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Prepared by // Eng.

Ahmed Mohamed Shoman


1
Content
Definitions of Frequently Used Parameters in Natural Gas Industry.

Introduction for natural gas.


1. Natural Gas Terminology.
2. Natural Gas Formation.
3. Natural Gas Composition.
4. Natural Gas Properties.
5. Natural Gas Phase Behavior..

Natural Gas Conditioning.


Field Separation.
Gas Sweetening.
Gas Dehydration.
Sweetening /Dehydration Trouble Shooting (Amine & Glycol Unit).

Gas is not Sweet


Amine solution not regenerated
Dirty, degraded amine
Excessive Corrosion
Foaming of amine solution
Inlet gas temperature too low
Wrong or off-spec chemicals
Misuse or abuse of antifoam chemicals in amine units
Incoming gas is not adequately scrubbed and contains salt water
Tray down comers are plugged, causing amine to stack up in the trays .

2
Content
Natural Gas Processing.

By Refrigerated lean oil Absorption.


By J.T and LTS.
By Turbo Expander.

Examples for Gas Plants


Ras Shukier Gas Plant . "GUPCo"
Amreya Gas Plant.
Port Said NGL Plant.
The UGD Company.
Syrian "Dier El-zour " D.Z Gas Plant.
Ras Shukier NGL Plant "EBGDCO"

NGL Recovery

NGL and LPG recovery technology.


GTL production technologies.
- Separation of NGL 3
Content
Fractionation Towers.
Types of Fractionation Tower.
Types of Trays.
Tray Towers Operation Problems.
Packing Types

Sulfur Recovery Unit SRU:


Sulfur content in natural Gas & its Economic Value.
SRU Clause process

Natural Gas Compression

o Introduction
o Reciprocating Compressors
o Centrifugal Compressors
o Comparison between Compressors
o Compressor Selection
o Multistage Compression
o Compressors Calculations
o Compressor Performance Maps

4
Definitions

1- Associated Gases : Gas associated with liquids.

2- Non associated gases: Gas produced from gas wells without liquids.

3- Dry gas : Natural gas is considered 'dry' when it is


almost pure methane, having most of the other commonly associated
hydrocarbons removed.

4- Wet gas : When other hydrocarbons are present, the


natural gas is 'wet'.
5- Sour gas : Natural gas which contains H2S and CO2
(acid
gases).

6- Sweet gas : natural gas which doesnt contains H2S and


CO2.
5
Definitions
7- Hydrated gas : Natural gas which contains H2O.

8- Dehydrated gas: Natural gas after removal of H2O.

9- LNG : Liquefied natural gas , mainly CH4

10- LPG : Liquefied petroleum gases , Commercial Propane-


Butane mixture

11- Condensate : pentanes and heavier , C5+

12- GTL : Gas to liquids.

13- NGL : Natural gas liquids , ethane and heavier.

14- SRU : Sulfer Recovery Unit

6
Definitions
15- Acid Gas : Feed stream to sulfur recovery plant consisting H2S, CO2,
H2O, and usually less than 2 mol % hydrocarbons.

16-Claus Process:
The process in which 13 of the H2S in the acid gas feed is burned to SO2
which is then reacted with the remaining H2S to produce sulfur. This is also
referred to as the modified Claus process. ( H2S + 12 O2 S + H2O )

17-Residence Time: the period of time in which a process stream will be


contained within a certain volume or piece of equipment, seconds.

18-Tail Gas Cleanup Unit: a process unit designed to take tail gas from a
Claus sulfur recovery plant and remove additional sulfur with the goal of
meeting environmental sulfur emission standards.

7
Introduction:
Natural Gas is a vital component of the world's supply of energy. It is
one of the cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources.

What is Natural Gas:


Natural gas is a combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases( from CH4
to C8H18OCTANE) consisting essentially of METHANE ,other
hydrocarbons and non Hydrocarbon Gases in gaseous state ,which is
extracted from the subsurface of the earth in its natural state ,separately or
together with liquid hydrocarbons

8
The Formation of Natural Gas:

Natural gas is a fossil fuel like oil and coal.


Fossil fuels are, essentially, the remains of
plants ,animals and microorganisms that
lived millions and millions of years ago.

