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Annealing , normalizing , quenching

martensitic transformation .

 heat treatment that alters the
microstructure of a material causing
changes in properties such as strength,
hardness, and ductility

 It the process of heating solid metal to high
temperatures and cooling it slowly so that
its particles arrange into a defined lattice

usually to room temperature .  Cooling or quenching .  In practice annealing concept is most widely used in heat treatment of iron and steals .  Holding or soaking at that temperature.Stages in annealing  Heating to the desired temperature .

toughness. 4. electrical. To relive or remove stresses 2. . To alter ductility . magnetic. To remove gases 6. To Refine grain size 5.Purpose of annealing  It is used to achieve one or more of the following purpose . 1. To produce a definite microstructure . To include softness 3.

Application  Annealing process is employed in following application  Casting  Forging  Rolled stock  Press work …. .

Types of annealing  Full annealing  Process annealing  Stress relief annealing  Re crystallization annealing . . and  Spheroidise annealing.

Resulting structure is coarse pearlite with excess of ferrite it is quite soft and more ductile  cooling rate of full annealing is 30-40 C .77% is heated to 723 to 910 C above A3 line convert to single phase austenite cooled slowly in room temperature . holding there for a time period and then allowing it to cool slowly in the furnace itself .Full annealing  Heating the steal to a temperature at or near the critical point . Example In full annealing of hypoeutectoid steels less than 0.

Full annealing .

drawing. forging.Process annealing  Process annealing is a heat treatment that is often used to soften and increase the ductility of a previously strain hardened metal . spinning. depending on the alloy in question. Ductility is important in shaping and creating a more refined piece of work through processes such as rolling. extruding and heading.  Example it is extensively employed for steel wires and sheet products (especially low carbon steels) A1 temperature and cooled at any desired rate  The temperature range for process annealing ranges from 260 °C (500 °F) to 760 °C (1400 °F). .

Process annealing .

the aim of which is to reduce the internal residual stresses in a workpiece without intentionally changing its structure and mechanical properties . Stress-Relief Annealing  It is an annealing process below the transformation temperature Ac1. with subsequent slow cooling.

Thermal factors (e.. Mechanical factors (e.g.g.g. Metallurgical factors (e.Causes of Residual Stresses 1.. thermal stresses caused by temperature gradients within the workpiece during heating or cooling) 2. transformation of the microstructure) .. cold-working) 3.

can be reduced only by a plastic deformation in the microstructure.S.  The more the yield strength is lowered.How to Remove Residual Stresses?  R.  This requires that the yield strength of the material be lowered below the value of the residual stresses. the greater the plastic deformation and correspondingly the greater the possibility or reducing the residual stresses  The yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength of the steel both decrease with increasing temperature .

whereas for hot-working tool steels and high- speed steels it is between 600 and 750˚C  This treatment will not cause any phase changes.  Machining allowance sufficient to compensate for any warping resulting from stress relieving should be provided . but recrystallization may take place.Stress-Relief Annealing Process  For plain carbon and low-alloy steels the temperature to which the specimen is heated is usually between 450 and 650˚C.

the local residual stresses must be above the yield strength of the material. quenching or rapid cooling is the cause of the greatest residual stresses  To activate plastic deformations. Stress-Relief Annealing – R.S. steels that have a high yield strength at elevated temperatures can withstand higher levels of residual stress than those that have a low yield strength at elevated temperatures  Soaking time also has an influence on the effect of stress-relief annealing .  Because of this fact.  In the heat treatment of metals.

 To remove coarse pearlite and making machining process easy .5% carbon and consists of heating the steel to temperature about A1 (727°C). Objectives  To soften steels  To increase ductility and toughness  To improve machinablity and formability  To reduce hardness . and wear resistance .  It forms spherodite structure of maximum soft and ductility easy to machining and deforming. At this temperature any cold worked ferrite will recrystallise and the iron carbide present in pearlite will form as spheroids or “ball up”.strength . Spheroidise annealing  The process is limited to steels in excess of 0. As a result of change of carbides shape the strength and hardness are reduced.

Materials  Spheroidzing is extensively employed for  Medium carbon steel  High carbon (tool steel) .

uniformly distributed. Normalizing  A heat treatment process consisting of austenitizing at temperatures of 30–80˚C above the AC3 transformation temperature followed by slow cooling (usually in air)  The aim of which is to obtain a fine-grained.2. ferrite–pearlite structure  Normalizing is applied mainly to unalloyed and low-alloy hypoeutectoid steels  For hypereutectoid steels the austenitizing temperature is 30–80˚C above the AC1 or ACm transformation temperature  Cooling rate 60-70˚C .

brine. oil. When only selected areas of the material are quenched. polymer. the process is called selective quenching . or even forced or still air.  There are two types of quenching – the first is cooling to obtain an acceptable microstructure and mechanical properties that will meet minimum specs after tempering.  This is usually done with water.Quenching  Quenching is the rapid cooling of metal or an alloy from an elevated temperature. Quenching is performed to control the transformation of austentite and to form the microstructure.  The second consists of rapid cooling of iron-base alloys and nonferrous metals to retain uniformity in the material.

Martensite is very hard and brittle. . The critical cooling rate is the slowest speed of quenching that will ensure maximum hardness (full martensitic structure). Martensite has a “needle-like” structure. The critical cooling rate is required to obtain non-equilibrium structure called martensite. oil).  Kinetics of martensite transformation is presented by TTT diagrams (Time- Temperature-Transformation). During fast cooling austenite cannot transform to ferrite and pearlite by atomic diffusion. Quenching  Soaking temperature 30-50°C above A3 or A1.  Martensite is supersaturated solid solution of carbon in α-iron (greatly supersaturated ferrite) with tetragonal body centered structure. This severe cooling rate will be affected by the component size and quenching medium type (water. then fast cooling (in water or oil) with cooling rate exceeding a critical value. With the quenching-hardening process the speed of quenching can affect the amount of marteniste formed.

the high temperature phase having the greater solubility.  Martensitic transformation is a reaction that takes place in some metals during the cooling phase causing the formation of the acircular structures called “martensite . needlelike pattern that can be observed in laboratory testing.  The amount of high temperature phase transformed to martensite depends upon the temperature attained in cooling. Martensite. formed by the transformation of austentite below a specified temperature. Martensite is also a metastable phase of steel. “Martensitic Transformation”  In an alloy. martensite is a metastable transitional structure between two allotropic modifications whose abilities to dissolve a solute differ.  Martensite is characterized by an interstitial supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron having a body-centered tetragonal lattice that resembles an acicular.

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