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IMPULSE TURBINE

SUBMITTED TO- SUBMITTED BY-


Mr.ABHISHEK CHAUHAN KANWALDEEP SINGH
SG12927
MECHANICAL 5THSEM
IMPULSE TURBINE
Impulse turbine is the one in which the
available hydraulic energy is first converted into
kinetic energy by means of efficient nozzle.
High velocity jet issuing from the nozzle then
strikes a series of buckets fixed around the rim
of wheel(runner).
The buckets change the direction of jet without
changing its pressure.
The resulting change in momentum sets
bucket and wheel into rotary motion and thus
mechanical energy is made available at the
turbine shaft.
PELTON WHEEL TURBINE
A pelton wheel is a free jet impulse turbine
named after the American engineer Lester
Pelton (1829-1908) .It is simple and the only
hydraulic turbine ,which operates efficiently
and is invariably used for heads in excess of
450m . Smooth running and good
performance are the other common features
of this unit.
DESCRIPTION OF PELTON IMPULSE
TURBINE
PENSTOCK- It is a large size conduit
which conveys water from high level
reservoir to the turbine . The penstock
may be of wood ,concrete ,or steel.
SPEAR AND NOZZLE-Nozzle is used to

convert hydraulic energy into kinetic


energy .Spear is so arranged that it
can move forward or backward there
by decreasing or increasing the annular
area of nozzle passage.
CASING-Casing is provided to prevent strong
splash of water ,which scatter in all directions
and to guide the water to the tail race.
This casing also acts as a safeguard against
accidents.

RUNNER WITH BUCKET- The turbine rotor,


called the runner , is a circular disk carrying a
number of cup shaped buckets which are
arranged equidistantly around the periphery of
the disk .
For low heads the buckets are made of cast iron
,but for higher heads they are made of bronze
,cast steel,or stainless steel.
BREAKING JET-when the nozzle is
completely closed ,the amount of water
striking the runner reduces to zero. But the
runner due to inertia goes on revolving for
long time . To stop the runner in short time ,
a small nozzle is provided which directs the
jet of water on the back of vanes . This jet of
water is called breaking jet.
GOVERNING MECHANISM
Speed of the turbine runner is required to be
maintained constant so that the electric
generator coupled directly to the turbine shaft
runs at constant speed under varying load
conditions.
Design of Pelton turbines
NUMBER OF JETS
Generally a pelton wheel has one
nozzle or one jet . However a number
of nozzles may be employed when
more power is to be produced with
the same wheel .The nozzles are
spaced evenly around the same runner.
Theoretically 6 nozzles can be used
with one pelton wheel.
Practical considerations ,however ,limit the
use of not more than 2 jets per runner for a
vertical runner, and not more than 4 per
runner when it is in horizontal position.
NUMBER OF BUCKETS
The number of buckets should be few as possible
so that there is little loss due to friction.
The jet of water must be fully utilized so that no
water from the jet goes waste i.e no water
escapes without striking the buckets .
Z=15+D/2d

DEPTH AND WIDTH OF BUCKETS


Width of bucket =5d
Depth of bucket =1.2d
JET RATIO
m represents the ratio of the pitch
circle diameter to the jet diameter.
(m=D/d)
For maximum hydraulic efficiency ,the
jet ratio lies between 11 and 15 and
normally a jet ratio of 12 is adopted.
A bulky installation results when a
larger value of jet ratio is adopted.
Its value is nearly equal to 12.
VELOCITY TRIANGLES
The inner velocity triangle is drawn at
the splitter and outlet velocity triangle
is drawn at the outer edge of the
bucket
H=net head acting on the pelton wheel
=Hg -Hf , where Hg=gross head and
hf=4fLV2/D*2g
Where D*=dia of penstock, N =speed of the wheel
in rpm
D=dia of wheel, d=dia of the jet
THEN V1=velocity of jet at inlet=sq. root2gH
u=u1=u2=3.14DN/60
the velocity triangle at inlet will be a straight line
where
Vr1=V1-U1=V1-u
Vw1=V1
POWER
WATER POWER-
The power supplied by the water jet is
called as water power, WP.
Power supplied by jet=wQH=pgQH
where Q is the discharge supplied by water
jet in cubic meter per sec,and H is the
net or effective head in .
BUCKET POWER-
The power developed at the turbine
buckets is called as bucket power,BP.
The power delivered by the bucket wheel is
=m(Vu1+Vu2)u
EFFICIENCY
OVERALL EFFICIENCY
=power available at the turbine
shaft/power available from the water
jet
n0= shaft power/water power=P/wQH
HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY
=work done per sec/k.e per second
nh=((Vu1+Vu2)u)/gH
VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY
=Volume of water actually striking the
buckets/total water supplied by the jet
=nv =Qa/Q=Q-q/Q
MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY
=shaft power/water power=P/wQaH