Business Ethics & Values

Chapter - 1

Meaning and Nature of Management
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims.
As managers people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling Management applies to any kind of organization It applies to managers at all organizational levels The aim of all managers is the same: to create a surplus Managing is concerned with productivity- implies efficiency productivityand effectiveness

All manage organizations for profit or satisfaction

"Leading versus Managing"?
A classic definition is that Leaders do the right thing and managers do things right. A more standard definition is usually something like managers work toward the organization s goals using its resources in an effective and efficient manner. A leader is interpreted as someone who sets direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction.

New Paradigm in Management
Driving Forces of Change:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

telecommunications has shrunk the world Increasing diversity of workers Public consciousness countries has joined the global marketplace Organizations became responsible to a wider community of stakeholders. As a result of the above driving forces, organizations were required to adopt a new paradigm, or view on the world, to be more sensitive, flexible and adaptable to the demands and expectations of stakeholder demands.

Managerial Functions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling

Managerial Functions
1) Planning including identifying goals, objectives, methods, resources needed to carry out methods, responsibilities and dates for completion of tasks. Examples of planning are strategic planning, business planning, project planning, staffing planning, advertising and promotions planning, etc. 2) Organizing resources to achieve the goals in an optimum fashion. Examples are organizing new departments, human resources, office and file systems, re-organizing businesses, etc. re-

Managerial Functions
3) Leading including to set direction for the organization, groups and individuals and also influence people to follow that direction. Examples are establishing strategic direction (vision, values, mission and / or goals) and championing methods of organizational performance management to pursue that direction. 4) Controlling, or coordinating: the organization's systems, processes and structures to reach effectively and efficiently reach goals and objectives. This includes ongoing collection of feedback, and monitoring and adjustment of systems, processes and structures accordingly. Examples include use of financial controls, policies and procedures, performance management processes, measures to avoid risks etc.

The Organization
The Three Basic Functions
Organization

Finance

Operations

Marketing

INDIAN ETHOS FOR MANAGEMENT
Indian ethos for management means the application of principles of management as revealed in our ancient wisdom brought forth in our sacred books like our Gita, Upanishads, Bible and Kuran. There are 6 basic principles, which come to light in the holy books applicable in today s management world. They are : Each soul is a potential God Holistic approach Equal importance to Subjectivity/Objectivity Karma yoga Yogah Karmasu Kaushalam Co operation

Each Soul is a potential God
A human being has a soul, a spark of the Divine. The divine resides in the heart of a person. The Divine means perfection in knowledge, wisdom and power. Therefore a human being has immense potential power or energy for self development. Thus human efforts can achieve even an apparently impossible goal and convert the impossible into a reality. The partnership of God and Man can bring about extraordinary or miraculous results.

Holistic Approach
Holistic approach in Management is based on spiritual principle of unity, oneness, non-dual or Advaita concept. Under this principle of unity, the universe in an undivided whole where each and every particle is connected with every other particle. Thus, entire Humanity is ONE. Such an integrated human personality of self-developed manager and worker can assure best and competent management of any enterprise, involving collective works and efforts. It will achieve perfection or excellence in whatever sector you work. This is the ideal of Indian ethos : Atmano Mokshartham Jagat Hitya Cha. (For gaining perfection in individual life, as well as for the welfare of the world.). This is the message for all managers and workers given by the Indian ethos for management.

Equal Importance to Subjectivity / Objectivity
Indian ethos for management distinguishes between subject and object. Subject is subtle and intangible. Object is concrete and tangible or visible. We have the concept of the third eye, the eye of wisdom. It can see even that which the normal two eyes cannot. It can see the intangible i.e. invisible. Human and ethical values or qualities such as courage, vision, social awareness, fearlessness, integrity, pure and clear mind, truth, etc. are subjective, subtle and intangible concepts. These subjective or subtle qualities are as important as money, materials, machines, information or data as well as human skills. Inner resources of human beings are more powerful than external resources. Creator is subjective. Creation is objective. Insight i.e., creator is more important than Outsight i.e., creation. Our body, senses, intellect, mind,etc., are objective, seen, tangible. But our soul atman is unseen, intangible, subtlest and subjective. Hence, wisdom manager/ worker is much more important and valuable than knowledge manager/ worker. Therefore, manager must develop his third eye, Jnana Chakhu , the eye of Vision intution, insight, foresight and such other divine qualities or values. This is the essence of Indian ethos for management. management.

