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Adama Science & Technology University

School of Architecture & Civil Engineering

Department of Architecture

Thermal Comfort

Thermal behavior of buildings

Prepared By :Tesfu G.slassie

Architect, Urban Planner & Designer
Thermal behavior of buildings

A building can be considered as a thermal system,

with a series of heat inputs and outputs for the human
The system can be depicted by the following
Qi internal heat gain
Qc conduction heat gain or loss
Qs solar heat gain
Qv ventilation heat gain or loss
Qe evaporative heat loss.
Qi + Qc + Qs + Qv + Qe = S
where S is a change in heat stored in the building.
Thermal behavior of buildings

Thermal balance exists when the sum of all heat flow terms,
thus S is zero.
If the sum is greater than zero, the temperature inside the
building is increasing, or if it is less than zero, the building is
cooling down.
The system can be analyzed assuming steady-state
conditions, i.e. both the indoor and the outdoor conditions
are taken as steady, non-changing, or we can consider
the buildings dynamic response.
The former may be valid when the diurnal changes are
small compared with the indooroutdoor temperature
difference, or as the basis of finding the required heating or
cooling capacity, under assumed design conditions, or
indeed as a first approach to fabric design.
Solar Control & Shading Devices

Solar Control:
The first task in solar control is to determine when solar
radiation would be a welcome input (solar heating for
the under heated period) or when it should be
excluded (the overheated period).
Shading Device
Shading design for the exclusion of solar input is a
geometrical task. External shading devices are the
most effective tools to control sun penetration.
Solar Control & Shading Devices

Three basic categories of shading design devices can

be distinguished:
Vertical devices, e.g. vertical louvers or projecting fins. These
are characterized by horizontal shadow angles (HSA) and
their shading mask will be of a sectoral shape

Horizontal devices, e.g. projecting eaves, a horizontal

canopy or awning, or horizontal louvres and slats. These are
characterized by a vertical shadow angle (VSA).

Egg-crate devices, e.g. concrete grille-blocks, metal grilles.

These produce complex shading masks, combinations of the
above two and cannot be characterized by a single angle.
Shading Devices
Shading Devices

The use of shading device is

an important aspect of many
high-performance building
design strategies.
It has been proved that the
use of shading device could
improve building energy
performance, prevent glare,
increase useful daylight
availability (between
100~2000lux) and create a
sense of security.
Shading Devices

Realizing these potential

benefits, a varied of shading
configurations have been
invented and put in the
market, such as fixed, manual
and automatic movable,
internal and external shading
Accordingly, many simulation
tools have been developed to
support shading design.
Exterior Shading Devices

Exterior shading device is primary used to control sunlight

penetration to the interior of buildings.
Such shading devices are always attached on the mullion as a
separate component of building envelop, but can also be
achieved by disposition of the building floors to create overhangs.
Exterior shading device decrease direct beam penetration by
projecting shadow on the window along the sunlit direction;
Types Exterior Shading Devices
Two basic types of
exterior shading
device are
Horizontal & Vertical
Various combination
of these creates many
configurations to
different envelop
shapes and

Each orientation of the building requires a different approach to

the design of shading.
The north elevation (in the northern hemisphere) essentially
does not require shading because except in the summer
months in the early morning and late evening, no sun
Sothern side Orientation
Horizontal shading
devices are suited to
southern exposures.
Roof overhangs can
also easily be used to
shade southern
exposures on low rise

Basic Shading Strategy for a South

the length of the projection is determined as a geometric function of
the height of the window and the angle of elevation of the sun at solar
Such shading devices can be designed to completely eliminate sun
penetration in the summer and allow for complete sun penetration
Sothern side Orientation
Horizontal shading
devices are suited to
southern exposures.
Roof overhangs can
also easily be used to
shade southern
exposures on low rise

the length of the projection is determined as a geometric function of

the height of the window and the angle of elevation of the sun at solar
Such shading devices can be designed to completely eliminate sun
penetration in the summer and allow for complete sun penetration

In order to obtain shading in the late morning and
early afternoon when the sun is not at its high point,
the shading device should be extended either side of
the window opening.

Elevation of Shading Device

Configurations for South
Facing Facades
The east and west elevations are both difficult to shade.
In east direction we receives early morning sun and from west
14 we receives evening sun
Its angle is also low enough to preclude shading using overhangs.

