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Electrical Technology

(Licence A)

LO3. Apply the physical arrangements of
electrical supply, transmission, distribution
system’s and equipment



4 .1. Be familiar with and describe the energy conversion methods used to generate electricity and identify the by-products of each method.

however. For this reason. because of its requisites like huge land and water demand. usually in the order of several 1000 Watts. These are generally located at the sub- urban regions or several kilometres away from the cities or the load centres. along with several operating constraints like the waste disposal etc. a power generating station has to not only take care of efficient generation but also the fact that the power is transmitted efficiently over the entire distance. Conversion methods for the generation of electricity What is Power Plant? A power plant or a power generating station. At the centre of it. which is basically a rotating machine that is equipped to convert energy from the mechanical domain (rotating turbine) into electrical domain by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and the 5 . is basically an industrial location that is utilised for the generation and distribution of electric power in mass scale. nearly all power generating stations has an AC generator or an alternator. And that’s why. the transformer switch yard to regulate transmission voltage also becomes an integral part of the power plant.

Types of Power Station A power plant can be of several types depending mainly on the type of fuel used. Since for the purpose of bulk power generation. 6 . nuclear and hydro power comes handy. Let us have a look in these types of power stations in details. only thermal. therefore a power generating station can be broadly classified in the 3 above mentioned types.

bituminous coal or brown coal are used as fuel of boiler which has volatile content ranging from 8 to 33 % and ash content 5 to 16 %.Thermal Power Station A thermal power station or a coal fired thermal power plant is by far. the rotation of which results in the generation of electric power. the coal is used in the boiler in its pulverized form. To enhance the thermal efficiency of the plant. Generally in India. It uses coal as the primary fuel to boil the water available to superheated steam for driving the steam turbine. In coal fired thermal power plant. steam is obtained in very high pressure inside the steam boiler by burning the pulverized coal. This super heated steam is then allowed to enter into the turbine. as the turbine blades are rotated by the pressure of the steam. the most conventional method of generating electric power with reasonably high efficiency. The steam turbine is then mechanically coupled to an alternator rotor. The turbine is mechanically coupled with alternator in a way that its 7 . This steam is then super heated in the super heater to extreme high temperature.

Then this condensed water is further supplied to low pressure water heater where the low pressure steam increases the temperature of this feed water. 8 . it is again heated in high pressure. cold water at ambient temperature is circulated with the help of pump which leads to the condensation of the low pressure wet steam. the steam is made to pass out of the turbine blades into the steam condenser of turbine.Thermal Power Station After having imparted energy into the turbine rotors. In the condenser. This outlines the basic working methodology of a thermal power plant.

Advantages of Thermal Power Plants  Fuel used i. coal is quite cheaper.  Initial cost is less as compared to other generating stations.e. Disadvantages of Thermal Power Plants  It pollutes atmosphere due to production of smoke & fumes.  It requires less space as compared to hydro-electric power stations.  Running cost of the power plant is more than hydro electric plant. 9 .

As a result. propagates like a controlled chain reaction and is accompanied by unprecedented amount of energy produced. 10 . The fission reaction.Nuclear Power Station The nuclear power generating stations are similar to the thermal stations in more ways than one. the radioactive fuels are made to undergo fission reaction within the nuclear reactors. super heated steam at very high temperature is produced. the exception here is that. For the process of nuclear power generation. as this steam will further drive the turbine blades to generate electricity. However. the remaining process is exactly similar to a thermal power plant. radioactive elements like uranium and thorium are used as the primary fuel in place of coal. which is manifested in the form of heat. Also in a Nuclear station the furnace and the boiler are replaced by the nuclear reactor and the heat exchanger tubes. Once the process of steam formation is accomplished. This heat is then transferred to the water present in the heat exchanger tubes.

Disadvantages of Thermal Power Plants  There is always a chance of radiation hazard because of leakage in reactor chamber  Its disposals are not free from radioactivity 11 .Advantages of Nuclear Power Plants  Minimum fuel consumption.5 kg of Uranium to be consumed daily for getting same output. Initial cost is less as compared to other generating stations. . whereas in a nuclear power plant only 2.  The initial investment of nuclear power plant is quite high. It has been observed that for running a 1000 MW thermal power plant. nearly 6 × 10 6 kg of coal to be burnt every day.

Nuclear Power Station 12 .

 Hydro-Electric Power Station In Hydro-electric plants the energy of the falling water is utilized to drive the turbine which in turn runs the generator to produce electricity.81 m/sec 2. The hydraulic power is therefore a naturally available renewable energy given by the equation: Where. For this 13 . Rain falling upon the earth’s surface has potential energy relative to the oceans towards which it flows. H = height of fall of water. the hydro-electric plants are of much lower capacity compared to their thermal or nuclear counterpart. to convert it to equivalent electrical energy. This power is utilised for rotating the alternator shaft. ρ = density of water = 1000 kg/m 3. This energy is converted to shaft work where the water falls through an appreciable vertical distance. g = acceleration due to gravity = 9. An important point to be noted is that.

 It requires high transmission cost as the plant is located in hilly areas. water is used for generation of electrical energy. less maintenance is required.  It is neat and clean energy generation. 14 .  It helps in irrigation and flood control also. Disadvantages Hydro Electric Power Station  It involves high capital cost due to dam construction.  Construction is simple .  Availability of water depends upon weather conditions.Advantages of Hydro Electric Power Station  It requires no fuel .

15 .

By-products of electricity generation Climate effects (climate changed) have intensified and pushed research of alternative (also referred to as renewable) methods of generation of electricity. Notwithstanding the advances made and importance given to a shift towards the use of alternative sources of energy. Other conversion methods are available to countries having abundant supplies of water which makes hydroelectric power a feasible means of electric power production. Research is also actively going in other areas notably in the production of electricity by tidal energy and through biomass. the production of electricity still comes predominantly from fossil fuels and nuclear energy. The growth in the use of wind and solar power has been exponential. backed and aided undoubtedly. 16 . Fossil fuels are by far the more polluting but nuclear energy presents huge challenges for the proper and safe disposal of spent nuclear fuels and waste. by governments subsidies and favourable feed-in tariffs for units of electricity generated by the use of these alternative methods.

Global warming changes climate Human activity – mainly burning fossil fuels and chopping down forests – has caused temperatures to rise worldwide. The warmer atmosphere triggers climate change. timber and other 17 . adds to the problem. Gradually. Clearing forests worsens warming Chopping down vast swaths of forests. we release gases that heat our That’s global warming. Think of it like a thermal blanket around the Earth. patterns. Such fly or power deviations our canair-polluting homes with result in more severe sources. methane and other heat-trapping “greenhouse gases” into the atmosphere. known as clear cutting or deforestation. or shifts in normal When we climate drive. Burning fossil fuels does damage Burning fossil fuels such as coal or petroleum send carbon dioxide. Such drastic removal of trees is being driven by the agriculture. temperatures climb. The science is clear.