9
Natural Gas Under the Earth:

Although there are several ways that methane,


and thus natural gas, may be formed, it is
usually found underneath the surface of the
earth. As natural gas has a low density, once
formed it will rise towards the surface of the
earth through loose , shale type rock and other
material.
With natural gas trapped under the earth in this
fashion, it can be recovered by drilling a hole
through the impermeable rock. Gas in these
reservoirs is typically under pressure, allowing it
to escape from the reservoir on its own. 10
Typical Composition of Natural Gas :
Water
Impurities CO2,H2S, Hg
Nitrogen

Methane
LNG

Ethane

NGLs Propane
Butane LPG
Pentane
Hexane C5 +
Heptane
Octane

11
Typical Composition of Natural Gas :

12
Oxygen: Max. ( 0.1% ) by mole.
* Carbon dioxide: Max. ( 3 % ) by mole.
* Hydrogen sulphide: Max. ( 4 ) PPM
* Sulphur: Max. (50 ) mgm / SCM
* Mercury: Max. (6 ) mgm / SCM
* H.C. dew point: ( +5 ) Deg.C
* Gross Heating Value : Min. 980
Max. 1180 BTU/SCF
* Water dew point : Max. ( 1 ) PPM or below
.( zero ) Deg. C at a pressure of ( 70 ) kg /cm2 gauge13
Natural Gas Properties

14
Ideal Gas Law
PV =
Where : nRT
P : Absolute pressure
V : Volume
T : Absolute temperature
R : Universal gas constant
n : Number of moles n = m / M
m : Mass of the gas
M: Molecular weight
The ideal gas law can be expressed as :

PV = (m/M) RT
m = MPV/RT
m/V = = MP/RT is density of gas 15
Behavior of Real Gases
PV = ZnRT

Where :
Z is deviation or compressibility factor and can be expressed as
Z = [ actual volume of n moles of gas / (ideal volume of n moles of gas
at certain P & T) at same P & T ]
where Z is dimensionless.

16
Properties of Gaseous
Mixtures
Composition of natural gas may be expressed as either mole fraction, volume
fraction or weight fraction.
Mole Fraction yi = ni/ni

where:
yi : Mole fraction of component i
ni : Number of moles of component i
ni : Total number of moles of all components in the mixtures

Volume fraction vi = vi/vi

Weight Fraction w i =Wi/Wi

17
Determination of Z Factor
From the next chart after determination of Pr and Tr we can determine Z factor

Pr = P / P c Tr

Tr = T / T c
Z

Where :

Pc= Pci*Yi
Tc= Tci*Yi

Pr 18
Natural Gas Phase Behavior
The natural gas phase behavior is a plot of pressure vs temperature that
determines whether the natural gas stream at a given pressure and
temperature consists of a single gas phase or two phases: gas and liquid.

The phase behavior for natural gas with a given composition is typically
displayed on a phase diagram, an example of which is shown in Figure 1-1.

The left-hand side of the curve is the bubble point line and divides the
single phase liquid region from the two-phase gasliquid region.

The right-hand side of the curve is the dew point line and divides the two-
phase gasliquid region and the single-phase gas region.

19
20
:At point X
Xi=xy/zy Retrograde region

id
Yi=xz/zy liq u

z Gas
x y

21
Definitions
Phase Diagram-1
A record of the effects of temperature, pressure and composition on the kinds and
.numbers of phases that can exist in equilibrium with each other

Bubble Point-2
The point at which the first small vapour bubble appears in a liquid system. The
.bubble point curve on a phase diagram represents 0% vapour

Dew Point-3
The point at which the first infinitesimally small droplet of condensation forms in a
gaseous system. The dew point curve on a phase diagram represents 0%
.liquid

Phase Envelope-4
The area on a pressure-temperature phase diagram for a mixture enclosed by the
bubble and dew point curves. This area represents the set of conditions for the
. mixture were vapour and liquid phases co-exist in equilibrium

Cricondenbar (Pmax)-5
.The maximum pressure at which vapour and liquid can co-exist in equilibrium
22
Definitions
6-Cricondentherm (Tmax)
.The maximum temperature at which vapour and liquid can co-exist in equilibrium

Critical Pressure-7
.The vapour pressure at critical temp

8-Critical Temperature
The temp. above which all the mixture cannot be liquid

Quality Lines-9
Lines through the two-phase region showing a constant percentage of liquid and
.vapour

10-Retrograde
The name given to phase behaviour above the critical temperature and pressure
were vapour and liquid phases coexist and the amount of vaporisation or
condensation changes with pressure and temperature in the opposite
direction to normal behaviour. (e.g:condensation of liquids occur by lowering
pressure or increasing temperature)
23
Definitions
11-Equation of State (e.g : ideal gas law)
An equation which describes the relationship between pressure,
temperature and molar volume of any homogenous fluid at equilibrium

12- Critical Point


The point on the phase diagram where The bubble point and dew point lines
intersect , where the distinction between gas and liquid properties disappears.