Karma Yoga
It is yoga of selfless service to others. Karma Yoga is all about identifying your priorities and trying to achieve them. Also, a person should have accountability i.e. he should always hold only himself responsible for whatever goes right or wrong. This brings about the union of human being with the Divine. Gita says that do your duty without ego and without calculations of gain or loss. One should believe in Nishkama Karma i.e. fruits of work should not be thought of while performing the duty. The memorable words of Gita are To work only you have the right and you have no right to the fruits of work . However, this does not mean that one should work day and night and the returns that he gets should be almost negligible. What the Gita tries to say is that let not the fruits of action motivate you as they might just divert your attention from work. When you are doing a job, put your heart and soul in to it. One has no control over the future hence never waste your present in useless dreams of future hopes and fears of present actions. WHY DO I WORK? For my own salvation and personal growth. For the good of the world.

Karma Yoga thus is a good pathway for:
SelfSelf-purification and Self-development. SelfIndividual growth and welfare. Collective growth and welfare. Minimum play of passion, jealousy, hatred. Team spirit and Teamwork. Autonomous management, minimum control and supervision. management, Manager acts as a Mentor. SelfSelf-motivation. Perfection. All round happiness and prosperity. Skills and values united. Conflicts resolved by integration.

Yogah Karmasu Kaushalam
Yoga means excellence at work. Seek to perform your assigned duty or work in an excellent manner. Kaushalam denotes doing work with devotion and without attachment i.e. without being a work-aworkholic. Such detatched attitude enhances its values and improves the concentration and skill of the worker. You work with smartness, determination and ability. Your head, heart and soul co-operate with your hands. You do conot hanker over the fruits of action. You have no anticipation of reward, or personal gain. You become a tool of God to perform the work. Any work carried out with full concentration, dedication and with all abilities that a person has, becomes valuable and the person also becomes valuable to others as well as to society..

Co

Operation

Healthy competition is a powerful motivator for excellence and success, especially business success. The idea of cut-throat cutcompetition is founded on the concept of struggle for existence and survival of the fittest. Indian ethos says that for human beings the royal road is cocooperation as a powerful motive for team work. We are human beings having mind and power of discrimination. The Gita says : By co operation and mutual help all shall achieve the highest human welfare. Unity is strength. Even in the holistic approach, we stress the co-operation integration, cosynthesis and team spirit for extraordinary performance, for enduring harmony and peace, because in our hearts chamber is living the pure conciousness of the Divine.

Indian Ethos for Management
It is already becoming clear that a chapter which had a western beginning in business management will have to have an Indian ending, when the world adopts rich thoughts of Indian ethos and wisdom, if it is not to end in the selfselfdestruction of the human race .

SocioSocio-Political Enviornment on Business
Today, the business is operating in a highly turbulent socio-political environment where sociosocial demands and political laws are constantly changing. We are in the 21st century where management has to meet the demands of business and people by not just focusing on wealth creation for organisations but also by adding values to the system in which they are operating.

Business and the New World
There is a significant relationship between management and yoga. What Yoga does to the inner being of the individual management does to the outer life of the community. Yoga represent the essential genius of east and management represent the essential genius of western culture. Management is the mind of the business.

Business and the New World
The present management objective is based on economic, social, technical, and skill development of community measured in terms of values like productivity, efficiency, profit or wealth creation along with some soft values like quality, customer service and innovation. Management based on yoga aims at psychological and spiritual development of the individual and the community measured in terms of creativity, well-being welland self realisation. This, however, doesn t mean neglect of bottom line values like wealth creation and productivity.

In order to combine management with spiritual objectives.
A work culture which facilitates psychological and spiritual development. To provide each employee with work related to his temperament and caliber. To continuously enhance the creative potentialities of employees. Help employees to maintain balance between personal and professional lives. Provide training and motivational inputs for employees. Promote self development of employees and channelise it towards objective of the organisation.