Shading Devices for Non Southern Exposures

Shading can be
provided in the
way of landscaping
and foliage
Other shading devices
Besides attaching shading device on exterior of building envelop, many
15ways can also prevent sun light from penetrating to the interior of
Interior shading device
Building self-shading
Shaded by trees and other obstructions
Shading Devices in IHC
The reflectors are installed above
the building to provide shade
and prevent sun from entering
into the building. The reflectors
are aligned at an angle which
reflect back 70% of the sunlight
and change their angle during
winter to allow sunlight to fall on
the windows.

Sun shading devices are

incorporated into the design of the
facade and the overhanging floors
of each level to provide sufficient
shade to ensure a comfortable
environment within the dining and
office spaces
Solar shading device for high-rise buildings
17external shading system sits like a
skin on the outside of a building, moving
around on tracks to shield the sun while
still allowing daylight to penetrate.

Made from a lightweight frame incorporating photovoltaic cells,

the sunshield:

reduces the energy required to light and cool the building by


produces enough energy to power the movement of the shade

and provide up to 10% of the building remaining power needs;

is made from a simple and cost-effective series of modular

panels, which can be removed individually without
compromising the whole system; and

incorporates a guide rail at each floor level to provide both

structural support and access for cleaning and maintenance.

Solar Louvers minimizes glare &

over heating
Solar shading device for high-rise

Sun Shading Devices are any mechanical equipment

or textiles that are used either internally or externally
or in between the internal and the external building
The primary objective of creating a comfortable
internal environment, that is, cool in the summer and
warm in the winter.
Need of Sun Shading Devices

To reduce the heat gains during summer, reduce the

cooling loads and therefore minimize energy costs.
Sun Shading Devices improve internal environment in
order to provide greater comfort for occupants.
Likewise, internal sun shading devices like curtains help
to beautify internal space and create a sense of privacy.
Therefore, it is highly essential for the architects and
engineers to incorporate these shading techniques.
Types of Sun Shading Devices

On the basis of their position in a building:-

Internal Sun Shading Devices

Limit the glare resulting from solar radiation.

Usually are adjustable and allow occupants to regulate
the amount of direct light entering their space.
Most commonly these shading devices take the form of
horizontal or vertical blinds attached above windows.
Internal shading devices should be made or designed
to be durable.
Curtains: It is the most commonly used shading device,
mostly used on residential buildings. It is cheaper in
comparison and can be found in various varieties,
colours and texture. A curtain also acts as a decorative
Venetian blind: Venetian blinds are basic slatted blinds
made of metal or plastic, wood or bamboo can also
be used. Suspended by a strip of cloth called tapes, all
slats in unison can be rotated through nearly 180
degrees. Slat width can be between 16 and 120 mm,
with 25 mm being a common width
Vertical Louvre blinds: Suitable for many applications
in commercial and public buildings where the control
of heat, light and glare are of concern. It can be used
in larger windows and doors too.
Roller blinds: Roller blinds are usually stiffened
polyester, mounted on a metal pole and operated with
a side chain or spring mechanism. Roller Blinds are a
practical blind for everyday use, Block Outs, Sun
Screens and Translucent with a metal or plastic chain
available, that operates the blind through an
aluminium tube to roll up and down.
Pleated Blinds: Pleated blinds are shades made from
a pleated fabric (which helps to add texture to a
room) that pull up to sit flat at the top of a window to
hide from sight when open.
Blackout binds: Blackout blinds stop light from
passing through thanks to special treatments and
extra tight woven fabrics to help control the light
levels in a room. It is designed to block the external
lights to enter the room.
External Sun Shading Devices

Considered better
than internal
Horizontal, Vertical or
inclined projections
Vegetation and other
Horizontal Devices: to
shade a window during
hot summer months, but
to allow sunlight to shine
through a window in the
winter, to help warm a
Vertical Devices: Primarily useful for east and
west exposures to improve the insulation value of
glass in winter months by acting as a windbreak.