The natural gas phase behavior is a function of the composition of the


gas mixture and is strongly influenced by the concentration of the
heavier hydrocarbons, especially C+ . The presence of heavier
hydrocarbons will increase the phase envelope and failure to include
them in a phase calculation will under predict the phase envelope.
:As shown by the next exmple

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25
26
2500
( TSCF ) 36.2 %

2000
3.1 %
4.9 % 36.1 %
1500
7.2 %
1000
4.6 %

500 7.9 %

0
N-America S-America Europe Africa Mid-East Sov- Asia/Austr.
Countries
27
Fertilizer
Methane: /Methanol/Olefin / GTL
Feedstock
Ethane : Petrochemical Feedstock.
Petrochemical Feedstock
Propane: or Fuel.
NATURAL
Refinery Feedstock /
GAS I-Butane: Fuel.
Gasoline Blending / Fuel
N-Butane: / Petrochemical
Feedstock.
Natural Gasoline
(IC5+)
Refinery Feedstock or
Petrochemical Feedstock.
Condensate
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Separation between the Oil &Gas
Sweetening remove the Acid Gases
Conditioning Dehydration remove the Water vapour
Main Target H.C Dew Point & Heating Value

-Extract main component into


separate products which are
Extraction (Processing) Methane
Main Target Ethane
Propone
LPG
Natural Gasoline 29
30
Training Videos

I- Natural Gas Processing Principles

30

31
Gas Conditioning

Field Separation.
Gas Sweetening.
Gas Dehydration.

33
Large Vessels are used to
separate the gas, oil, water and
sand using their different
densities.

Sufficient time has to be given to HPGas LPGas

allow the water droplets to settle


from the oil and vice versa.
HPSeparator LC LPSeparator LC

Multiple stages are used to


liberate gas and remove water. Heating/ Heating/
Cooling Cooling
Water
The number of stages is assessed
balancing cost, energy efficiency, Export
effect on the reservoir and safety.
Cooling
The separation process may Dehydration/ LC
require heating to help destabilise Desalter Pump
oil-water emulsions.

Chemicals are utilised to assist


droplet coalescence, break foams Water
and prevent corrosion.

To prevent remixing and effective 34


separation the separator is fitted
with a range of devices.
Separator Internals
Internals design is often key
to efficient separator
operation.
Inlet device to reduce
liquid momentum
(centrifugal/impingeme
nt)
Distributor plate
Coalesce pack to
provide surface area
for small droplets to
coalesce to larger
ones, enhancing
liquid/liquid separation
Vane packs or
demisters to collect oil
droplets from the gas
Vortex breakers to
prevent gas underflow
Sand jets to remove
sand from the 35
separator
Separator Internals

Baffle Plate Set Inlet Diffuser & Cascade Tray

Cyclone Inlet Device

Cyclone Inlet Device Foam Reducing Pack Assembly


with 36
Perforated Baffle Plate
Separators Types

Separator features :
Horizontal Separators Primary separation section to
Large liquid handling separate the bulk of the liquid from
the gas
capacity
Sufficient capacity to handle liquid
Sufficient time for settle out surges
of liquid droplets from the Sufficient liquid residence time to
allow small droplets to settle out
gas
Some inlet device to reduce
Vertical Separators turbulence and velocity in the main
separation section
(scrubbers)
A mist extractor to capture entrained
High gas volumes droplets
Small footprint area Back pressure and liquid level
controls 37
Relief and blowdown
Training Videos

II- Natural Gas Separators Principles

30

38
39
Day#2
Sweetening process is to remove acid gases from natural gases.

This can be done either by adsorption or absorption processes.

The most famous adsorption process is solid desiccant beds which can
perform Sweetening and dehydration for natural gas at the same time with
higher efficiency.

The most famous absorption process is amine.

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AMINE PROCESS

41
CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

H H

-HO-C - C
H H
42
43
Ty
pi c
al

44
45
FIG. 21-5
Physical Properties of Gas Treating Chemicals
weak bases

Mono- Di- Tri-


Property Ethanolamine Ethanolamine Ethanolamine

Formula HOC2H4NH2 2NH)HOC2H4) 3N)HOC2H4)

Molecular Wt 61.08 105.14 148.19

Boiling point @ 170.5 269 )decompose )360


760 mm Hg, C

Density @ 20C, 1018 1095 1124


.kg/m3

46
A brief review of the more frequent problems and corrective
: procedures follow
1- Gas is Not Sweet /Dehydrated

:Check solution concentration


Too low : Check make up water addition.
:Check amine flow rate
Too low : Open by pass valve.
:Check amine regeneration
Increase firing rate.
:Check reflux rate and temperature
Probably too low : Increase firing rate.
:Check stripping column pressure
It may be too low
: Check for foaming
Carry over into outlet separator and / or pressure fluctuations across
absorber.
47
2- Amine solution not regenerated

Check reboiler temperature ,pressure and the


reflux rate.
Check for leaks in lean/rich amine heat
exchanger.
Check the re-claimer for primary amine.
Check for foaming in stripper :
- pressure fluctuations.