Management challenges for the 21st century.
More and more people in the workforce and mostly knowledge workers will have to manage themselves. They will have to place themselves where they can make the greatest contribution; they will have to learn to develop themselves. They will have to learn to stay young and mentally alive during a fifty-year working life. fiftyPeter Ducker Management Guru

Management challenges for the 21st century.
With the current scenario the average working life for a knowledge worker is considered to be 50 years as they are likely to keep working till 75 or more in order to meet their present life expectations. But the average life for a business is around 30 years and in a period of turbulence as the one we are living in today, it is unlikely to be even that long. If companies wish to survive for long they will have to change their structure, their work, their knowledge and the kind of people they employ. Increasingly there workers will outlive the employer and will have to be prepared for more than 1 job or assignment.

Leadership, Spirituality and Creativity

Themes
The changing global context of leadership The need for global standards and norms Spirituality needed to create global norms What is spiritual leadership? Why spiritual leadership can emerge in India Spiritual Leadership as the source of imagination and creativity The challenges to creating spirituality Some practical steps individuals and organizations can take

The Context of Global Leadership
Leadership is no longer US centric, Western Europe centric, nor MNC centric Leadership is now global.
China 30 years of open economy India 60 years of independence; 17 years of truly open economy MNCs are from everywhere Influential states are not always the largest

Leadership deals with global systems, issues
Political terrorism, failed states, nuclear proliferation, immigration, military systems Economic global financial system, global sourcing, global environmental impacts, communications systems

A Global World Needs Global Standards and Norms
To have any semblance of stability, must have global norms Otherwise will lurch from crisis to crisis (ex. Failed states, financial, etc.) Areas for global norms
Governance political and corporate Accounting Environmental Ethical (human rights, corruption, etc.) Poverty Alleviation

Global Spiritual Norms and Leadership Require: Organizational Spirituality The Personal Spirituality of Individual Leaders

Shaping Spiritual Leadership
What is personal spirituality?
Compassion for others Comfort with diversity Commitment to equality Comfort with one s own identity, talents and weaknesses Comfort with the unsolved questions in one s life Ability to listen to one s intuition Respect for the autonomy and self-determination of selfothers, of democracy Ability to have fearless dialogue with others for mutual learning

Shaping Spiritual Leadership
What is organizational spirituality?
Commitment to and compassion for all stakeholders Understanding of organization as a collective project with many sources of leadership Passion for product quality. Appreciation for role of this organization in a democratic system Fearless dialogue with all stakeholders and critics for learning

Why Strong Spiritual Leadership Can Emerge in India
Democracy
India has experience with complexity of democracy no other country does

Diversity
India has every form of diversity faced in the entire world racial, religious, caste, wealth/poverty, etc.

Spiritual tradition
India has a deep spiritual and complex religious tradition in a secular world that must rediscover spirituality

Challenges for the Individual Spiritual Leader
Fostering one s own spirituality
Courage to be spiritual Steps on the path to spirituality Disciplines to maintain spirituality

Achieving selflessness / compassion
In a market economy built on self interest

Challenges for the Organization Seeking to be a Spiritual Organization
Defining this organization s spirituality Fostering spirituality in its members Accepting the personal spirituality of its leaders Harnessing the power of spirituality and creativity Operating in a global world of multiple spiritualities

Personal Steps
Personal introspection
Who am I? What is my What is my What is my What do I believe in? purpose in life? responsibility for others? role as a leader?

Personal disciplines
How do I free myself from the speed of life? When do I center myself on my purpose? How do I remind myself of how to approach problems? How do I build time for creativity into my life?

Organizational Steps
Open discussion and reflection on organization s values and purposes Development of a commitment to all stakeholders Encouraging personal spirituality in all leaders Openness to contributions from all members of organization Create dialogue with and learning from others in organization s life

Research: How Do People Define Spirituality?
a better relationship with God being in touch with God and His teachings a calmness in my life the essence of my personal being the evolution of my whole spirit spirituality involves: forgiveness, compassion, connectedness, hopefulness, meaning and purpose in life

What Makes an Organization Spiritual?
A culture, practices, policies and procedures that reflect spiritual values
Meaning and Purpose Wholeness Forgiveness Compassion Gratitude Humility Appreciation and Acceptance

