CERTIFICATION, SCHLUMBERGER MUST WITNESS
THIS TEST.
WHE EQUIPMENT
PRESSURE TEST PROCEDURES -Shop
RIG UP EQUIPMENT IN A SAFE ENVIRONMENT.
Approved Schlumberger Test Bay
Zoned off area in back of shop
PRESSURE TEST WITH WATER/GLYCOL.
OPERATIONAL TEST WORKING PRESSURE RATING ONLY
Test performed on closed seal surfaces such as:
Wireline valve Rams
Choke valve seats
HYDROSTATIC BODY TEST TEST PRESSURE
ALL SEALING VALVE SURFACES MUST BE OPENED
MAKE SURE EQUIPMENT IS FULL WITH FLUID NO AIR.
HOLD PRESSURE FOR 3 MINUTES.
IF NO LEAKS, BLEED OFF THEN TEST AGAIN.
DOCUMENT THE TEST BY SOME RECORDING DEVICE IF POSSIBLE. ( Barton Pressure Recorder )
INCLUDE ON TEST DOCUMENT :
DATE, PRESSURE, TYPE OF TEST (BODY, OPERATIONAL), ASSET LIST, YOUR NAME AND SIGNATURE.
WHE EQUIPMENT
MAJOR RECERTIFICATION
TO RENEW EXISTING EQUIPMENT, A RECERTIFICATION IS
TO BE COMPLETED , AT A MINIMUM, EVERY 5 YEARS.
TO BE PERFORMED BY A CERTIFICATION AGENCY
(Bureau Veritas, DNV, Lloyds, ABS, etc..)
MAJOR RECERTIFICATION CONSISTS of:
Visual Inspection
Dimensional and Thickness Test (NDE)
Ultrasonic
X-ray
Crack Test (Dye Penetrate)
Hydrostatic Body Test @ TP
Seat Test and Operating Test @ WP
Crack test of Lifting eyes and Lifting Proof Loads
Strip Down all Mechanical Parts
Review of the Asset History File
WHE EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT QUALITY FILE
COMPLETE INVENTORY, MAINTENANCE AND
CERTIFICATION RECORDS ARE KEPT BY EACH
LOCATION FOR ALL PRESSURE BEARING WHE
COMPONENTS
THESE EQUIPMENT QUALITY FILES SHALL CONTAIN ANY
OR ALL OF THE BELOW :
CERTIFICATION AND TRACEABILITY
IDENTIFICATION RECORDS
FMT and MOVEMENT RECORDS

RITE History Cards

SPARE PARTS RECORDS (if required)

INSPECTION AND TEST RECORDS

CERTIFICATION RENEWAL RECORD (if req.)


WHE EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT QUALITY FILE
ONE OF THE BEST WAYS TO RECORD HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TEST IS
BY USING A CHART RECORDER
PRESSURE GAUGES
AND RECORDER SHALL
BE ACCURATE TO
0.5 % SCALE.
WHE EQUIPMENT
Upper
BELL LINE WIPER
Bushing
USED TO WIPE EXCESS
Clip GREASE OFF OF THE LINE
ONLY.
WORKING PRESSURE
Spring Packing RATED 5K
Sleeve MADE BY REGAL RUBBER
COMPANY
MAKE SURE PACKING
RUBBER IS CORRECT SIZE
Piston FOR CABLE
MUST BE USED

Lower Bushing
and Cage
Piston
WHE EQUIPMENT
HYDROLEX PACKOFF

TO CREATE A
CONTINUOS SEAL
AROUND CABLE WHEN
GREASE SEAL IS LOST
Spring NEVER CLOSE
ACROSS MOVING
Check valve

Gland CABLE, NOT A LINE-


WIPER
INSERT BODY AIDS IN
Split Line Rubber
GREASE FLOW
THROUGH RETURN
Split Disk LINE.
Return
Flow Insert Body SPLIT LINE RUBBER
MUST MATCH CABLE
Top SIZE
Flow tube MUST BE USED
WHE EQUIPMENT
Wear
GREASE FLOW TUBE SYSTEMS
Bushings