Storm surges rise higher.Changes breed intense weather Hotter air increases ocean evaporation. 18 . A warmer atmosphere also can hold more water. Blizzards bring more snowfall.  The number of natural disasters has doubled in the past few decades – 90 percent of them are weather related. which can intensify weather events. These intensified episodes can cause greater destruction to property and loss of life. Heat waves are stronger.

limate change’s effects plunder the planet 1. glaciers and sea and freshwater ice to melt rapidly. Melting sea ice exposes darker ocean waters. 19 . Melting glaciers and polar ice sheets contribute to unprecedented sea level rise. worsens weather and expands oceans These are some high-profile examples of how the extra warmth changes climate conditions and weather patterns:  The cryosphere – the frozen water on Earth – is melting. More heat melts ice. A warmer atmosphere causes the planet's snowpack. which absorb more sunlight than ice – heating the ocean more and triggering a relentless cycle of melting and heating.

The increased evaporation of water is like fuel for storms. droughts and wildfires intensify. Rising sea levels make storm surges capable of much greater damage. such as hurricanes. Meanwhile. The ocean is almost 40 percent more acidic than it used to be. 20 . nearly a third of carbon dioxide emissions end up in the oceans. and strips corals of their vivid colours. This shift causes the oceans to expand. triggering a chemistry change that makes the water more acidic.  The oceans are getting hotter. Weather is getting more extreme. They are getting hotter because they absorb 90 percent of the extra heat in the climate. Heat waves are more frequent worldwide. In more naturally arid areas. expanding and becoming more acidic. dissolving the shells of sea creatures. contributing to higher sea levels. exacerbating extreme weather events.

Smoke from wildfires further degrades the air.  Warmer. which reduce yield. Human life and prosperity suffer as the climate shift Our health. infrastructure and much more waver. A warmer atmosphere increases the formation of ground-level ozone – also known as smog – in polluted regions. diseases and pests. polluted air affects our health. Consider:  Climate change is a major threat to agriculture.2. economy. Farms are more likely to face attacks from weeds. Extreme summer heat means 21 more deaths during heat waves. farmers are struggling to keep up with shifting weather patterns and increasingly unpredictable water supplies. Where. livelihoods. Worldwide. Warmer freshwater . Smog irritates lungs and triggers asthma attacks. how and when we grow food is vitally connected to our climate's normal patterns.

put heavy burdens on electrical supplies and disrupt how we travel and commute. 22 . Hot weather. Infrastructure and transportation are at risk. flooding and other extreme weather events damage infrastructure.

making them inhospitable for some species. As sea ice disappears. ice-dependent mammals such as walruses and polar bears struggle to survive. Here are three well- documented examples:  The ice Arctic animals need is vanishing. 23 .3. Natural habitats become hostile to plants and animals Habitats on land and in the sea are changing. while letting others move in and take over. the polar bear became the first animal to be added to the Endangered Species Act list of threatened species because of global warming. Some ecosystems are at risk of collapsing. The changes to the natural world are vast. In 2008.

weak trees and thriving insects is likely the culprit behind the massive die-off of 181300 square kilometres of Rocky Mountain conifers. This cycle of warmer weather. Also. such as shellfish and coral. Coral and shellfish are suffering. their collapse would disrupt the entire ecosystem. may not have enough calcium to grow. Meanwhile. trees weakened by prolonged drought have lower defence mechanisms. and the corals eventually starve – an event known as bleaching. As coral reefs are home to many other species.  Coral reefs are highly sensitive to small changes in ocean temperatures. meaning creatures with calcified shells. a more acidic ocean affects the normal calcium balance.  Forests are more prone to deadly infestations. Milder winters and longer summers allow tree-killing insects to thrive. The heat stresses the algae that nourish the corals and provide their vibrant colours. The algae then leave. such as fish. 24 .

Both photovoltaic panels and wind turbines have a big impact on the visual aspect of the environment. where the available land area is small and most of what is left is pristine virgin land. Since the average insolation (light energy from the sun at ground level) is only approximately 200W/m2 this means that 1 m2 of area is required to generate 40W. In the case of Malta. This means that in order to generate 1MW an area of approximately 25000 m2 is required.It is also important to point the environmental impact of some of the renewable sources of energy especially solar and wind power. 25 . But for better conversion efficiency PV panels should track the sun and in this they need to be installed high above the ground. the option of generating electricity from solar energy is a difficult. Also the conversion efficiency of PV panels is quite low (the better ones are not more than about 20%). Admittedly PV panels are normally installed at ground level and at a shallow inclined angle. For this reason PV panels are being installed on the roof of buildings in built-up areas. It is highly unlikely that any solar farms can ever materialise.

In Malta various sites (including a couple in territorial waters) have been considered by the authorities where wind farms capable of generating a few megawatts of power could be installed but none have materialised and it is doubtful whether any will ever materialise. sufficient land area is available to makes electricity generation through wind a viable option. albeit small countries. unlike PV panels. have to installed away from built-up areas. by wind power. Again to generate any significant amounts of energy.Energy conversion through wind power is also aesthetically a very sensitive option. Other countries in Europe. have installed wind farms but. requires a substantial footprint but in this case the noise factor is an additional unwanted ‘by-product’ and therefore wind turbines. notably Denmark and Wales. 26 .

Africa.Supply Standardisation: The electrical supply found in most of Europe. Australia and New Zealand is nominally 230V (+/. Asia. 27 .1%).6%) at a frequency of 50Hz (+/. Supply standardisation is important in order for countries to be able to connect to the grid and trade their electricity supply. The European Union has harmonised its voltage supplies so that now the standard within the EU is 400/230V +/-10% at 50Hz. On the other hand North America. Japan and Taiwan use a voltage between 173/100 and 220/127V at 60Hz.

switchgear and protection systems and identify the transmission voltages used.2. 28 . Explain how electricity is transmitted and describe the operation of power transformers.

Transmission of Electrical Power: The electricity generated
by the generating station needs to be transmitted and
distribution to the various utilities that utilise electricity as their
main form of energy. A simplified schematic of the electricity
network is shown in figure below:

A main component of the transmission network is the power
transformer. It’s main purpose is twofold: to step-up the voltage
to a higher value which is more suited for transmission and then
to step-down the voltage which is more suite to distribution and

Generators, frequency control, three
phase distribution

A power generator consists of an electromagnet (rotor) which is
rotated directly by the turbine shaft. Each revolution of the
turbine turns over the generator once. The rotor is surrounded
by stator coils in which the moving rotor induces a voltage that
will ultimately be delivered to the consumer.
The generator's electromagnetic rotor  is  d.c. controlled and
since the rotor's currents are lower than those in the stator
coils, it is easier to engineer the moving contacts (the slip-rings
and brush-gear) which are needed to power or
"excite" the rotor.


If the voltage is plotted against the angle of rotation, then the
stator voltage peaks at 90 degrees of rotation, falls back to zero
after 180 degrees and then peaks in the reverse direction at
270 degrees before completing a full cycle at 360 degrees.
Because it delivers alternating voltage, this generator is
more correctly called an alternator. (A dynamo produces
a d.c. voltage instead.)


In fact three coils are spaced at 120° apart and the coils are designated by a colour code familiar to every electrician: 32 . several stator coils are deployed so that multiple sine wave voltages are generated per revolution.To get the most out of each revolution of the rotor.