Purpose Beyond Profit

Spirituality at Work Proposed Benefits:
Creativity Innovation Teamwork Individual resilience Loyalty Communication Ethical behavior SelfSelf-reliance, renewal Organizational commitment Personal growth Expression of talent Motivation, energy Conflict resolution Collective harmony

Spirituality at Work Research Outcomes:
Organizations that were described as more spiritual were also rated as showing greater:
Warmth Flexibility Caring Ethics

Spirituality at Work A New Way to Manage:
Organizational Support for Spiritual Development Programs to increase awareness Opportunities to share spiritual values (e.g., spiritual teambuilding) Spiritual leadership training - Structured activities (e.g., yoga, TM training, prayer groups, guest speakers, community involvement)

Spirit Centered, Rajarshi Leadership The Indian Model 
Based on vedantic concepts.  Vedanta is a science of reality rather

than a religious or philosophical dogma. It has an important role to play in the lives of people today. It provides philosophy of social service that is lacking in the modern society.

According to the model there are four goals of life: 
Dharma Rightful action
Is the urge to grow. It is the principle that guides a dutiful and responsible life. 

Artha - economic pursuits for self sufficiency
Economic independence this is an important pillar of moral life, as economic dependence creates a flaw in all aspects of life. 

Kama - satisfaction of desires (Physical or others)
It means people in society should be moral and not obsessed by the sensual desires which damage their psychological and physical health or the society. 

Moksha - release from delusion
The basic premise of Hinduism is the soul within a human is immortal.

Features of Model
It focuses on purity of mind It teaches person not to work for personal gains It balances the present with future. Self control and realisation is possible y developing awareness about the inner self Love should e impersonal No work is superior or inferior. The world is CREATION of supreme CREATOR.

Knowledge management
Industrial age: Up to 1960 s business world was dominated by industrial production. Those who produce more were considered successful businesses. Information age: 1960-1990 where technological 1960systems were considered as key components guiding organisation s business processes. Knowledge age: 1990 Work in business enterprises today is knowledge based. Human beings are considered as key components that continuously assess information assimilated in the technological system. For ex - Customer service is totally knowledge based.

Work ethics
Management is the process of getting things done thru other people. Includes Planning ,organizing, staffing n controlling.controlling.achievement of objectives. Work ethics is a characteristic attitude of a group towards what constitutes the morality of work. Working so that others reap the bulk of the benefits of the work.

Energy forces
2 kinds of energy forces that contribute to work ethics: Asuri sampat- demonic forces. sampatDaivi sampat- the divine forces. sampatThough both the forces contribute to work ethics, the divine forces contribute to work ethics in a more positive way. It brings more holy alliance of ethics in work place. These forces should be promoted at the workplace..

Managing ethics in work place provides following benefits:
Attention to business ethics improves society. Ethics help maintain moral course in disturbed times. Cultivate strong teamwork & productivity. Support employee growth Ensure that policies are legal Promote a strong public image Overall benefits of ethics programmes

Quality of Work Life and Work Ethic
Why work? To purify the mind and the heart (Chittashuddhi ) and to become wise; to (Chittashuddhi provide public benefit What is work? To nurture each other. It is a form of Yagna, sacrifice. It is the worship of Yagna, the Divine How to work? With the spirit of renunciation, i.e., Tyag and to serve others without selfselfinterest Spirit of work Excellence and perfection in work

Contd.
A broad definition of values, derived from an insight into ancient values, India s psycho philosophical wisdom literature is: Values are states of feelings/emotions that underpin the content of a choice/decision and determine the manner of using the intellect/reason for justifying and implementing that choice/decision. Character is the foundation of values. The sequence being: Character -> Values -> Attitudes -> Behaviour Human Values is the sum total of qualities like truthfulness, integrity, gratitude, humbleness, forgiveness, patience, transparence, charitableness, simplicity, etc. Human Values make a person Antarmukhi (interiorized) while skills will make him more and more Bahirmukhi (exteriorized). Human values transcend moral, ethical and spiritual values.

Indian heritage in production and consumption
India has a very rich cultural heritage, it was actually a well developed country in terms of economy &business. The Indian civilization was not only agriculture based but also there was flourishing trade n commerce. Indian business was unique innovative, dynamic& qualitatively superior to other countries of that time. British first came to India as traders which led to the establishment of their rule here.