48
3- Dirty, degraded amine

Gas contains oxygen.


Storage or make up tank blanket gas valve is
not functioning: - Repair if any.
Make up water contains free oxygen:
- Add oxygen scavenger or use distillated
water.
Sparge amine with sweet gas to strip oxygen.

49
4- Excessive Corrosion

Amine concentration is too high:


Add make up water .

Amine is highly degraded:


Replace .

Make up water is high in dissolved solids :


Treat make up water or use deionized water.
Insufficient amine regeneration:

Insufficient amine filtration :


Increase filter rate or change filter elements more frequently.
Qxygen is entering system:
Eliminate.
Velocities too high :
reduce temperature to stripper.

50
5- Foaming of amine solution

Foaming is a very unpredictable phenomenon.


It can be caused by any or a combination of the
following conditions:
Dirty amine (solids) check filter elements.
Degraded amine.
Liquid hydrocarbon in gas or amine.

51
6- Hydrocarbon condensation

It will be caused by lower inlet amine


temperature.

So the Inlet amine temperature must be at


least 10-15 oF above the inlet gas temperature
to eliminate H.C condensation .

52
7- Wrong or off-spec
chemicals

Well treating chemicals.


Surfactants.
Corrosion inhibitors.
Very fine particles. e.g. iron sulfide, in sour gas.
Inadequate cleaning of amine plant before
start-up.

53
9- Incoming gas is not adequately
scrubbed and contains salt water

Make up water contains iron, sulfides,


chlorides, etc
(Use deionized or de-mineralized water)

54
10- Tray down comers are plugged,
causing amine to stack up in the trays

(This is really not a foaming problem but


behaves so; usually with older plants).
Note :
Always add antifoaming downstream of the
carbon filter.
The following antifoaming are recommended

Dilute with 50% isopropyl alcohol use in


concentrations of 5 to 50 PPMW .

55
Training Videos

II- Gas Sweetening Amine Uint

18

56
AMINE UNIT CASE STUDY

Gupco U104 amine unit

7
ge
Pa

COS Carbonyl sulfide it is a colorless flammable gas with an unpleasant odor. It


is a linear molecule consisting of a carbonyl group double bonded to a sulfur atom
it decomposes to H2S & Co2 in presence of humidity and bases

57
Day#3

Dehydration process is to remove water vapor from natural gases.


This can be done either by adsorption or absorption processes.
)gas 2 solid) )gas 2 liquid)
The most famous adsorption process is solid desiccant beds which can
perform Sweetening & Dehydration for natural gas at the same time with
higher efficiency according to its material affinity and pour size .

The most famous absorption process is Glycol unit.

Water in NG :
Most free associated water removed by simple extraction method at
or near wellhead
Water vapor in NG solution need more complex treatment
Process of dehydration of NG absorption or adsorption
Pipeline specs: 7.0 lb H2O/MMSCF { max. =1 ppmv}
58
Water Removal

Absorption Glycol Dehydration:

Glycol solution (high affinity to water) diethylene glycol


(DEG) or triethylene Glycol (TEG)
TEG/DEG contact wet gas stream (called contactor)
absorb water glycol soln. sink to bottom removed
Glycol recovery vaporize glycol using special boiler
New tech: addition of flash tank separator condensers
before boiler to condense methane (90 99% recovery)

59
Solid-Desiccant Dehydration : Adsorption

Adsorption process consists of 2 or more adsorption tower


filled with solid desiccant.
At least 1 working, 1 regenerating
Desiccants: activated alumina or granular silica gel
Wet NG pass through towers from top to bottom H2O
retains on particle surface dry NG exits saturated
desiccant heated with heater to vaporize water
Best suite for large volumes gas under very high P

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61
HYDRATES IN NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS

A hydrate is a physical combination of water and other small molecules


to produce a solid which has an ice-like appearance but possesses a
different structure than ice. , it cause flow interrupting.

There are three recognized crystalline structures I,II,H

Their formation in gas and/or NGL systems can plug pipelines,


equipment, and instruments, restricting or for such hydrates. In both,
water molecules build the lattice and hydrocarbons, nitrogen, CO2 and
H2S occupy the cavities.

62
HYDRATES IN NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS

Smaller molecules (CH4, C2H6, CO2, H2S) stabilize a


body-centered cubic called Structure I.

Larger molecules (C3H8, i-C4H10, n - C4H10) form a


diamond-lattice called Structure II.

Normal paraffin molecules larger than n-C4H10 do not


form Structure I and II hydrates as they are too large to
stabilize the lattice.
However, some iso paraffins and cyclo alkanes larger than
pentane are known to form Structure H hydrates.