It can be seen that the voltage in the blue phase is 120° behind the yellow phase. which lags 120° behind the red phase. This simplified approach assumes that there is only one pair of magnetic poles on the 33 spinning rotor. although the three phases will always be 120° apart.75kV (15. and the overall result can be plotted as a three- phase voltage. the voltages induced in the stator coils will occur more frequently.The generator windings produce foe example. By increasing the rotor's speed.750V) between the phases. Obviously each stator voltage will rise and fall as the rotor passes by. . 15.

If the rotor spins once per second. voltage generated in each phase will have a frequency of 1 Hertz (1 Hz).5 .1% (i. then the a. 49. The frequency of the generated voltage is calculated by:   or   The statutory limits defined in the Electricity Supply Regulations of 1937 are 50 Hz. The turbines operate at this speed. +/.e. changing polarity every half second. 34 .c.50.5 Hz)  although the National Grid (NGC) strives for a variation of no more than 0.1%  as best practice. 24 hours a day for months on end.

. All power plants interconnected by the National Grid can be considered as part of an enormous "pool" of electricity hooked together on an "infinite busbar". the frequency of the existing "pool" would easily dominate the generator of the 35 newly-connected power plant. Great effort is made to maintain this value and to eliminate cumulative errors in the consumer's supply. which might otherwise affect electric clocks. but was then hooked in later. If at this time a small isolated power station was not connected to the busbar. Every power station thus connected operates at this frequency. which runs at a set frequency.Frequency Control The frequency of the voltage is the power station's ultimate yardstick of quality. audio equipment etc. in order to enable frequency-sensitive equipment to catch up (or slow down). The net result is that all parts of  . and any minor change in frequency is compensated for later on. and frequency itself plays a much more fundamental role in the country's entire electricity system than may generally be realised. time switches.

The operating frequency of the rest of the grid is thus physically applied to an individual generator. which is undesirable. in what is effectively a contest of wills. If the overall amount of generated power is insufficient to meet the demands placed on the system by consumers. Hence the challenge is to supply just enough fuel to the turbines to ensure that the generator runs at the prevailing system frequency adopted by the rest of the grid. Since a generator's stator is synchronised to its rotor (and turbine shaft). Hence the frequency would start to fall. The system frequency can therefore be best controlled by 36 . then every turbine/ generator on that system will tend to slow down because insufficient input energy is being supplied. Any increase in the fuel supply will not necessarily cause the turbine to run any faster. because the generator is already synchronised or locked to the frequency of the grid: instead the turbine will simply be "loaded". it is necessary to ensure that a gas turbine runs at a speed which enables the generator's frequency to be matched to the rest of the grid.

The voltage output of a generator is directly related to the rotor voltage .e. which is controlled by  a complex automatic voltage regulation (AVR) system. the excitation voltage. 37 .Voltage Control The other key parameter is of course voltage. For consumers. the statutory limits on their 230V [UK] supply is +/.i.6%. Unlike the system frequency. Every aspect of the generator and the turbine's performance is constantly monitored by the power plant's fully computerised control room. the voltage levels can vary in different parts of the transmission system.

and this same theme is used all the way through to the end-user's premises. yellow and blue . the generator outputs 15.75kV and is rated for more than two hundred megawatts. 38 .red.Onward transmission The next part of the electricity generation process relates to the way in which the power generated in the stator coils is transmitted to the user.are carried outdoors from the generator using large ducts which resemble pipelines. Typically. These pipes are pressurised in order to prevent corrosion or water ingress. The three phases . The ducts are also colour coded to identify the phases.

one can image the nightmarish problems of trying to switch many thousands of volts. The switchgear concerned must be able to withstand not only their full loads but six-fold overloads which occur when motors are starting. 39 .500 Volts peak across the contact terminals.One major problem is. they must be capable of carrying or interrupting fault currents and must also cope with 17. how to actually switch such high magnitudes of voltage? Since these extremely high potential voltages can arc across considerable distances.

40 . These are spring-loaded and motor driven and are designed to quench the high tension arc which develops between opening contacts.The solution lies in the use of special gas-filled circuit per generator .for onwards transmission to the National Grid. Earlier types used oil- filled contacts or compressed air to snuff out the arc.75kV (phase-to-phase) generator voltages are stepped up to 400kV by an external transformer . The compound sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is used which is 6 times less conductive than air. The 15.

The large transformers are oil-cooled in order to aid heat dissipation. oil is circulated by pumps and heat will be exchanged with a water-filled coolant circuit. 41 .  In the largest types.

or contacts starting to burn out). say.In the event of a transformer internal failure (e. hydrogen is one of the first gases to be produced. Ultimately the oil can be drained and then the fault can be repaired. More accurate tests of oil samples are also undertaken and other gases such as acetylene can be measured over.g. a month and a good estimate made of the nature of an internal fault. so by using a Hydran to test for this gas any trends can be spotted at an early stage. A device known as a Buchholz relay is used as an automatic switch that responds to increasing levels of gas build-up in the oil. 42 . winding shorts.

 Cost insulation on the cables. Normally the generating station output voltage is normally stepped up 274kV or 400kV for transmission. switchgear and isolators. Some issues to be considered are:  Cost of transformer operating at higher voltages.  The actual distances to be covered. There is however a trade-off between the actual value used and it has to do with economics of the network. These high voltages are used since for the same transmission losses a higher voltage requires a conductor whose cross-sectional area is less than if a lower transmission voltage were used.  Cost of switchgear and isolators rated to operate at higher voltages.  Cost of copper saved in the thinner transmission cables.Transmission Voltages: The transmission voltages used are determined according to the ‘economic voltage’ for the line. 43 .

44 . The primary consideration in the comparison of competitive system in cost but the case of maintenance. vulnerability to damage and public service must also be taken into account. Among the different types of transmission systems are overhead systems and cable systems.

Voltage KV Cost of O/H Cost of Ratio Line U/G Cable ( ( §/Km) §/Km.) 400 34 615 18 220 17 217 13 132 6.Comparative “Cost per Mile” for Transmitting a given amount power using overhead line and under ground line.5 55 8 45 .

735.C. 345. high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission is also become popular in some countries. 46 . 287. Recently by virtue of its various advantages over A. Voltages above 765KV are called ultra high voltages (UHV).Three main problems associated with EHV. is better for generating and distributing point of view but D. is preferable for transmission over long distances. 380. A. 1100KV etc.C. The various voltages adopted by different countries above 230KV are 275. systems. 400. Two main problems are involved which limits the large amount of power to be transmitted over long distances by A. line insulation and equipment insulation. transmission. 500.C. namely radio interference.C. The first is the technical limitation and other is the economic consideration and usually later governs the final choice of design.

The number of circuits in EHV system can be one or two.6 Up to 16 3 11 Up to 64 3 33 Up to 116 3 66 Up to 240 3 132 Up to 480 3 220 Up to 800 3 400 47 . Table for Voltage Selection Distance (km) Number of Standard phases operating voltage (kV) Up to 8 3 6. While selecting the transmission voltage the present and future expectable voltage of other lines in vicinity of the line under design are taken into account.