Use of resources
Renewable resources: are those that are either totally replaced through natural process or are almost inexhaustible. For exex-Wind and solar power. NonNon-renewable resources: are resources which can't be replaced on consumption. For ex- coal, gas, and oil. ex-

Indian Business
Indian business used to be mostly need based ,with least focus on profit in its initial days. With passage of time ,it went through several transformations due to changes in customs & practice. Our dependence on the environment: We are living in the age of modern science and technology, and in this age ,most of the people are moving towards the urban society. Our production depends on availability of resources. Some of these resources are renewable. E.g. wood ,water .

Production and consumption system
Energy flows as heat only if there is temperature difference: The bigger the difference in temperature between two objects, the faster the heat energy flows between them. Energy as heat flows from higher temperature to lower temperature: Heat flow from the Sun to plants facilitates photosynthesis that helps in providing food for living beings. The greater the difference is the faster the energy flows.

Two fundamental flows in the environment
Flow of energy: Flow of energy is linear, moves in a line from source to link. The Sun provides a sources of energy that empowers natural production. Flow of materials: Flow of materials is circular moves round the food chains. Nutrients and other materials are continuously recirculated within and among ecosystems. Plants make food from soil, carbon dioxide and sun and we use it. Moreover, our material processing is linear rather than cyclical. That we extract resources , steadily depleting them.

Continued
We then use them to produce what we want for consumption. waste products are then simply dumped . Thus we have twin problems of resource depletion & pollution. A sustainable economy must be cyclical in its processing of materials, our economy needs to mimic sustainable natural processes, where one organism waste is another s food.

Environmental responsibility
There is a strong consensus that business has ethical responsibility towards environment that includes both humans and non-human world. A wide range of nonenvironmental responsibility of business includes taking care of issues like air, water pollution, toxic waste disposal etc. Business response towards environment can be studied under two heads: Responsibility to humans Responsibility to non-humans non-

Environmental responsibility
Responsibility to Humans: If the business dumps toxic chemicals into a river, it can held liable for any illness that results from use of that water for drinking or cooking purposes. Can be studied under two models: Liability model: It determines the limit of corporate liability once the business harm to society is proved. Regulatory model: Rather than compensating for the harm done to humans, this model requires business firms to meet a wide range of regulatory standards that aim at preventing environmental harm. Responsibility to non-humans: Business has responsibility nontowards non-humans like animals, plants and other natural nonobjects.

Unsustainable structure creates problems
Creating increasing environmental problems as its scale increases i.e the growth of such an economy aggravates its problems. The feature that determines economic scale in a linear economy is throughput : The volume of materials flowing from the environment (resource use); through the economy (human production, exchange & consumption), and back to the environment as wastes . Throughput in turn is determined by 2 factors The total human population Per capita resource use by each

Continued
In general developing countries are contributing the most to population growth. And developed countries continue to increase their per capita usage of resources. Our fundamental problem is growth of throughput .waste disposal becomes problem which leads to increasing pollution when natural system cannot absorb and recycle our wastes products.

Continued
These problems with the way we do business can also be characterized in ethical terms . They reflect the kind of problems we have seen in other context where self interest is not adequately balanced against the interest of others .specifically , our environmental problems are , for the most part , free rider problems.

Continued
The free rides we take at the expense of future generations are not confined to the depletion of nonrenewable resources, or creation of pollution problems . Damage to environmental services is also ignored in our pricing mechanisms . For eg: Timber extracted from a forest is typically priced simply as a commodity no costs are attached to the loss of forest as habitat , protector of watersheds , maintainer of microclimate or biodiversity storehouse.