63
64
Hydrocarbons )C1,C2,C3,iC4+nC4)
and / or H2S, N2, CO2
+
Metastable H20
@
)P, T)
------------------------------------------
=
HYDRATES

Metastable water is liquid water which, at equilibrium, will


exist as a hydrate 65
The conditions which affect hydrate formation are:

1- Primary Considerations

Gas or liquid must be at or below its water dew point or saturation condition.
To allow water droplet condensation
Temperature.

Pressure.

Composition.

2- Secondary Considerations

Mixing.

Kinetics

Physical site for crystal formation such as a pipe elbow, orifice, thermowell, or line
scale.

Salinity.
66
FIG. 20-4 Water Content of Hydrocarbon Gas

P
hydrate
formation line ,
function of
composition

Th 67
Hydrate Inhibition

The formation of hydrates can be prevented by dehydrating the gas or


liquid to eliminate the formation of a condensed water )liquid or solid)
phase.
In some cases, however, dehydration may not be practical or
economically feasible.
In these cases, chemical inhibition can be an effective method of
preventing hydrate formation.

Chemical inhibition utilizes injection of thermodynamic inhibitors or low


dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHIs).

Thermodynamic inhibitors are the traditional inhibitors )i.e., one of the


glycols or methanol), which lower the temperature of hydrate diminish
formation Th

LDHIs are either kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) or anti -


agglomerants (AAs).
They do not lower the temperature of hydrate formation, but do its
effect. 68
Natural Gas Dehydration

by: Liquid & Solid Desiccants

70
71
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75
76
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78
Day #3
Glycol Dehydration Unit

79
80
GLYCOLS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Ethylene Glycol Di-ethylene Tri-ethylene Tetraethylene


HO)CH2)2OH Glycol Glycol Glycol
Formula C2H6O2 C4H10O3 C6H14O4 C6H18O5

Molecular weight 62.1 106.1 150.2 194.2


Boiling point at 760 mm Hg, F 387.1 472.6 545.9 597.2

Boiling point at 760 mm Hg, C 197.3 244.8 285.5 314


Vapor pressure at 77F (25C) mm Hg 0.12 0.002 0.0004 0.00005
Vapor pressure at 140F (60C) mm Hg 1.5 0.08 0.025 < 0.01
Density (g/cc) at 77F (25C) 1.110 1.113 1.119 1.120
Density (g/cc) at 140F (60C) 1.085 1.088 1.092 1.092
Density (Kg/m3 ) at 77F (25C) 1110 1113 1119 1120
Freezing point, C -13 -8 -7 -5.5
Pour point, C - -54 -58 -41
Viscosity in centipoise at 77F (25C) 16.5 28.2 37.3 44.6
Viscosity in centipoise at 140F (60C) 4.68 6.99 8.77 10.2
Surface tension at 77F (25C), dynes/cm 47 44 45 45
Specific heat at 77F (25C), kJ/(kg.K) 2.43 2.30 2.22 2.18
Flash point, C (PMCC) 116 124 177 204
Fire point, C (C.O.C.) 118 143 166 191
Initial decomposition temperature C 165 164 207 238

81
Training Videos

III- Gas Dehydration Glycol Unit

15min

10 82
.min
83
GLYCOL DEHYDRATION UNIT

84
85
86
DEA : 2-6 M3/100 LIT

87
88
89
90
91
92
C99

C 195

93
94
95
96
Training Videos

IV- Gas Dehydration Principles of Glycol


Unit
15min

97
Solid Adsorpant Dehydration Unit

98
99
100
Molecular Sieves Adsorber / Internal
Arrangement

101
GAS DEHYDRATION / Molecular sieves

102
GAS DEHYDRATION / Molecular sieves

103
GAS DEHYDRATION / Molecular sieves

104
GAS DEHYDRATION /
Molecular sieves

105
GAS DEHYDRATION / Molecular sieves

106
GAS DEHYDRATION / Molecular sieves

107
GAS DEHYDRATION / Molecular sieves

108
FV-4004

RDV MDV RDV MDV RDV MDV


4-E3 4007 4001 4009 4003 4011 4005
GUPCO U-104 G/P

FV-4003
Dryers Scheme

4-D1C
4-D1A

4-D1B
2FV-4020
4-V43
4-C1A/B

PH-I

FV-4005
2FV-4011

Amine
Unit
RDV MDV RDV MDV RDV MDV
4008 4002 4010 4004 4012 4006
FV-4006

4-F17 4-C3A/B
Tie-in
4-V15

FV-4007 2FV-4013
2FV-4019
FV-4002
BDV-4001
4-C5A/B
FV-4001

2FV-4014
2FV-4012

2RDV 2MDV 2RDV 2MDV 2RDV 2MDV


Tie-in
4007 4001 4009 4003 4011 4005

2FV-4015

ESD-1908
2FV-4017
4-V143

4-D101C
4-D101A

4-D101B
4-C103A/B
4-C101A/B
PH-II
4-F217 ESD-1907

4-H1D
2FV-4018
2FV-4016

2RDV 2MDV 2RDV 2MDV 2RDV 2MDV


4008 4002 4010 4004 4012 4006

109
4-F117
Pg.9 Of 10 P. Eng. / A.Z
1 Ceramic Ball ( 52 CF )