9 (lagging) 48 .Empirical formula is given by   Where. VL = Transmission line voltage in KV L = Length of line in km P = Power to be transmitted in MW NC = Number of circuits cos ϕ =Power Example: factor of load L = 300Km   P = 280MW NC = 1 cos ϕ =0.

less insulation cost is involved in DC transmission system. It is further possible to use only one conductor of DC transmission system if earth is utilized as return path of the system. phase displacement and surge problems can be eliminated in DC system. where the losses due to AC (especially due to the relatively high capacitances involved since the separation distance between cables is very small) outweigh the economic gains that can be made and DC is the better option.  Inductance.  The potential stress on the insulator of DC transmission system is about 70 % of same voltage AC transmission system. 49 .Transmission of electricity can also be carried out using DC. capacitance. Hence. There are some advantages in using DC transmission system:  Only two conductor are required for DC transmission system. There are special circumstances. like submarine transmission.

 Problems of skin effects and proximity effects only found in AC system. which is not possible in DC transmission system. generally electrical energy is transmitted by three(3) phase AC transmission system.  The reactance of the line.  The volume of conductor used in AC system is much higher than that of DC.  Construction of AC electrical power transmission network is more completed than DC system. The alternating voltages can easily be stepped up and down. 50  Proper synchronizing is required before inter connecting two . Maintenance of AC substation is quite easy and economical compared to DC. affects the voltage regulation of electrical power transmission system.Even having these advantages in DC system.  AC transmission system is more likely to be affected by corona effect than DC system. The transforming of power in AC electrical sub-station is much But AC transmission system also has some disadvantages like: easier than motor-generator sets in DC system.

Power and Auto-Transformers Principle of operation and construction: The basic construction of a transformer is shown in figure below: 51 .

Then we can say that transformers work in the “magnetic domain”.A transformer operates on the principals of “electromagnetic induction”. and transformers get their name from the fact that they “transform” one voltage or current level into another. without modifying its frequency. Mutual induction is the process by which a coil of wire magnetically induces a voltage into another coil located in close proximity to it. or the amount of electrical power being transferred from one winding to another via the magnetic circuit. Transformers are capable of either increasing or decreasing the voltage and current levels of their supply. in the form of  Mutual Induction. 52 .

A single phase voltage transformer basically consists of two
electrical coils of wire, one called the “Primary Winding” and
another called the “Secondary Winding”. Normally, we will
define the “primary” side of the transformer as the side that
usually takes power, and the “secondary” as the side that
usually delivers power. In a single-phase voltage transformer
the primary is usually the side with the higher voltage.

These two coils are not in electrical contact with each other but
are instead wrapped together around a common closed
magnetic iron circuit called the “core”. This soft iron core is not
solid but made up of individual laminations connected together
to help reduce the core’s losses.

The two coil windings are electrically isolated from each other
but are magnetically linked through the common core allowing
electrical power to be transferred from one coil to the other.
When an electric current passed through the primary winding, a
magnetic field is developed which induces a voltage into the 53

Transformer Construction (single-phase)

  VP  -  is the Primary Voltage
  VS  -  is the Secondary Voltage
  NP  -  is the Number of Primary Windings
  NS  -  is the Number of Secondary Windings
  Φ (phi)  -  is the Flux Linkage

A Transformers
Turns Ratio
Transformers are all about “ratios”. The ratio of the primary to
the secondary, the ratio of the input to the output, and the turns
ratio of any given transformer will be the same as its voltage
ratio. In other words for a transformer: “turns ratio = voltage
ratio”. The actual number of turns of wire on any winding is
generally not important, just the turns ratio and this relationship
is givenAssuming
as: an ideal transformer and the phase
angles:  ΦP ≡ ΦS

Assuming an ideal transformer and the
Power:  PP ≡ PS


Small single phase transformers may be rated in volt-amperes only. and units of Mega volt- amperes. (kVA) where 1 kilovolt- ampere is equal to 1. (MVA) where 1 mega volt-ampere is equal to 1 million volt-amperes. (VA). they are constant wattage devices and do not change the power only the voltage to current ratio.Electrical Power in a Transformer Another one of the transformer basics parameters is its power rating. I will remain constant.000 volt-amperes. in an ideal transformer the Power Ratio is equal to one (unity) as the voltage. but much larger power transformers are rated in units of Kilo volt-amperes. The power rating of a transformer is obtained by simply multiplying the current by the voltage to obtain a rating in Volt- amperes. V multiplied by the current. 56 . Thus. In an ideal transformer (ignoring any losses). the power available in the secondary winding will be the same as the power in the primary winding.

to the same voltage/current level on the secondary side.That is the electric power at one voltage/current level on the primary is “transformed” into electric power. so that the output power is always 57 at the same value as . when a transformer steps-up a voltage. it steps-down the current and vice- versa. Thus. at the same frequency. it cannot step-up power. Although the transformer can step-up (or step-down) voltage.

If the voltage was increased by a factor of 10. the current would decrease by the same factor reducing overall losses by factor of 100. let’s say doubling ( ×2 ) the voltage would decrease the current by the same amount.Power in a Transformer Where: ϕP is the primary phase angle and ϕS is the secondary phase angle. ( ÷2 ) while delivering the same amount of power to the load and therefore reducing losses by factor of 4. 58 . increasing the voltage. that is: I2R. Note that since power loss is proportional to the square of the current being transmitted.

hence the name. also known as I2R loss is the electrical power as a result of circulating the currents around the transformers copper windings. Copper losses. they do not reverse until the flux has 59 . transformers do suffer from other types of losses called “copper losses” and “iron losses” but generally these are quite small. in response to the alternating magnetic flux. Copper losses represents the greatest loss in the operation of a transformer.Transformer Basics – Efficiency A transformer does not require any moving parts to transfer energy. However. This lagging (or out-of-phase) condition is due to the fact that it requires power to reverse magnetic molecules. The actual watts of power lost can be determined (in each winding) by squaring the amperes and multiplying by the resistance in ohms of the winding (I2R). also known as hysteresis is the lagging of the magnetic molecules within the core. This means that there are no friction or windage losses associated with other electrical machines. Iron losses.

Transformer Efficiency     Transformer Efficiency at load factor n   60 .

61 .

In the shell type the 62 . LIMB YOKE In the core type construction the windings can be wound on the same limb or spread over two limbs.Single phase transformers come in two configurations: the core type and the shell type. In the latter case the two limbs each carry half of each winding.

There are two types of construction as shown in figure below.The windings are wound so that they are as close to each other as possible to minimise the leakage flux. In the sandwich type the windings are wound alternately as shown in the same figure below. 63 . In the concentric the one winding is wound first and the second winding is wound on top of it.

64 .

65 .

Three phase high voltage transformer 66 .

The same equations as for the normal transformer apply so that: 67 .Autotransformer The main difference from the normal double wound transformer is that the auto-transformer has only one winding as shown in figure below.

The schematic of the auto- transformer in figure above shows that a number of trappings are available to enable the secondary voltage to be varied. the same number of turns and cross-sectional area are required whilst the auto-transformer requires only one. practically. Auto-transformers are normally employed where the change between primary and secondary voltages are small.The one important advantage of the auto-transformer when compared with the double wound transformer is the reduction in cost and weight due to the fact that only one winding is used. In this case the cost and weight saving is maximum since in the double wound transformer two windings of. Note also that the auto-transformer can be constructed as either a step-down or step-up transformer (turns ratio is what determines the type of operation). 68 .