Conclusion
Present ways of doing business are simply not sustainable . That is , our ways of doing business cannot be maintained into future generations . We cannot continue economic growth the growth in throughput that exhausts resources and increases waste disposal. Thus a sustainable economy requires For renewable resources , the rate of harvest should not exceed the rate of regeneration. The rate at which we allow economic activity to generate wastes that must be passed into the environment should not be allowed to exceed the environment s ability to absorb them. Finally ,our whole production and consumption process is dependent and directed by natural resources

Quality and Total Quality Management
Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. A philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction. The ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations

Dimensions of Quality
Performance - main characteristics of the product/service Aesthetics - appearance, feel, smell, taste Special features - extra characteristics Conformance - how well product/service conforms to customer s expectations Safety - Risk of injury Reliability - consistency of performance Durability - useful life of the product/service Perceived Quality - indirect evaluation of quality (e.g. reputation) Service after sale - handling of customer complaints or checking on customer satisfaction

The Consequences of Poor Quality
Loss of business: Customer quietly stops buying. Customer complaints rarely reach to the upper management. Liability: Due to damages or injuries resulting from poor quality (design, conformance, ease of use, service) Low productivity: Rework or scrap. More input but does not increase the output. High costs Costs of Quality Failure Costs - costs incurred by defective parts/products or faulty services. Internal Failure Costs: Costs incurred to fix problems that are detected before the product/service is delivered to the customer. External Failure Costs: All costs incurred to fix problems that are detected after the product/service is delivered to the customer.

Why do we need quality?
Quality makes customer happy Companies exist to delight the customer Poor Quality reduces productivity and increases costs. It is not quality that costs, it is all the things you do because you do not have quality in the first place. High technology and complicated products make quality a necessity. Computerization and automation increases standardization and quality levels. What technology makes possible today, it makes necessary tomorrow. [Kolesar 1991]

TQM
Creating an organizational culture committed to the continuous improvement of skills, teamwork, processes, product and service quality, and customer satisfaction . TQM stresses three principles: customer satisfaction, employee involvement, and continuous improvements in quality, which some refer to as the quality trilogy.

TQM is also said to be based on four fundamental commitments:
Commitment to the customer s total satisfaction Commitment to understanding and improving the organization s processes Commitment to employee improvement Commitment to data-based decision making data-

Contd.
Shared vision and values provide the foundation for making these commitments. Because the four commitments often require behaviour that is not customary to managers, in most organizations, unusual steps must be taken to ensure that workers and customers do not perceive the commitments as hollow promises. It is pertinent to note here that it is values and the value system that gives real meaning to TQM efforts. It provides the substratum or a solid foundation for TQM and elevating the capacity of people and organizations to produce extraordinary results on the basis of available material resources.

TQM
Total: Everyone associated with the company is involved in continuous improvement including customers and suppliers. Quality: Customer s stated and implied requirements are fully met. Management: Executives are fully committed. Should be able to understand the process and train other people in TQM and reports directly to the GM or CEO.

Quality Control
Q- Quality First U-User is King A-Avoid defect L-Long-term vision LongI-Innovation T-Training for all Y-Yearning for facts C-Cost Consciousness O-Optimal tolerance N- Nip the vital few T-Team work R-Respect humanity O-Operator in state of selfself-control L-Leadership from top.

Total Quality Management
A philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction. Continuous improving Involvement of everyone Customer satisfaction

The TQM Approach
Find out what the customer wants Design a product or service that meets exceeds customer wants Design processes that facilitates doing job right the first time Keep track of results Extend these concepts to suppliers

Elements of TQM
Continual improvement: Kaizen Competitive benchmarking Employee empowerment Team approach Decisions based on facts Knowledge of tools Supplier quality Quality at the source: The philosophy of making each worker responsible for the quality of his or her work. Suppliers

Obstacles to Implementing TQM
Lack of: CompanyCompany-wide definition of quality Strategic plan for change Resistance to a change Customer focus Real employee empowerment Strong motivation Time to devote to quality initiatives Leadership

Steps to implement TQM
Dr. W.E Deming one of the famous American quality experts went to Japan after the world war ii where he taught the Japanese the use of statistical techniques as a tool for quality improvement. The approach that he followed for the implementation of TQM was called the Plan-Do-CheckPlan-Do-Check-Action cycle or the PDCA cycle which is as follows:

The PDSA Cycle
Plan - it refers to product development .team must lay down the objectives, policies, and procedures of TQM, determine customer requirements adopt appropriate tools and techniques and educate and train the personnel to produce goods that meet customer requirements. Do - refers working according to plan. Starts manufacturing according to product development plans. Check - once the production process has started, check refers to finding deviations in outputs or inputs, finding the causes of deviations. Any problem detected and the solution which was implemented, find out whether the improvement was successful.