PLACE SMALL I.D. TUBE FROM BOTTOM TO


TOP
ONE FLOW TUBE ALWAYS NEEDED BELOW
GREASE INJECTION POINT
INSTALL CORRECT SIZE WEAR BUSHINGS
MORE FLOW TUBES FOR H2S AND TWO
INJECTION POINTS
TIGHT RESTRICTION BETWEEN FLOW
TUBE I.D. AND CABLE O.D. CREATES
A 2000 - 2500 PSI PRESSURE GREASE
GRADIENT PER TUBE FOR FLUIDS,
1600 2000 GRADIENT FOR GAS
WHE EQUIPMENT
GREASE TUBES

Insert types may be changed


for different cable sizes.
Solid types are longer
.005 to .008 in. Flow Tube ID
to Cable OD is recommended
tolerance.
Make sure solid types have
correct size wear bushings.

Solid Insert
WHE EQUIPMENT
LINCOLN POWERMASTER PUMPS

Pump Size Grease / Air Ratio

Air Lincoln 4 75 : 1
Grease Lincoln 6 140 : 1
In
Pumps use air pressure to
Out drive a diaphragm to induce
grease pressure into the well
Lincoln 4s normally used for
5K jobs
Lincoln 6s used for 10K jobs,
redundantly..
For 15K ratio should be 235:1
Honey Oil Generally pump 20% > WHP
Must be rated for at least 30%
above MAOP
WHE EQUIPMENT
Injection Grease Path
Grease is pumped about 20% higher than wellhead
pressure.
~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
Check valve contains fluid from coming back into
pump. Must be installed at every injection point.
Grease flows up and down the cable depending on
~~~~~~~~

restriction size and wellhead pressure.


Waste grease returns through an open line back
into waste drum.
~~~~~~~~

Grease return line must be connected or chained


down to immovable object.
~~~~~~~~

The return line should be


connected at end with a tee
~~

valve.
~~
~~

Make sure Grease Tank is