 As motor starter in manufacturing industries. then should winding develop a short across its windings. the primary high voltage may appear at the secondary with risk of damage to the equipment or electric shock to personnel. 69 .The major disadvantage of the auto-transformer is that since only one winding is used if the auto-transformer is used for high voltage transformation.  In industry to adapt machinery to operate from one voltage to another (for instance from 480V to 600V).  To convert between the two common domestic supply voltages (100/160V to 200/250V).  On long rural distribution lines to regulate the voltage by using a higher tapping voltage to compensate for voltage drops. that is the primary voltage is much higher than the secondary. Auto-transformers are used:  In transmission systems to convert from 132kV to 66kV.

Switchgear almost always incorporates some protection against overcurrent caused by faults like breakdown of insulation between conductors. The following is a brief description of each: 70 . due to bad. Switchgear can be divided into four categories: switches. Other fault conditions that require protection are earth leakages. may pose a life threatening situation if the leakage current is not high enough to cause the overcurrent protection circuit to trip. which may also cause overcurrent but. contactors and circuit breakers. isolators. more serious. short circuits at the load or sudden increases in the load.Switchgear and Protection systems: Switchgear: Switchgear is required in an electrical circuit so that it can provide a means of interrupting or restoring the flow of current for control purpose. faulty or damaged insulation.

The interruption mechanism is generally electromagnetic in nature. 71 . The may be a dangerous situation for the operating personnel.Circuit Breaker: The circuit breaker is meant to open or close a circuit under all current conditions including abnormal overcurrent situations like short circuit. In most applications circuit breakers employ some protection mechanism that will trip the breaker (interrupt the current) in the event of short circuit. earth leakage and even under-voltage. Under-voltage protection is especially important in applications where the circuit supplies a motor as in this case the motor may start inadvertently once the mains supply is restored. overload.

Switch: The purpose of the switch is to operate as a mechanical device capable of opening or closing a circuit when under normal load conditions. Its design must be such that arcing at the contacts is mitigated. 72 . For light loads switches are usually air-break while heavy loads require oil-immersed switches.

Isolators: The isolator is not a switch as it is not meant to be used under load conditions. An isolator does not have provision for quick make-and-break operation. It is used to ensure that an electrical circuit is completely de-energized for service or maintenance 73 .

the contacts are moved under the influence of an electromagnetic device. 74 . unlike the switch.Contactor: A contactor is also meant to open or close a circuit under load conditions but. The operator pushes a pushbutton which energises the electromagnetic which in turn pulls or releases the mechanism that moves the contacts.

It is designed to heat and melt. Fuses are normally classified by application or their various specified ratings.Protection: Protection is included in circuits to provide a means of breaking the circuit (interrupting the flow of current) whenever a fault condition arises so that the circuit is protected and damage is limited only to the part where the fault exists. thus breaking the circuit. when the current reaches a pre-determined level. The following is a list of protective devices:  Fuse: A fuse is an intentional weak link in the circuit. Normally the quoted specifications include: 75 .

In this case the fuse does not blow due to the initial current surge but only breaks if the current remains high.5 times the current rating (this is also identified by the Class type). o Operating Voltage: The voltage of operation is important since when a fuse blows the circuit voltage appears across the fuse and if the operating voltage rating of the fuse is too low for the circuit in which it is used it may arc and current still continue to flow). A fast acting fuse is preferable in cases where the current flow is more regular and there are no initial surges so that if a fault current arises the current breaks the circuit in the least possible time. o Rated minimum fusing current: this is the minimum current at which the fuse will blow in a specified time. 76 .o Current rating: the current that the fuse is designed to carry without breaking. o Time (Slow Blow or Fast Acting): A slow blow fuse is normally used in circuits where the current on switch on is initially high but during operation it decreases rapidly.25 and 2. It may vary between 1.

Fuses should preferably be of the cartridge type. semi-enclosed fuses to BS 3036 are still permitted for use in domestic and similar premises if fitted with a fuse element which. However. meets the requirements of Table 53.o Semi-enclosed fuses. in the absence of more specific advice from the manufacturer.1. 77 .

a fuse element and a fuse carrier (the holder and carrier being made of Porcelain or Bakelite). The circuits for which this type of fuse is designed have a colour code. holder.A rewirable fuse consists of a fuse. which is marked on the fuse holder and is as follows: 45 A – green 30 A – red 20 A – yellow 15 A – blue 5 A – white 78 .

DISADVANTAGES OF SEMI-ENCLOSED FUSES ● The fuse element may be replaced with wire of the wrong size either deliberately or by accident. The fuse element weakens with age due to oxidization. ● It is easy to identify a ‘ blown fuse ’ . ● There are no mechanical moving parts.ADVANTAGES OF SEMI-ENCLOSED FUSES ● They are very cheap compared with other protective devices both to install and to replace. ● They have low-breaking capacity since. in the event of a severe fault. ● The circuit cannot be restored quickly since the fuse element requires screw fixing. which may result in a failure under normal operating conditions. ● There is a danger from scattering hot metal if the fuse carrier is 79 . the fault current may vaporize the fuse element and continue to flow in the form of an arc across the fuse terminals.

These are for use in domestic and similar premises 80 .o Cartridge fuses to BS 1361.

Three types are specified: gG fuse links with a full-range breaking capacity for general application gM fuse links with a full-range breaking capacity for the protection of motor circuits aM fuse links for the protection of motor circuits. This type of fuse is more popular in some countries than in others. and short-circuit conditions. designed to cover starting.o Cartridge fuses to BS 88. but at the present time the aM fuse in 81 . A more recent development has been the adoption by the IEC of a fuse-type gM for motor protection.

They may also be filled with quartz sand to 82 . The fuse element is encased in a glass or ceramic tube and secured to end caps which are firmly attached to the body of the fuse so that they do not blow off when the fuse operates.The cartridge fuse breaks a faulty circuit in the same way as a semi-enclosed fuse. but its construction eliminates some of the disadvantages experienced with an open-fuse element. lugs or tags are sometimes brazed on to the end-caps to fix the fuse cartridge mechanically to the carrier. With larger-size cartridge fuses.

● They are not suitable where extremely high-fault currents may develop. The cartridge may be shorted out by wire or silver foil in extreme cases of bad practice. Operating time is inversely proportional to the fault current. DISADVANTAGES OF CARTRIDGE FUSES ● They are more expensive to replace than rewirable fuse elements. ● The declared rating is accurate. ● Their operation is more rapid than semi-enclosed fuses. ● They have small physical size and no external arcing which permits their use in plug tops and small fuse carriers.ADVANTAGES OF CARTRIDGE FUSES ● They have no mechanical moving parts. ● The element does not weaken with age. ● They can be replaced with an incorrect cartridge. 83 .

the ends of which are sealed with tinned brass end-caps incorporating fixing lugs. Incorporated on the body is an indicating device to show when the fuse has blown. 84 . these HBC (High Breaking As the name Capacity) cartridge fuses are for protecting circuits where extremely high-fault currents The fuse may element consists of develop such asstrips several parallel on industrial of pure installations or distribution systems. silver encased in a substantial ceramic cylinder.HBC FUSES (BS 88-6)might imply. The cartridge is filled with silica sand to ensure quick arc extraction.