Slanted Vertical Fin Vertical Fins

The egg-crate: A combination of vertical and
horizontal shading elements commonly used in hot
climate regions because of their high shading
efficiencies. The horizontal elements control ground
glare from reflected solar rays. The device works well
on walls
Shading from External

Shade from
Designing a Shading Device

Select Shading Type

Identify Design Dimensions

Identify Category
Select Shading Type
Orientation Suggested Shading Type

North fixed or adjustable shading placed horizontally above window

East and West adjustable vertical screens outside window

NE and NW adjustable shading

SE and SW planting

Climatic zones Requirements

Hot and dry Complete one year round shading

Warm and humid Complete year round shading , but design should be made such that ventilation is not affected

Temperature Complete year round shading but only during major sunshine hours

Cold and cloudy No shading

Cold and sunny Shading during summer months only

Composite Shading during summer months only

Sun paths
Our device should be such that:

i. It reduces glare.
ii. It reduces cooling load.
iii. It allows us to see the view that we like to watch.
iv. For doing presentations, complete shut off of lights is
v. There is limited reduction daylight.
Identify Design Dimension
Shading type: Horizontal Overhang
Shading category: fixed
Design dimensions: Relationship between the overhang
Depth (L) and the opening height (H).
L=H L=3H/4 L=H/2 L=H/3 L=H/4

Shading type: Vertical Overhang

Shading category: fixed
Design Dimensions: Relationship between the overhang
Depth (L) and the opening width (d).
L=d L=3d/4 L=d/2
Example of a calculation:
Identify Category

Importance and Advantages
of Sun Shading Devices

Maintain a comfortable indoor temperature.

Shading is a simple method to block the sun before it can get into the
Shading minimizes the incident solar radiation and cool the building
effectively and hence dramatically affect building energy performance.
Reduce building peak heat gain and cooling requirements and improve
the natural lighting quality of building interiors.
Peak electricity demand is also reduced by exterior shading devices,
resulting in lower peak demand charges from utilities and reduced
mechanical equipment costs.
Likewise, trees when used as shading devices can beautify landscape
and provide oxygen. Internal Shading devices also help to create a
sense of privacy.
Disadvantages of Sun Shading
Difficulties can be experienced in handling the internal shading
devices like curtains and blinds.
In the use of shading devices like light shelves, problems with
low angle winter sunlight penetration can give rise to glare.
If the building is highly stylized (e.g. Neoclassical or glass cube),
it may be impossible to reconcile external shading with the
original style. Shading always blocks a part of the view. As a
minimum, it blocks the portion of the sky where the sun travels.
Some shading methods are extremely specific to compass
orientation (azimuth). For example, fixed horizontal shading may
leak sunlight into the building during the morning or afternoon
unless it is used on a face that is oriented almost exactly due
Formal International Case Study I:
Name of the Building: National Library, Singapore
Location: Victoria Street, Singapore
Date: 2004
Associated Names: Kenneth Yeang (architect/planner),
T.R. Hamzah & Yeang (architect/planner)
Building Types: educational
Building Usage: library
Hot humid climate
Widest shading device (1.8m)
Made of light metallic material similar to wings of aircraft
Oriented away from east-west solar exposure (to cut down
solar penetration)
Sunshading devices on the west side
Blinds used at building faade
(Adjusts automatically through day light sensors depending on
the light intensity)
Motion sensors and energy efficient lighting are used
throughout the building
Faade has double-glazed, high quality, low-emissivity glass to
reduce head transfer
Formal International Case Study II:

Name of the Building: SUR YAPI OFFICES

Location: Istanbul, Turkey
Date: July, 2010
Associate names: Gkhan Aktan Altug,TAGO
Building type: Official
Use: Sur Building Construction Industry. TIC. LTD. STI.
The building is oriented to maximize the generous south light,
while dramatic, faceted louvers act as a solar shading device.
The louvers become part of the dynamic skin of the building.
Interior space
Secondary International Case
Name of Building: Ebril Metro Station
Location: Ebril, Iraq
Date: Under construction
Associated names: Mohammed Siyamand
Building Type: Metro station
Building Usage: Metro station
Shading type: Dynamic

When deciding which devices to use and where to use

them, the designer must consider a whole range of
issues, whether they will be opened and closed daily as
needed or just put up for the hottest season, whether
they will adversely affect natural lighting level or even
produce more glare, and how they might affect any
natural ventilation strategy.
On average, external products are twice as good as
internal products in reducing peak cooling loads
In selecting shading products, one should also pay
attention to the transmitted daylight and the effect on the
view out.