~~~~~~~~

supported by a permanent
~~

20% > WHP

object.
~
~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~
~~~~

X X
T
WHE EQUIPMENT
GREASE REQUIREMENTS
STRINGY, STICKY, HIGH VISCOSITY
SHOULD MIX WITH H2S INHIBITOR.
NON - FLAMMABLE
INJECTED AT A HIGHER PRESSURE THAN WELL
PRESSURE.
BIODEGRADABLE IF POSSIBLE
APPROVED GREASES
:
LIQUID O RING
Viscosity's 10 24 (low temp high)
Contain Inhibitors up to 5% H2S
Available in Biodegradable 780
CHEVRON : ALTA VIS
SHELL : VALVATA G82, NASSA 85, MACOMA82
QUAKER: FERROCOAT 5578 HEX
WHE EQUIPMENT
FITTINGS

FORGED STEEL FITTINGS MUST BE USED


LINE PIPE / NPT FITTINGS ALLOWED UP TO 10K WP
ABOVE 10K, SUITABLE AUTOCLAVE Fittings
FLEXIBLE LINES
HOSE MATERIAL MUST BE RATEDBY SAE FOR ALL
FLUIDS, INCLUDING METHANOL/GLYCOL
HOSES MUST ALSO BE PRESSURE TESTED
REGULARLY AND STORED IN DARK PLACE
WHE EQUIPMENT
HEAD CATCHER
Ball Velocity
Check Valve DESIGNED TO CATCH THE
MH-22 OR MH-32 FISHING
NECK. ( NECK SIZE
Piston RANGE 1 THROUGH 1.5)
APPLY HYDRAULIC
PRESSURE TO RELEASE
- HYDROLEX
APPLY HYDRAULIC
PRESSURE TO CATCH
Garter Spring
- BOWAN
(To be phased out in the
Collet Fingers field)
BALL VELOCITY CHECK
for LOST CABLE /
Mandatory ALL JOBS
HEAD CATCHER OR TOOL
TRAP MUST BE USED
WHE EQUIPMENT
HEAD CATCHER (operation)

FISHING NECK IS
BUMPED UP INTO
COLLET FINGERS.
WHE EQUIPMENT
HEAD CATCHER (operation)

COLLET FINGERS
EXPAND AS NECK
ENTERS
COLLET FINGERS
COLLAPSE AROUND
FISHING NECK
TOOL CANNOT BE
RELEASED UNTIL
PRESSURE APPLIED
Ball Velocity
Check Valve

Piston

WHE EQUIPMENT
HEAD CATCHER (operation)
Garter Spring
WHAT HAPPENS IF YOU
Collet Fingers
PULL OFF IN THE HEAD
CATCHER or IF FREE
ENDED CABLE IS BLOWN
OUT OF HOLE ??
BALL VELOCITY CHECK
VALVE HELPS
MUST BE USED
Ball Velocity
Check Valve

WHE EQUIPMENT
HEAD CATCHER (operation)
IF ADDITIONAL PULL IS
APPLIED TO CABLE TO
BREAK THE WEAKPOINT, OR
TOOL IS LOST, CABLE IS
BLOWN OUT OF HOLE
BALL CHECK STOPS
VELOCITY OF FLOW
WHE EQUIPMENT
RISER
PROVIDES A MEANS OF SAFELY CONTAINING
TOOLSTRING UNDER PRESSURE.
NEED ENOUGH RISER TO COVER TOOL STRING + 3 FEET,
MORE IF HYDRATES ARE EXPECTED.
ONLY REPLACE O RINGS ON JOB SITE
NEVER ARE THREADED LUBRICATOR CONNECTIONS
ALLOWED ON H2S JOBS.
API THREAD UNIONS ARE NOT PERMITTED
RISER ID SHOULD BE GREATER THAN .15 - .25 IN OF
LARGEST TOOL DIAMETER.
NO BLEED OFF VALVES ON RISER > 5K
WELDED OR INTEGRAL UNION CONNECTIONS ARE
RECOMMENDED ABOVE 5K, MUST BE USED OVER 10K
PREMIUM SEAL CONNECTIONS (METAL to METAL seal
backed by an O-RING) MAY BE USED ON 1OK OR BELOW.
WHE EQUIPMENT
TOOL TRAPS
EITHER A TOOL TRAP OR CATCHER IS
COMPULSORY.
TOOL TRAPS MAY BE MANUAL (5K) OR
HYDRAULIC (10K)
.MAKE SURE I.D. LARGER THAN TOOL
O.D.
FLAPPER DESIGN.
EXTERNAL INDICATOR ON INTERNAL
POSITION.
WIRELINE VALVES

PRIMARY USED TO REPAIR CABLE UNDER PRESSURE (stranded)


ALWAYS CLOSE THE TOP ONE FIRST
SOME DESIGNED AS GREASE INJECTED WIRELINE VALVES
WIRELINE VALVES
Operation
TWO MATCHING RAMS ARE USED AS A PAIR.
INNER SEALS ARE SLOTTED TO MATCH CABLE SIZE (Example
.22 or .23 use 7/32 in.)

Outer Seal

Inner Seal
WIRELINE VALVES
Operation
ONCE RAMS ARE CLOSED, A CONTINUOS SEAL IS
CREATED.
WIRELINE VALVES ARE DESIGNED TO HOLD PRESSURE
FROM ONE DIRECTION ONLY. OUTER SEAL (SADDLE) MUST