The PDSA Cycle
Action - if steps taken above prove to be successful, better quality level should be accepted and if steps have not proved to be successful, the PDCA, cycle should be repeated. Conclusion - PDCA, cycle aims at developing teamwork with respect to product development, manufacturing, sales and market research.

Techniques of TQM
Benchmarking - the purpose of benchmarking is to fill in gaps in firms performance by taking an independent look at it , comparing it with others and adopting the best practice being followed by competitors in all areas of operations. ISOISO-9000 it aims at providing an effective management systems to firms and their customers so that tasks are standardized, that is carried out in the same way irrespective of whosoever does them. It aims at providing consistent quality to customers. Just-inJust-in-time When firm wants to keep minimum stocks to avoid unproductive costs, this method aims at delivering the raw materials and components to the production line just in time when they are needed. Zero inventory or stockless production.

Techniques of TQM
Quality circles These are small groups of people consisting of 3 to 12 people who do similar work and meet voluntarily for about an hour every week to identify the problems and search ways to tackle them. Once the problem is solved they identify further problems and thus self-regulate their work. This method of selfTQM develops the quality products and also the individual. Deming wheel - aiming at full satisfaction of consumers, developed the PDCA cycle.

Techniques of TQM
Force field analysis means to implement change and allow organization development, force field analysis allows a team of individuals to identify forces that help and those that hinder in reducing gap between where the firm is and where it wants to be. helps to identify forces which have maximum impact on implementation of change and therefore to concentrate there efforts in those areas. Brainstorming where managers want to find solution to any problem, they use the method of brainstorming where they try to generate as many ideas as possible by encouraging all organizational members to contribute to the solution. This method breaks barriers between the departments & all levels of hierarchy & encourages everyone to develop their collaborative behavior which acts as a bond to strengthen their group skills.

What is Kaizen
Kaizen means improvement calls for never ending efforts for improvement involving everyone in the organization .has 2 major components: Maintenance: Maintenance function is to maintain current technological, managerial, and operating standards Improvement: Improvement aims at improving current standards

Stress & Indian Ethos
Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. More typically, stress is associated with constraints and demands. The word stress is derived from the Latin word Stringer which means to draw tight .

Selye suggested a three stage model.
1. Alarm stage the body familiarizes itself with the new situation or stressor (is a factor or stimulant that creates stress). In this stage the individual is under stress. (positive stress, achievement and joy in physical activity and managerial job ) 2. Resistance stage involves resisting and reaching to the situation. In this stage, an individual is in a fight situation the body prepares either to escape from the situation or to survive in it.

Selye suggested a three stage model.
3.Exhaustion stage it is the next stage of resistance ?if the resistance stage goes on for a long period , then the person becomes distressed- a negative stress distressedaccompanied by negative state like tension , helplessness, tension, headache. Another view given by Panels. Called it as burn out stress syndrome" (BOSS)

Causes of Stress
Mostly external and outside our control like Rapid obsolescence of skills, Uncongenial work environment, political and economic factors, etc. Stress generating events & situations in life partly controllable and partly not like Death of family member / close relative, Wedding, Retirement, Loss of Job, etc.

Causes of Stress
Mostly internal and by and large within our control. These are classified into (a) Strong negative emotions the 5 As of anger, ambition, anxiety, apprehension and arrogance. (b) Materialistic world view including a hedonistic culture that promotes crass consumerism and is sustained by some powerful unwholesome emotions like selfishness, greed, grabbing mentality, envy, etc. (c) Living an impure, illegal and unethical life ruled by the senses; for example having extra-marital relationship and being a victim of lust and extrapassion, engaged in shady corrupt deals and being a victim of easy money, etc. (d) Personality composition / make-up make(e) Interplay of duality that is a fact of life and human existence

Consequences of Stress
There is almost a common view that there are four components of the consequences of stress. These are: Physiological blood pressure problems, problems related to the heart, indigestion, insomnia, etc. These are termed nowadays as lifestyle diseases! Emotional anxiety, anger, depression, fear (phobias), etc. Behavioral over dependence, argumentativeness, disturbed work life/schedule, etc. Cognitive adverse effects on mental functions such as reasoning, thinking, concentration, and memory, and incapability in decision making