DISADVANTAGES OF HBC FUSES ● They are very expensive compared to semi-enclosed fuses. ● The declared rating is accurate.ADVANTAGES OF HBC FUSES ● They have no mechanical moving parts. 85 . ● They are capable of discriminating between a persistent fault and a transient fault such as the large starting current taken by motors. ● They are capable of breaking very heavy fault currents safely. ● Their operation is very rapid under fault conditions. ● The element does not weaken with age. ● It is difficult to insert an incorrect size of cartridge fuse since different ratings are made to different physical sizes.

the bimetal strip heats up. The load current flows through the thermal and the electromagnetic mechanisms. The device only trips when a fault current occurs. for example the starting current of a motor. This slow operating time is ideal for overloads but when a short circuit occurs it is important to break the faulty circuit very quickly. The time taken for this action to occur provides an MCB with the ability to discriminate between an overload which persists for a very short time. In normal operation the current is insufficient to operate either device. This is 86 . but when an overload occurs. and an overload due to a fault. An MCB incorporates a thermal and magnetic tripping device. An MCB overcomes this problem since it is an automatic switch which opens in the event of an excessive current flowing in the circuit and can be closed when the circuit returns to normal. bends and trips the mechanism.MCBs BS EN 60898 The disadvantage of all fuses is that when they have operated they must be replaced.

ADVANTAGES OF MCBs ● Tripping characteristics and therefore circuit protection are set by installer. ● The circuit protection is difficult to interfere with. DISADVANTAGES OF MCBS ● They are relatively expensive compared to rewirable fuses but look at the advantages to see why they are so popular. ● A faulty circuit may be easily and quickly restored. ● They contain mechanical moving parts and therefore require regular testing to ensure satisfactory operation under fault conditions. ● The supply may be safely restored by an unskilled operator. ● The circuit is provided with discrimination. 87 .

88 .

0. Time/current characteristics of protective devices Disconnection times for various overcurrent devices are given in the form of a logarithmic graph. 89 . These logarithmic scales are shown in the graphs of Appendix 3 of BS 7671. This means that each successive graduation of the axis represents a ten times change over the previous graduation.2.Disconnection times The protective device must operate within 0. 1 or 5 seconds as appropriate for the circuit.4.

08 seconds to clear 90 .From given figure it can be seen that the particular protective device represented by this characteristic will take 8 seconds to disconnect a fault current of 50 A and 0.

 Overload Trips: Overload trips are used where more discrimination is required in the tripping current. Also. compare to fuses. 91 . overload trips are resettable unlike fuses which have to be replaced. They are also more responsive that fuses as normally the fault current is sensed by an electromagnet which trips the circuit through a mechanical link which is coupled to the contacts.

Overload relay 92 .

RCD residual current device 93 . Earth leakage protection: Devices are also used to provide protection against faults causing earth leakage.

Phase and neutral currents pass through identical coils wound in opposing directions on a magnetic circuit. and no magnetic flux will be set up in the magnetic circuit. The main contacts are closed against the pressure of a spring. which provides the energy to open them when the device trips. 94 .The purpose of the residual current device is to monitor the residual current and to switch off the circuit quickly if it rises to a pre-set level. The arrangement of an RCD is shown in simplified form in figure below. The opposing ampere turns will cancel. so that each coil will provide equal but opposing numbers of ampere turns when there is no residual current.

depends on the residual current. The value of this e. thus avoiding the neutral coil.f.Residual earth current passes to the circuit through the phase coil but returns through the earth path. 95 .m. opening the main contacts and interrupting the circuit. This means that phase ampere turns exceed neutral ampere turns and an alternating magnetic flux results in the core.m. reaches a pre-determined level. This flux links with the search coil which is also wound on the magnetic circuit. inducing an e. which will therefore carry less current. into it. When the amount of residual current. so it will drive a current to the tripping system which depends on the difference between phase and neutral currents. the circuit breaker trips.f. and hence of tripping current.

The distributors are tapped at different points for feeding different consumers. and hence the current varies along their entire length. Feeder feeds power from one point to another without being tapped from any intermediate point. Describe how electrical distribution systems are arranged and operate. 96 . the current at sending end is equal to that of receiving end of the conductor. As because there is no tapping point in between. The distribution system can be either radial or ring.3.

different feeders radially came out from the substation and connected to the primary of distribution transformer. the associated consumers would not get any power as there was no alternative path to feed the transformer. But radial electrical power distribution system has one major drawback that in case of any feeder failure. In other words the consumer in the radial electrical distribution system would be in darkness97 .adial Electrical Power Distribution System In early days of electrical power distribution system. the power supply is interrupted. In case of transformer failure also.

If any fault occurs on any section.Ring Main Electrical Power Distribution System The drawback of radial electrical power distribution system can be overcome by introducing a ring main electrical power distribution system. In this case if one feeder is under fault or maintenance. this section can easily be isolated by opening the associated section isolators on both sides of the faulty zone transformer directly. 98 . of the ring. Here one ring network of distributors is fed by more than one feeder. In this way the supply to the consumers is not affected even when any feeder becomes out of service. the ring distributor is still energized by other feeders connected to it. In addition to that the ring main system is also provided with different section isolates at different suitable points.

The number of feeders connected to the ring main electrical power distribution system depends upon the following factors. Required Voltage Regulation: The number of feeders connected to the ring also depends upon the permissible allowable. then more numbers of feeders feed the ring. Total Length of the Ring Main Distributors: It length is more. voltage drop of the line. to compensate the voltage drop in the line.In this way. The sub distributors and service mains are taken off may be via distribution transformer at different suitable points on the ring 99 . more feeders to be connected to the ring system. Maximum Demand of the System: If it is more. can easily be maintained even when one section of the ring is under shutdown. supply to the consumers connected to the healthy zone of the ring.

The one main component is therefore the transformer and normally an auto-transformer is used to step-down from 275kV (400kV in case of the Super Grid) to 132kV while double wound transformers are used for the lower voltages used for distribution purposes. isolators.Substations: Substations are used to step-down the high voltages used for transmission to a value that can be used by industries. earthing systems. commercial premises and domestic households. 100 . potential transformers. busbars and measuring instruments like current transformers. A substation contains other components in addition to the main transformer. protection devices. Today’s substations also contain communications and remote control equipment so that the substations can be monitored and controlled remotely. The substation is equipped with circuit breakers. For this equipment a battery back-up system is normally installed in the substation so that in the event of a power failure the substation can still monitored and controlled.

High-voltage ring main distribution. 101 .

102 .Typical sub-station layout.

commercial and domestic consumers. 103 .44 m high fences or enclosed in some other way so that no unauthorized person may gain access to the potentially dangerous equipment required for 11 kV distribution. In towns and cities the substation equipment is usually enclosed in a brick building. as shown in previous slide. Regulation 9 of the Electricity Supply Regulations and Regulation 31 of the Factories Act require that these substations be protected by 2.High-voltage distribution to primary substations is used by the electricity boards to supply small industrial. This distribution method is also suitable for large industrial consumers where 11 kV substations. may be strategically placed at load centres around the factory site.