BE ON TOP.
WIRELINE VALVES
10K Tandem Operation
GREASE INJECTION TANDEM
NOTICE BOTTOM SECONDARY SEALS ARE INVERTED SO
GREASE MAY BE PUMPED IN BETWEEN THE TWO SEALS.

PUMP GREASE
GREASE PACK WIRELINE VALVES
Features include:
Rams with double sealing surfaces
that permit grease to be injected
between the closed ram seals. A twin
grease-pack wireline valve, thus,
provides three places to inject
grease, an improvement over the
triple-ram WLV. These rams also
feature dual injection paths, insuring
a maximum sealing effect with
increased safety. There is no need to
ensure that the rams are correctly
positioned.
A design that holds the rams closed
when grease pressure is applied.
The higher the injected grease
pressure is, the greater becomes the
force holding the rams closed.
Internal collars that allow easy ram
installation and servicing.
Indicator rods that show the position
of the rams.
Non-rising stems that make it
possible to close the rams manually.
The threads are located inside to
avoid damage to them.
GREASE PACK WIRELINE VALVES
Pressure Barriers

Single Barriers Dual Barriers


Dual Ram BOP with grease injected Triple Ram BOP with grease injected
between Rams between Rams
Single Ram Grease Pack Dual Ram Grease Pack
HGT (Includes flow tubes and stuffing box)
Wireline Valves
HOW MANY?

Note: Gas Well Identification stands for well fluid with GOR > 2500 scf/bbl
WHE EQUIPMENT
WELLHEAD ADAPTERS - THREADED

ALL PRESSURE BEARING SCREWED CONNECTIONS MADE-UP ON THE WELL


MUST HAVE AN O-RING Seal. (ACME), This is a Premium Seal Connection.
API THREADED ADAPTERS ARE BANNED
EUE Adapters are banned
QUICK RIG UP TIME
RATED TO 5000 10,000 PSI
NOT FOR H2S SERVICE
MUST BE PRESSURE TESTED
MAKE SURE YOU USE LONG PIN ADAPTERS
MUST BE TIGHTENED TO CORRECT TORQUE
WHE EQUIPMENT
WELLHEAD ADAPTERS - FLANGES

ALL PROPERTIES SPECIFIED BY API 6A


SAFE WITH ALL BOLTS
Tightened at correct torque
SEALS WELL
USE NEW GASKET RING

Usually BX 151,152, etc.. >


316 Stainless Steel
Gauge CHRISTMAS TREE
Top Flange

Swab/Crown Valve

Flow Cross
Choke

Wing Valve
Manumatic Valve

Master Valve

Tubing Head Adapter


CHRISTMAS TREE OPERATION with WHE
BUMP UP TOOL IN RISER
So as not to shoot tool up and break cable with pressure surge

SLOWLY OPEN VALVES


So as to not have pressure surge if differential is high
Wellhead Adapter
COUNT THE
So
NUMBER OF VALVE TURNS AND LABEL
as to not close valves on wire or tools once back at surface. Swab/Crown Valve

Flow Tee

Wing Valve

Tubing Head Adapter


NORMAL OPERATIONS
INFORMATION NEEDED FOR A JOB:

MAXIMUM PRESSURE EXPECTED


SWEET or SOUR SERVICE
WELLHEAD CONNECTION
TREE HEIGHT
CRANE HEIGHT ABOVE WELLHEAD
MINIMUM RESTRICTION IN TUBING
IF PERFORATING, UNDERBALANCE OR
OVERBALANCE ?
NORMAL OPERATIONS
CABLE DUCTILITY CHECK

MUST BE PERFORMED BEFORE BUILDING A NEW HEAD.


(Minimum once a month)
USE 10 OUTER and 10 INNER.
WRAP 5 ON, 5 OFF AROUND ITS OWN DIAMETER.
IF BREAKS ON, CUT SOME LENGTH. IF BREAKS OFF,
SUSPECT.
IF STRAND DIAMETER IS LESS THAN 25% ORIGINAL SIZE,
CUT SOME LENGTH OFF.
FINAL WEAKPOINT SELECTION DEPENDS ON CABLE
CONDITION.
NORMAL OPERATIONS
WEAKPOINT CALCULATIONS

MINIMUM WEAKPOINT =
3 X TOOL WEIGHT

MAXIMUM WEAKPOINT =