Upper Screen
( 20 Piece )
6

Molecular Sieve Charge


( 80,200 lb )
Dimensions:
144 I.D
20 S/S

1/8 Ceramic Ball ( 26 CF )


1/4 Ceramic Ball ( 26 CF )

3
3
Lower Screen

4-D1A/B/C Dimensions
110
Pg.10 Of 10 P. Eng. / A.Z
Table 1

Molecular Sieve Operation Chart

Process Step 1 2 3 4 5 6

D1A-4 D D D H C D
D1B-4 D H C D D D
D1C-4 C D D D D H
D101A-4 D D D D H C
D101B-4 D D H C D D
D101C-4 H C D D D D
FV-4003, 2FV-4015, 2FV4018,
2FV-4020 Open Close Open Close Open Close
FV-4004, 2FV-4016, 2FV4017,
2FV-4019 Close Open Close Open Close Open

111
DAY# 4

113
1. By lean oil absorption

2. By Refrigeration & LTS.

3. By Cryogenic Process

114
115
Compressor
Sales Flare
Sales .. Gas
Gas

Feed
Dry . Gas
LTS
Wet . Gas Exchanger

Inlet
Separator Dehydration
Stabilzer
Water

.Cond
F.G

Cooler

To. Stabilizer
116
Cryogenics : Is the study of the production of very low temperature materials
)below 43C) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures.

117
Process Units
Deethanizer separates ethane from NGL stream
Depropanizer separates propane
Debutanizer boils off butanes leaving pentanes and
heavier HC in NGL stream
Butane splitter (Desiobutanizer) separates iso and n
butanes

Component BP oF at 1 atm
Ethane -127 (-88 oC)
Propane -44 (-42) oC
Iso-butane 11 (-11 oC)
n-butane 31 (-0.5 oC)
Pentane 97 (36oC) 118
Turbo Expanders
The use of turbo expanders in gas processing plants began in the early sixties.

By 1970, most new gas processing plants for ethane or propane recovery were
being designed to incorporate the particular advantages characteristic of an
expander Producing usable work.

The trend in the gas processing industry continues toward increased use of the
turbo expander.

Selection of a turbo expander process cycle is indicated when one or more of the
following conditions exist:

Free pressure drop in the gas stream.

Lean gas.

High ethane recovery requirements )i.e., over 30% ethane recovery).

Compact plant layout requirement.

High utility costs.

119
Flexibility of operation )i.e:easily adapted to wide variation in pressure and products).
Turbo expanders

120
This figure represents the pressure- Turbo expanders
temperature diagram for this expander
process.

The solid curve represents the plant


inlet gas & the dashed one represent
expander inlet gas )less in heavy H.C)

At a fixed pressure and, if the


temperature of the gas is to the right of

this dew point line, the gas is 100


percent vapor.

If the gas is cooled, liquid starts to


condense when the temperature
reaches the dew point line.

As cooling continues, more liquid is


condensed until the bubble point line is
reached the solid line on the left.
At this point, all of the gas is liquid.
121
Additional cooling results in colder liquid
Turbo expanders
A turbo expander recovers useful work from the expansion of a gas stream.

The process operates Isentropically in the ideal case and produces something
less than the theoretical work in the real case.

In the process of producing work, the expander lowers the bulk stream
temperature which can result in partial liquefaction of the bulk stream.

122
To Sales Gas
Compressor

Re Expander
comp

3 4
Feed
Gas Lts
Jt
Valve
1
Dehydration
Pkg

Q-1
7
De-Methaniser To De-
De-Propaniser Ethaniser
De-Butans

123
"Mixed Refrigerant Processes

Mixed Refrigerant Processes are used through LNG/NGL plants to

avail sub-cooling for natural gas where a single mixed refrigerant is used
)composed of nitrogen, methane,ethane, propane, butane and pentane).
The refrigerant is designed so that the refrigerant boiling curve nearly
matches the cooling curve of the gas being liquefied. The closeness of
the match of these two curves is a direct measure of the efficiency of the
process.

124
Cold box exchangers
The cold box is a series of aluminum plate fin exchangers which provide
very close temperature approaches between the respective process streams.

The low pressure refrigerant is compressed and condensed


against air or water in a closed system. The refrigerant is not totally
condensed before being sent to the cold box. The high pressure
vapor and liquid refrigerant streams are combined and condensed
in the main exchanger.
The condensed stream is flashed across a J-T valve and this low
pressure refrigerant provides the refrigeration for both the feed gas
and the high pressure refrigerant.