Three-phase four-wire distribution 104 .

An alternator generating three-phase electrical power is more efficient and more compact than a single-phase alternator generating the same power. and more power can be supplied by a 400 V three-phase supply than is possible with 105 . Industrial loads usually demand more power than a domestic load. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Distribution systems: The generating stations supplies three-phase electrical power as this is the more efficient way of generating electricity. dvantages of a three-phase four-wire supply A three-phase four-wire supply gives a consumer the choice of a 400 V three-phase supply and a 230 V single-phase supply. while the lighting load in a factory. Single phase is only used at domestic households since all industries and most big commercial centres utilise three-phase power. as in a house. Many industrial loads such as motors require a three-phase 400 V supply. will be 230 V.

106 .Star and delta connections  The three-phase windings may be star connected or delta connected as shown in figure below. The square root of 3 ( ) is simply a constant for three-phase circuits.732. The important relationship between phase and line currents and voltages is also shown. and has a value of 1.

The delta connection is used for electrical power transmission because only three conductors are required. In a balanced three-phase system all currents have the same value and when they are added up by phasor addition. through the load and return by the neutral conductor connected to the star point. we find the resultant 107 . Delta connection is also used to connect the windings of most three-phase motors because the phase windings are perfectly balanced and. therefore. do not require a neutral connection. In any star-connected system currents flow along the lines ( I L ). and a phase voltage between line and neutral which is connected to the star point. Making a star connection has the advantage that two voltages become available – a line voltage between any two phases.

and ‘live parts’ include the neutral conductor. First letter (supply) T – The live parts in the system have one or more direct connections to earth.Earthing Requirements and Arrangement 3-letter classification In these descriptions. N – All exposed metal parts / enclosures of electrical equipment are connected to the earth conductor which is then connected to the ground provided by the supply system. Second letter (Consumer. Load) T – All exposed metal parts / enclosures of electrical equipment are connected to the earth conductor which is then connected to a local earth electrode. 108 . ‘earthing system includes’ both the supply and the consumer installation. I – The live parts in the system have no connection to earth or are connected only through a high impedance.

Commonly used Earthing Systems in electrical installations 109 .

TN system A system having one or more points of the source directly grounded with the exposed metal parts being connected to that point by protective conductors. It is further subdivided into the following types depending on the neutral-earth connection configuration. 110 .

111 .TN-C system A system in which the same conductor functions as the neutral and protective conductor throughout the supply and consumer installation (Figure 2.2).

In this type of system. the utility provides a separate earth conductor back to the substation. 112 . This is most commonly done by having a grounding clamp connected to the sheath of the supply cable which provides a connection to the earth conductor of the supply side and the grounding terminal of the consumer installation (Figure 2.3).TN-S system A system in which separate conductors are provided for neutral and protective earth functions throughout the system.

TN-S system 113 .

can result in the enclosures of electrical equipment inside the premises assuming line voltage when there is insulation failure. It is therefore essential to maintain the connection integrity of this common neutral-earth conductor (Figure 2. called sometimes as PEN (protective earth and neutral) conductor. The earthing terminal of the consumer installation is connected to the supplier’s neutral.TN-C-S system A system in which the neutral and protective functions are done by a single conductor in a part of the system. 114 .4). in supply side neutral and protective earth are combined. but they are separated in the installation. This is also called as protective multiple earthing (PME for short). In this system. Any breakage of the common neutral earth wire.

115 .

TN-C-S system 116 .

TT System No earth provided by supplier.5). installation requires own earth rod (common with overhead supply lines) (Figure 2. 117 .

TT System 118 .

LO 4. Explain and understand how electrical energy is used to support electrical technology applications 119 .

Notwithstanding this. A large and medium industries are normally supplied directly. control systems and robotics operate on electrical power and it is therefore important that a continuous and reliable supply is available. faults still can and do occur.1. normally on dedicated power lines. 120 . Industrial automated processes. Electrical Technology in Industry: All modern industry relies on the continuous and reliable supply of electrical power. from substations so that the problem of power interruption is mitigated. so most industries and hospitals have back-up systems to provide an uninterrupted power supply to essential services. This is especially the case for major hospitals. industrial automation and in healthcare centres (hospitals and clinics). Describe the electrical technology used in automated processes.

 Furnaces and ovens in industries. These generators are normally connected to circuits where it is essential to have a continuous supply.  Lighting in general – normally a subset of the lighting facilities are kept on during a power failure or blackout to avoid having areas in total darkness. 121 . Such essential services would be:  Operating theatres in hospitals.  Sensitive medical equipment like MRI.Standby power is usually supplied by backup generators.  Computer systems and servers. life support systems and ITUs.  Cooling equipment and climate-controlled areas. CT scanners.  Communications equipment (wired network and cellular network).

In addition to standby generators, uninterruptible power
supplies, UPS, are installed in most of these critical industries.
These UPS consist of a bank of batteries whose main function is
to provide continuity of supply before the standby generators
kick-in. One possible setup is shown in figure below which is a
one line diagram but it obviously represents a three-phase
system. Further redundancy can be
incorporated in such a
system by having a
second generator
installed and
interconnected such
that both generators
can be synchronised.
If each of the generators
can handle the full load
demanded by the critical
service, then the system
has built-in redundancy
in case one of the 122

Normal operation

Power cut operation


UPS out of order operation

Determining the correct size of standby generator and UPS is an
important exercise. The first part of the exercise concerns a
careful consideration of what is considered to constitute the
essential services. Next the power requirement of such services
has to be carefully determined. The total load demand can then
be estimated and the required standby generator and UPS 124
capacities can be determined.

Bank of batteries 125 .

Robotics is normally a generic term that refers to a mechanical system which uses electricity as its source of energy while being strictly controlled by a computerised control system. loading and unloading stations. etc) require precise drive electronics for the precise movement and complex assemblies that they produce. Robotics has replaced the work that was previously carried out by unskilled workers thereby reducing cost and improving greatly the quality of the finished product.Automated processes. 126 . x-y tables. Robotics is another aspect of the automated process. movable arms. pick and place arms. Normally an articulated arm performs a number of different tasks to assemble parts of a product while this moves down the production line. robotics and control systems: The manufacturing industry relies on electrical technology for very important applications. Automated processes rely on control systems for their operation as the mechanical systems (conveyor belts. In the manufacturing industry robotics is employed for automated processes.

Automated processes also rely heavily on sensors that are required by the control system to detect the position or status of the mechanism.Automated process and robotics rely heavily on applications of electrical technology. induction type. The single most important and widely employed product in this case is the electric motor in all of its variants and configurations: ac (3-phase. Sensors operate on many different principles but those that rely on the inductive (magnetic) and capacitive principle are very widely used. the solenoid and relay are two other components which are the result of the application of electrical technology. Based on the electromagnetic principle. 127 . series wound and inverter driven). single phase. capacitor start. and used extensively in industry and automated process. dc (series and compound wound and brushless) and stepper.