1/2 CABLE STRENGTH - CABLE WEIGHT


(figure out by deepest depth)
* Note:
Some Cased Hole Districts that shoot large
casing guns are using a Max Weakpoint valve of
2/3 CABLE STRENGTH - CABLE WEIGHT

ASK YOUR DISTRICT MANAGER!!!!!


NORMAL OPERATIONS
WEAKPOINT CALCULATIONS
Cables
1-23 P

.233 inch
1 conductor diameter

P = Ethylene
Polypropylene
Copolymer 300F

The most common armor material, Galvanized Improved Plow Steel,


(GIPS) - (Not for H2S use) zinc coated
H2S Resistant Alloys = MP35N Alloy > 35 % and HC265 Alloy < 35%
NORMAL OPERATIONS
WEAKPOINT CALCULATIONS

Ends fixed break strength is defined as the maximum tension in a straight


pull that a cable can withstand when both ends are fixed and unable to rotate.
An example of this is a truck towing a car when the tow cable is tied to both
vehicles and cannot rotate.
NORMAL OPERATIONS
WEAKPOINT CALCULATIONS

Ends free break strength is defined as the maximum tension in a straight pull that a cable
can withstand when one end is free and able to rotate. The lower portion of a cable with a
logging tool attached to it in a vertical cased hole comes close to this condition.
NORMAL OPERATIONS
WEAKPOINT CALCULATIONS (cont.)

Use 3 inner armors in building your


spider weakpoint. This is for anti-torque
reasons.
Remember you have to perform a cable
(DUCK) ductility test every time you build
a new weakpoint. (Min. once a month).
Use a new thrust washer every time you
build a spider weak point.
NORMAL OPERATIONS
NORMAL OPERATIONS
CALCULATIONS FOR A TYPICAL JOB

Determine the weight needed to get down hole.


Example: .23P line = 45# per 1000 psi well
pressure + 50# kicker
Determine tool weight
*Add weight bars if needed and combine total.
Calculate MIN. & MAX. Weakpoints
Determine Lubricator needed
(Cover the toolstring + 3 feet)
Determine Crane Height needed Lub Length + 20
feet (10 HGT,3 WV, 3 Top Sheave, 1Tree Flange,
3 misc.) + Tree height to crane base.
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS

LOST GREASE SEAL


STRANDED LINE
TOOLS LOST/STUCK IN HOLE
HYDRATE FORMATION
H2S
NIGHT TME OPERATIONS
TRAPPED PRESSURE
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
LOST GREASE SEAL

* CABLE SPEED IS TOO FAST


LOOSE GREASE TUBES
RAN OUT OF GREASE
LOSS OF AIR SUPPLY TO GREASE PUMP
CONTAMINATED GREASE
PUMP UNABLE TO KEEP UP
GREASE VISCOSITY TOO LOW/HIGH
PLUGGED/BROKEN INJECTION LINE
* # 1 reason for lost seal
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
LOST GREASE SEAL
What to do ?

STOP
INCREASE GREASE PRESSURE, IF LOST SEAL
CONTINUES:
CLOSE PACK-OFF
CLOSE GREASE RETURN LINE
FIX PROBLEM
START GREASE INJECTION AGAIN
OPEN GREASE RETURN LINE
RELEASE PACK-OFF
CONTINUE OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE
How to tell ?

WEIGHT INCREASES COMING OUT OF HOLE.


BOTTOM SHEAVE MAY JUMP UP and DOWN
VISUAL DETERMINATION
BUMP UP LINE, FEELS JUMPY
LOST SEAL SINCE GREASE HAS TO FILL UP
VOID SPACE OF LOST STRAND
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE
RELAY STRAND

>
STOP
MAKE PLAN OF ATTACK
CONFIRM STRANDING
LINE WEIGHT PICKS UP

>
VISUAL
CLOSE TOP WIRELINE VALVE FIRST
BLEED OFF RISER
If top WLV leaks, close bottom.
If bottom WLV insert inverted,
