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CHAPTER 1

Cells and Organisms

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CELLS!

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Essential Properties of a Cell
Make energy and macromolecules, have genome, an

Membrane

cytoplasm

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Prokaryotes & Eukary

Eubacteria
Archaea

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eubacteria

archaea

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Eukaryote
=
Internal
membranes

Nucleus
ER
Golgi
Lysosomes
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts

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Mitochondrion

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Chloroplasts

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Cytoskeleton keep cell shape

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Model Organisms

Grow easily
Fast
Genomes
Development
Genetics

www. Senescience.info

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Model Organisms E.
coli

Single cell, identical


4,000 genes on single chromos
Haploid one copy of genes
Extrachromosomal plasmids
Simple, defined growing condit
Fast!
1x109 cells/ml
Storage

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Model Organisms
Yeast

Single cell, identical


6,000 genes on single
chromosome
Haploid or diploid
Few introns
Simple, defined growing
conditions
Fast!-ish 90 minutes/division
1x109 cells/ml
Store @ low temps
Genetic analysis

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Other Model
Organisms

Zebrafish
C. elegans

Drosophila Xenopus
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Other Model
Organisms

Mice Arabidopsis

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Isolation of DNA

Figure 1.27
Phenol Extraction Removes Proteins from Nucleic Acids
Proteins can be removed from a solution of DNA and RNA by adding an equal volume of phenol. Since phenol is very dense, it forms a separate
layer at the bottom of the tube. When the two solutions are shaken, the proteins dissolve into the phenol. The two layers separate again after a brief
spin in the centrifuge. The top phase, which contains just DNA and RNA, can then be isolated.

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Isolation of DNA

Figure 1.28
Removal of RNA by Ribonuclease
A mixture of RNA and DNA is incubated with ribonuclease, which digests all the RNA into small fragments and leaves the DNA unaltered. An equal
volume of alcohol is added, and the larger pieces of DNA are precipitated out of solution. The solution is centrifuged, and the large insoluble pieces
of DNA form a small pellet at the bottom of the tube. The RNA fragments remain in solution.

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What has genetic information and
can replicate but is not a living
cell?

Figure 1.29
Structural Components of a Virus
A virus is composed of a protein coat and nucleic acid. Note that there are no ribosomes or cytoplasmic membranes and
only one type of nucleic acid is present.

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Subcellular Genetic Elements

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CHAPTER 2
Basic Genetics

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Gene
Allele
Locus
Genome

Figure 2.1
Mendelian Characters in Peas
Mendel chose specic characteristics, such as those shown.

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On the very simplest level

One gene one enzyme

Protein
Enzyme
Regulatory proteins

One gene one protein

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Wild-type and Mutant Genes

Wild-type Original

Mutant altered gene

Null allele

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Multi-step pathways and Epistasis

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Where are genes found? Chromosomes

(bacteria have circular DNA chromosomes)

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Genes match on homologous chromo

Homologous chromosomes
Diploid
Alleles

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Figure 2.9
Two Different Alleles Produce Four Genotypes
The genotypes R and r can be combined in four ways. Genotype, Phenotype
Homozygous, heterozygous
Dominant, recessive
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Genotypes and Phenotypes not always so clear
Partial Dominance

RR Rr0.5 Rr r0.5 r0.5 rr0.5 rr

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Genotypes and Phenotypes not always so clear
Co-Dominance

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