125
,see fig 16-31 GPSA sec.16 in which
Training Videos

IIV- Cryogenic Principles

15min

126
Examples for LPG,NGL and
LNG Gas Plants

127
Boosting & Sales Gas
Comp.
Send sales 4-W4A
gas to GASCO
net ) 64-100) kg/cm2

Chilling Area PH-I


LPG

4-W1A
4-C3A 4-W4B

4-T1
Drying Area PH-I

4-T2
4-D1C
4-D1A

4-D1B
4-W4C
4-C3B
4-W1B 4-W105

COND.

Fractionation Area
- Produce LPG & Condensate

Chilling Area PH-II


LPG 4-W104A

4-W101A
4-C103A Sales Gas
Drying Area PH-II
Utilities
4-D101B
4-D101A

4-D101C

4-T102
4-T101
- Inst. Air System
4-W104B - Heating Oil System
- Refrigeration
4-W101B Package
4-C103B - Cooling Water
Compression System
Area - Power House
-Compress gas COND. - Fuel Gas System
press from 6-47 - Multi-Nozzle Flare
kg/cm . Expansion & Chilling System
Area - Nitrogen Unit
- pre-separation - Loading Area
for heavy H.C Separate Heavy H.C by
cooling down to -60 c
-Storage 128
Area
-LPG Berth # 4
N.G ( 1043
Demethanizer MMSCFD )
26.3 Bar Depropanizer
Packed Tower Condenser
-76 C 25.6 Bar Condenser
Bubble cap
-43 C ( 30 Tray ) M
Packed Tower 18 Bar
26.6 Bar 27.3 Bar 50.7 C
-74.4 C -31.7 C
-74.5 C C3 Expert
27.3 Bar ( 925 T/D )
-74.4 C

Demethanizier
26.6 Bar

Depropanizer
Absorber
-68 C
-33 C

Sales Gas -36 C


1043 20 Bar
( MMSCFD ) 31 Bar -78.2
50 C C
Propane T/D 925 10-E-04
-69.5 C 30-E-01
LPG T/D 1215 LPG Local
Turbo
20 Bar Market
Compressor Expander
Condensate T/D 348 78.2 C 1215 T/D
LPG Rundown
Cools M
13.5 Bar
50 C
Plat Fin
25.6 Bar
Dehydration -43 C

Debutanizer
Package
1100 66 Bar
MMSCFD Inlet Filter Mercury 40 C 64.7 Bar 64.7 Bar
70 Bar Separator Removal -24 C -35 C
Plat Fin
30 C 10.2 Bar
62 C
-58 C 1.85 Bar
120.8 C

28.3 Bar Separator 28.2 Bar


28.5 Bar 30 E -02
-50.9 C -69.5 C -36 C

-33 C M
10.2 Bar
129 50 C
DNG Rundoum Cools
Condensate ( Local Market )
( 348 T/D )
130
Regeneration Gas Compressors
C-111/112
Regeneration Gas Cooler
A-311

Feed U-104

PCV-410
Dehydration Dust Filter
F- 416/417
Regeneration Gas Scrubber
Dust Filter F-451 V-418

Dehydration Gas Scrubber Mercury Removal Bed Dehydration inlet


V-410 V-450 Filter \ Coalescer
Dehydration Adsorbers Regeneration Gas Heater Residue Gas To Pipeline
F-412
V-413/414/415 E-211
Cold Gas Reflux Exchanger
E-222

Exp/Comp Discharge Cooler


A-321

Depropanizer Reflux Condenser


A-341
C-121/122
Deethanizer Reflux Acc.
V-422
Depropanizer Reflux Drum
V-441
Depropanizer Deethanizer
T-541 V-521 P-621/622/623 JT Warm Gas/Gas Exchanger
E-221

Depropanizer Reflux Pumps


P-641/642

Propane To Storage Cold Separator Deethanizer Side Reboiler


V-421 E-224

Depropanizer Reboiler
E-241

Deethanizer Bottom Reboiler


Butane to Storage E-225

Feed P-695/696 Booster P-693/694


EXAMPLES FOR NGL GAS PLANTS

DOVE ENERGY-YEMEN PLANT

15min

132
NGL Extraction
Typical Product
Recoveries ( % ):
Plant Type Turbo- Joule Lean Oil Refrigera
-> Expander Thompson tion
Product
Ethane 60 96% 45 60% 25 45% 1 5%
C2
Propane 90 98% 85 95% 80 95% 20 40%
C3
Iso-Butane 96 100% 96 100% 93 99% 40 60%
IC4
N.Butane 97 100% 97 100% 94 99% 40 60%
NC4

NGL Recovery 133


Distillation or Fractionation
Towers
and Tray Troubleshooting

134
Fractionation Towers
There are two main types of Fractionation Towers according to its
inside configuration :

1- Trays Towers .
2- Packed Towers.