pump grease between two seals.
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE

>
RELAY STRAND (cont.)

BREAK THE RISER, LIFT TWO FEET


PLACE ON THE CORRECT CABLE CLAMP

>
SLACK OFF AND PULL DOWN CABLE
UNTIL YOU GET TO STRAND
REMOVE THE STRANDED ARMOR
RELAY THE STRAND
Use cutters and cut into direction of strand.
May have to bend tip a little.
File into direction of lay.
Finish with coat of DC-3.
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE
RELAY STRAND (cont.)

>
RETENSION THE CABLE
REMOVE THE CABLE CLAMP
LOWER AND REJOIN THE RISER

>
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE
RELAY STRAND (cont.)

>
START THE GREASE INJECTION
EQUALIZE THE PRESSURE ABOVE
THE CLOSED WIRELINE VALVE
OPEN THE WIRELINE VALVE

>
PULL OUT HOLE SLOWLY
MONITOR WEIGHT
ACKNOWLEDGE STRAND IS CLEAR
PULL OUT OF HOLE
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE
ADDING/REMOVING RISER

>
IF THREE OR MORE STRANDS OCCUR
YOU MAY NEED TO CUT THE CABLE
INSTEAD OF REPAIRING IT.
CUT THE CABLE BELOW THE STRAND
AT A GOOD SECTION.

>
NOTE: MAKES SURE YOU HAVE ENOUGH CABLE
LENGTH TO GET THROUGH THE HGT.
YOU HAVE TO REMOVE SOME OF THE
RISER SINCE THE LINE YOU ARE
FEEDING BACK INTO THE HGT IS
SHORTER.
BUT, ALWAYS LEAVE AT LEAST ONE
JOINT.
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE
ADDING/REMOVING RISER (cont.)

THREAD CABLE through FLOW TUBES

>
(THIS MAY BE DONE ON THE GROUND IF ENOUGH LINE IF PRESENT)

TIE A SQUARE KNOT IN THE CABLE ON


TOP OF THE HGT FROM THE DRUM
RETENSION THE CABLE

>
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE
ADDING/REMOVING RISER (cont.)

REMOVE THE CABLE CLAMP


REJOIN HGT/RISER

>
START GREASE INJECTION
EQUALIZE THE PRESSURE ACROSS
THE CLOSED WIRELINE VALVE
OPEN THE WIRELINE VALVE
PULL OUT ABOUT 100 OF CABLE

>
( BE CAREFUL GOING THROUGH THE TOP AND BOTTOM SHEAVES)
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE
ADDING/REMOVING RISER (cont.)

>
STOP
CLOSE TOP WIRELINE VALVE
BLEED RISER
BREAK RISER ABOVE WIRELINE VALVE

>
CLAMP THE CABLE AND SLACK OFF
REMOVE SQUARE KNOT
PULL GOOD CABLE THROUGH FlOW TUBES
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE
ADDING/REMOVING RISER (cont.)

>
REPLACE ALL NECESSARY RISER
RETHREAD CABLE THROUGH FLOW TUBES
TIE A NEW SQUARE KNOT
RETENSION THE CABLE

>
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
STRANDED LINE PROCEDURE
ADDING/REMOVING RISER (cont.)

>
REMOVE CABLE CLAMP
REJOIN THE RISER
START GREASE PRESSURE
EQUALIZE PRESSURE ON CLOSED

>
WIRELINE VALVE
OPEN WIRELINE VALVE
PULL OUT OF HOLE
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
TOOLS LOST/STUCK IN HOLE
IF TOOLS BECOME STUCK
TRY GOING BACK DOWN AND UP
DO NOT PULL OVER 75% OF THE SPIDER WEAKPOINT VALUE.
IF YOU HAVE TO PULL OFF, DO NOT DO IT AT NIGHT
BEFORE PULLING OFF :
CALL MANAGER
HOLD SAFETY MEETING
ALERT COMPANY MAN
CALCULATE CABLE BALANCE POINT
DETERMINE WHERE LINE WILL FALL
WAIT TILL DAYLIGHT
TURN OFF POWER ON RIG
CLEAR RIG FLOOR/ WELL AREA
PULL OFF
RELEASE ANY PACKOFF/LINE WIPER PRESSURE
INCREASE GREASE PRESSURE
CLOSE WELL WHEN LINE BLOWS OUT
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
HYDRATES
HYDROCARBON GAS HYDRATES HAVE THE
APPEARANCE OF SNOW / ICE LIKE PARTICLES.