The Indian View on Stress
Ancient Indian literature does not talk about stress itself. Some of the terms used are bishad, klesha and dukh. Klesha refers to the stressor aspect. Our ancient literature does talk of tritap which refers to three kinds or rather sources of distress and miseries (dukhatraya) in human life, mainly Adhibhautika due to beings, i.e., wild animals, reptiles and cruel humans Adhidaivika due to Acts of God , i.e., natural calamities which are ordinarily beyond human control Adhyatwika relating to one s own body and mind, i.e., physical and mental illness Out of the three, those in the second group are factors outside our control, the first group may be avoided if we are careful enough and the third are by and large within our control. As can be observed, these are very similar to the Causes of Stress as already mentioned above.

Methods of Stress Prevention
Meditation Relaxation technique is a more powerful tool which an individual can use in order to avoid stress of daily life. Meditation can shield the persons from negative impact of stress. It was used by ancient Indian Yogies also known as Shivasan in which a person relaxes all his muscles starting from feet and moving towards the head. The mind gets submerged in Parabrahman and one feels totally content within oneself

Methods of Stress Prevention
As on the battle field of Kurukshetra, the Lord Krishna Propounded the same concept of Yoga. The Lord Advises Arjuna. tain vidyad dukha samy Yoga sa niscayena Yoktavya Yoga nirvinia catasa. This stage is called yoga which is totally devoid of fear, pair & misery. As also said by S. Radha Krishnan Yoga is more psychotherapy, than it is physiotherapy. Positive thinking also acts as weapons to get out of stress. Sleeping better also reduces stress.

Methods of Stress Prevention
(b) Laughter is the Best Medicine One of the quickest way of reducing stress. It works because laughter produces helpful chemicals in the brain which distracts the person from having a stressed mindset. (C) Brisk Walk and Self Analisation Going for a short walk outride especially in morning, breathing the fresh air leads to a change in environment which creates an atmosphere of relief as the person feels relaxed.

Methods of Stress Prevention
(d) Trip roving Diet When we our under stress we try to take junk food which is unhealthy as it is rightly said, Breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince & dine like a pamper . Drink Lot of water which is very essential for proper functioning of brain. (e) Exercise Exercise improves our physical condition which ultimately reduces stress, Involves Exercising daily in the morning, and better eating .

Methods of Stress Prevention
(f) Developing Self Confidence A large degree of our response to stress is dependent on our emotional feelings. If we are depressed & unhappy it leads to man of stress. On the other hand self confidence in our life helps to cope better with stress .

Managing Anger
The origin of anger is desire unfulfilled. Anger bursts are the results of frustrations and insecurities emanating from the same. What results is aggression against inanimate objects like furniture, glassware, etc., against animate beings like parents, friends, relatives, etc. and aggression against self like suicide. Anger could be both a cause and an effect of stress. There are two methods for dealing with anger. The Modern (Western) Approach which says accept & express and the Classical (Eastern) Approach which says deny & reject. There is almost complete unanimity among the psychologists that the classical approach is valid.

The Dwandik Theory of Stress
It is a contribution from The Gita which says that stress arises from the universal phenomenon of the constant interplay of dualities or opposites or contraries in the fabric of life of our existence both the outer/physical world (e.g., night and day or hot and cold) and the inner/psychological domain (e.g., pleasure and pain or success and failure). The Gita suggests two alternative approaches to deal with Dwanda or Dualities, Samattwa (i.e., treating the two as equal) and Nirdwandwa (i.e., transcending the dualities). The first approach suits the Bhakta and is called the Bhakti-Yoga while the second is for the BhaktiGyani and is called the Gyan-Yoga. The first approach Gyanis relatively easier.

A Few Guidelines
Stress is a reality of modern life; there is no escape from it. Our objectives should be how to: (i) increase the threshold level (between challenges & stress) (ii) prevent ourselves from becoming stressful (iii) effectively cope with stress so that we can soon revert back to the stressstress-free state. Practical steps need to be taken to attain these objectives. A few of these can be: Control anger by all means Exercise regularly Have good food habits Work efficiently but avoid competition with others Don t be a workaholic Look for sat sangh (company of wise and good people) Remember The Theory of Karma Be content with whatever you have

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