Here below we will concentrate on Trays one as for its widely


usage all over the world .

135
Trays Towers
TRAY TYPS :Flow Regime

136
TRAY TYPS :Perforation Regime

137
TRAY TYPS :Perforation Regime

138
139
140
141
Tray Towers Problem

142
Tray Towers Problem

143
Tray Towers Problem

144
Tray Towers Problem

145
Tray Towers Problem

146
Packing Types

147
148
BOOSTER STATION UTILITIES

149
FT
FM-Ashrafi 20
20
FM-Hilal 20
PV-321

PI 4.7 Kg/cm2.g
TI 34 C To Flare

U-102 SLUG CATCHER


.GAS COMP
C1A-2

.GAS COMP PI 19-26 Kg/cm2.g


FT C1B-2 TI 50 C
Glycol
PCV-308 ESDV
.Unit FT
TO U-104

New
.GAS COMP Glycol d
C1C-2 Unit
m ove
d y re 16
a lrea
were
ls
.GAS COMP
te rna
C1D-2
ve s in 4
k val
c
che Fuel To Unit

8 8

Closed

)suco pipe line ( 12


Pig receiver
Process Div
BOOSTER STATION UTILITIES
* Utilities :

-Gas compressor
-Heat Exchanger
- Inst. Air System
- Refrigeration Package
- Cooling Water System
- Power House
- Fuel Gas System
- Flare System
- Nitrogen Unit
- Storage Area
152
Natural Gas
Compression
Purposes of gas compression

Theory of gas compression

Main types of compressors

Centrifugal Compressor

Reciprocating Compressor
Purposes of Gas
Compression

For transportation facilities.

For extra processing (liquefaction, dehydration & sweetening).


Theory of Gas
Compression

PV = ZnRT = Z (m/M)RT

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Main Types of Compressors
1- Dynamic type (Centrifugal) P1
T1
V1

Construction:
P2 T2 V2
1- Rotor


+ +
+ +
+

2- Stator
Anti-surge Control
2-Reciprocating Compressor:

Stroke
Compression chamber

Piston

Each cylinder consists of :

Piston

Chemise

Inlet valve

Outlet valve
Comparison of reciprocating & centrifugal compressors
HEAT EXCHANGERS

15min
15min

vedio presentation

162
N2 UNIT

163
U-102

Hilal 4 FUEL PIC-307 PIC -316A


GAS

PIC -316B

V21-2

LV-716

V6-2

0
LV-710
Course Final quiz
1// What is Natural Gas , definition , composition ,formation and uses?
2// What the sections and devices of horizontal separators ?
3// What does this Appreciations' mean?
LNG - SRU
NGL - Acid Gas and tail gas
P&ID
PFD
LTS
Dew Point Depression .
4// What is the difference between the:
Absorption and Adsorption Process ? Give examples!
Hazard and Risk
5// what is the recommended temp. difference between Gas & Liquid desiccant
interring to a contactor tower ?
6// What are the Filter Types used at the TEG and DEA units ? (and purpose of every
type)
7// draw a schematic drawing for a TEG typical Dehydration Unit ?
8// What are the main four types of gas cryogenic process ?
9// what are the Towers performance constraints & main cause of every constraints ?
10// what are the rout parameters affect LPG Specifications at the Fractionation Area
?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

168
11// why the TEG is widely used at Glycol Dehydration?

12// what the recommended temp./pressure for TEG still reboiler ?

13// What are the booster station utilities ?

14// what is the main types of compressors ? Advantages and disadvantages?

15// what are the main types of heat exchangers ? Give exapmles of H.
Exchangers at your plant ?

16// what are the two types of air coolers ?

17// what is the solid disicants used at your plants?


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

169
11// what are the main reactions take place at SRU?

12//what meant by sulfer recovery ? Feeds,products,recovery, components.

13// what are the operating parameters of SRU?

14// what are the precautions before the SRU start up?
15//what is the source of SRU acid gas ?

16// why we treatment the tail gas?TGT?

17//what is the purpose of sulferpit degassing system? how does it work?

18// what is the blanket gas system, give example?

19//The 1/5 of h2s will be nurned out in the thermal claus reactor?

20//what are the waste heat recovery unit?

21//steam boiler in SRU? tell how & why !

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
170
THANKS ,,,

Eng. Ahmed Shoman


Natural Gas Processing Engineer
GUPCO "Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co."
Mobile: +2-0122-743-2850 , +2-0100-800-4930
e-mail:
shomanAM@gupco.net / shomanNMC@yahoo.com

171