Therefore electrical technology applications abound in these places. These strong magnetic fields excite the hydrogen nuclei in the water molecules of the cells. The correct resonant frequency is applied so that the nuclei are excited and a radio frequency signal is emitted. MRI equipment is clearly based on the technology of generation of electromagnetic fields and the magnetic materials used in electromagnets such the behaviour of the field is predictable and controllable. 128 .Healthcare: Hospitals and clinics operate exclusively on electrical energy. The equipment then detects and measures this signal and determines the time it takes for it to return to its normal state. From the information gathered the equipment is capable of building a 3D image of the body showing the internal organs and any abnormalities within. A few examples now follow:  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): The equipment based on the MRI principle exposes the patient’s body to very strong magnetic fields.

129 . battery technology has produced a multitude of different types: high density and compact. deep-discharge. Battery technology is at the heart of all UPS’s. sealed and maintenance-free. fume-free. etc. as described in the section dealing with batteries. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS): As explained previously. the use of UPS in operating theatres is fundamental so that critical equipment is kept working in the event of mains outage. The appropriate type of battery that is required is essential in the correct design of a UPS since.

Three-phase ac motors provide reliable operation and compact size when compared with dc motors of similar power rating. Operating Theatres: An essential item in the operating theatre is lighting. Good lighting conditions are a fundamental requirement in an operating theatre. cooling equipment and air-handling units. This is normally achieved by used of extractor fans. It is also important to highlight the properties that lighting in an operating theatre should have: homogenous (shadow-free). The electric motor technology has produced various configurations which can be adopted for various applications. and be backed up in the case of failure and should produce little heat. Climate control is also vital in the operating theatre. The technology of discharge and neon tubes has produced lighting sources that offer most of these requirements. have good colour rendition (so that the true colour rendition of the tissue and organs can be achieved). More recently light sources using the technology based on light-emitting diodes have also become available and rapidly replacing the discharge and neon tubes. Three-phase ac motors have very 130 . All of these use electric motors.

fluorescent.2. Lighting technology offers a multitude of lighting sources which are extensively employed: bright halogen. led lights and lasers. strobe lights. Today’s loudspeakers are really loud (powerful) but compact due to the improved technology of magnets and ferromagnetic materials. Describe the electrical technology used in the entertainment industry. UV sources. Audio entertainment relies heavily on loudspeakers. The loudspeaker design is based on the motor effect: 131 . The Entertainment Industry: Music festivals. In music festivals lighting is a predominant and integral feature of the spectacle offered by the performing artists. Lighting technology is an important application of electrical technology employed extensively in the entertainment industry. theme parks and audio/video systems all form part of the entertainment industry. Today’s music festivals have become a feast for the ears and eyes since the light spectacle is sometimes as important as the music itself.

In theme parks. Such motors can be linear synchronous type. especially on roller coaster rides and other major attractions which involve the movement of groups of people in bulk. big powerful motors are employed. Some extreme roller coasters use hydraulic pressure to reach really impressive accelerations (up to 5G) but even here the electric motor drives the pump that pushes the hydraulic. 132 . As described in the section above (that deals with automation processes) technology has produced a very varied selection of motors each with particular characteristics and therefore suitable for specific applications.Theme parks rely a lot on the technology of electric motors.

o Fourth rail. Of special mention is the use of electricity to power underground trains where it is clearly very difficult to use diesel. Electrical Technology in Transport: Electrical technology has widespread use in transportation systems. Identify and explain the applications of electrical technology in transport. Trains have used electricity as their prime mover for many decades.  Current (DC or AC and the frequency in the latter case).  Contact system: o Third rail. o Overhead lines. 133 .3. petrol or coal driven locomotives due to pollution in the restricted space available. The electrification system adopted is normally differentiated by the following:  Voltage supply used.

134 .

which has alignments in its own corridors. It is used typically in a mass transit or rapid transit system. through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track. 135 . Third rail systems are always supplied from direct current electricity.A third rail is a method of providing electric power to a railway locomotive or train. fully or almost fully segregated from the outside environment.

The key advantage of the four-rail system is that neither running rail carries any current. whose more recent lines use an overhead catenary or a third rail. flowing through the iron tunnel linings instead. 136 . This scheme was introduced because of the problems of return currents. a top-contact third rail is beside the track. On the London Underground. and a top-contact fourth rail is located centrally between the running rails at −210 V DC. intended to be carried by the earthed (grounded) running rail. Milan Metro's line 1. is provided by the running rails. energized at +420 V DC. The same system was used for Milan's earliest underground line. on third rail and overhead networks. The additional rail carries the electrical return that.The London Underground in England is one of the few networks that uses a four-rail system. which combine to provide a traction voltage of 630 V DC.

streetcar. A catenary is a system of overhead wires used to supply electricity to a locomotive. and a second wire is held in tension by the messenger wire.Overhead line is designed on the principle of one or more overhead wires (or rails. The second wire is straight and level. or light rail vehicle which is equipped with a pantograph. attached to it at frequent intervals by clamps and connecting wires known as droppers. raised to a high electrical potential by connection to feeder stations at regular intervals. parallel to the rail track. Unlike simple overhead wires. The catenary or messenger wire is hung at a specific tension between line structures. in which the uninsulated wire is attached by clamps to closely spaced crosswires supported by poles. The feeder stations are usually fed from a high-voltage electrical grid. particularly in tunnels) situated over rail tracks. suspended over it as the roadway of a suspension bridge is over water. catenary systems use at least two wires. 137 .

138 .

mainly:  Limited range on a single charge.  Time required to fully charge the discharged batteries. Electric cars have always suffered from serious drawbacks. improve efficiency.  Size and weight of the battery required to provide sufficient power. 139 . along with regenerative braking. Important advances have been made in battery manufacture and development so that it is now possible to have a battery powerful enough to provide acceptable performance and range on a single charge. The integration of electronics to provide supervision and monitoring of energy use has helped.Electric cars: It is interesting to note that the very first cars were battery powered and the use of the internal combustion engine was a later development. In the last decade or so important advances have been made which can make the electric car a viable option in the not too distant future.

In case in addition to the electric motor the car contains a small internal combustion engine to charge the battery providing better range and supplement power when required. 140 . Nickel Metal Hydride provide better durability by Lithium based batteries but they have a lower energy density.The energy to weight ratio of the battery has also improved. 3-phase induction and multi-phase induction motor). Hybrids normally use AC motors (permanent magnet. Normally the series wound DC motor is used in electric cars as it provides maximum torque at starting and therefore requires no heavy complicated gearboxes. Zinc-air batteries are being researched heavily as an alternative providing better energy density values. As a final note hybrid models seem to be more viable option at the moment. Lithium-ion and lithium based variants are the preferred option from a power to weight ratio but they have a limited shelf life and relatively low cycle lifetime. The lead-acid is also used but the energy density is not good although it is still the cheapest and more durable type of battery available.

The energy generated by photovoltaic panels is required to provide power to the electronic equipment. in outer space the photovoltaic panels are capable of generating energy on a continuous basis. Unlike on earth where clouds may obscure the sun during the day and at night no energy can be generated. It is also less of a problem than down on earth to add panels as air friction is non-existent and the panels are weightless (although the increased mass means more power is still required for propulsion). 141 . sensors.Space Travel: On space craft photovoltaic panels are the only means of providing continuous power. heating and cooling as well as propulsion. lighting.