THEY CAN FORM UP TO A TEMPERATURE OF 122 DEG. F
HYDRATES CAN MAKE EXITING A WELL VERY DIFFICULT
TOOL COULD HIT ICE PLUG
IS SEAL LOST, HYDRATES COLD FREEZE IN FLOW TUBES

SOLUTIONS:

PRESSURE TEST GAS WELLS WITH GLYCOL


(THIS WILL LOWER THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE
HYDRATES WILL FORM )
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
H2S
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), also called Sour Gas is poisonous which can
destroy the strength of the steel used in WHE, causing them to fracture
under pressure.
This is called SSC, (Sulfide Stress Cracking)
This embrittlement, (combination of H2S with water and Fe produces iron
sulfide (FeS) and free atoms of Hydrogen,(H++))
These free atoms (H++) combine with other free atoms to form molecular
HYDROGEN (H2), the molecular hydrogen is bigger than the atomic
hydrogen and exerts tremendous pressure against the steel structure, this in
turns can cause failure of the material.
NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers) MR-0175 defines:
Environment conditions were SSC is likely is designated Sour

Environment
The metal materials and requirements(heat treating) for resistance to

SSC.
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
H2S

USE H2S EQUIPMENT IN ALL WELLS WERE UNKNOWN


CONCENTRATIONS OCCUR.
SPECIAL BREATHING APPARATUS, (SCOTT AIRPACKS), ARE
TO BE USED IF CONCENTRATION IS > 10 PPM.
ANY PIECE OF EQUIPMENT THAT CANNOT BE POSITIVELY
IDENTIFIED AS H2S RATED IS NOT SUITABLE.
DRAIN HOSES FROM LUBRICATOR MUST BE CHAINED
DOWN AND AT LEAST 50 FEET AWAY.
SPECIAL H2S RESISTANT CABLES USED > 2 %
REGULAR CABLES TO BE USED WITH INHIBITORS IF < 2%
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
H2S
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
NIGHT TIME OPERATIONS

OPERATIONS INVOLVING SURFACE PRESSURES DURING


NON-DAYLIGHT HOURS PRESENT ADDITIONAL SAFETY
AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS
BASIC RECOMMENDATIONS:
NO FIRST TIME PRESSURE COMMUNICATION
FROM THE RESERVOIR TO THE WELLHEAD SHALL
BE INITIATED AFTER DARK, UNLESS APPROVED
SPECIFIC SAFETY CASE ALLOWS.
THE DESICISON TO DISCONTINUE WORK DUE TO
POOR LIGHT CONDITIONS SHALL BE TAKEN BY
THE ENGINEER/CREW SUPERVISOR IN CONCERT
WITH CLIENT REP.
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
TRAPPED PRESSURE

RECOGNIZING
Unusual amount or torque required to unscrew a component
Unusual sounds such as hissing and popping

COMMON LOCATIONS & CAUSES IN PERF EQUIPMENT


Pressure can be trapped between plugged perforation exit
holes in expended carriers due to:
Guns Fired in Heavy Mud conditions

Guns containing Zinc Case charges


Exemption Standard
Standard OFS-QHSE-S010
DEFINITION
Exemption: controlled temporary deviation from an
established Policy, Standard, Procedure or Work
Instruction.
RESPONSIBILITIES
Requested Line Manager must perform a risk assessment plan
by ensuring that:
Adherence to exemption is maintained

Enough lead time to review and approve of

Exemption and its details are thoroughly communicated

Exemption is logged into relevant databases

Exemption is closed out once no longer conducted

ACTION
Exemption approved or disapproved by Upper management