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MagicSqare

MTES3013 CHAPTER 5 : MODULAR NUMBERS DAN MAGIC SQUARES

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You are on page 1of 16

Structure

5. Modular Numbers and

Magic Squares

Content Outline

Magic Squares

4x4, 6x6 and 8x8 magic squares

n x n magic square, where n is an

odd number

Formula to calculate the sum of each

row, each column and each diagonal

Solve non-routine problems involving

Magic Squares

Magic Squares

Put the numbers 1 to 9 into the square so that all rows,

columns and diagonals add to the magic number (15). You

may use once only each number.

2 3

1

4

8

7 6 5

A 3 x 3 magic Square

9

3 x 3 Magic Square

(first

)

6 7 2 2 7 6 8 3 4 6 1 8

1 5 9 9 5 1 1 5 9 7 5 3

8 3 4 4 3 8 6 7 2 2 9 4

Which one of these did you get? Why are they all the same as the first?

4 9 2 8 1 6 4 3 8 2 9 4

3 5 7 3 5 7 9 5 1 7 5 3

8 1 6 4 9 2 2 7 6 6 1 8

4 Reflections 3 Rotations

A magic square is magic because it contains the property that the square

consists of the distinct positive integers 1, 2, ,N 2 such that the sum of the N

numbers in any horizontal, vertical or main diagonal line is always the same

magic constant.

A magic square is said to be of the N th order if the integers in the square are

consecutive numbers from 1 to N 2.

Magic squares are often identified by their order, by their size.

The smallest, true magic square is of the third order, and there exists only one

of these, not including rotations and reflections. These are often referred to as Lo

Shu squares because of ancient story of how magic squares were discovered.

4 9 2

3 5 7

8 1 6

5

There is another formula for squares that might start with an integer other

than 1, or have a distance between integers greater than 1, where N is the

order of the square, A is the integer you start the square off with (the smallest

integer in the square) and D is the incremental difference between each successive

integer:

2 A D( N 2 1)

N( )

2

17 3 13

N 3(order )

7 11 15 A 3(1st Integer)

D 2(difference)

9 19 5

6

One interesting property of the Drer square is that if you sum the top

two rows, and the bottom two rows, and sum the left two columns and

the right two columns, you get the following pattern:

21 13 13 21 19 15 15 19

13 21 21 13 15 19 19 15

7

There are also different classifications of magic squares.

Simple Magic Squares:

Meets the basic requirements that the sum of the integers in each row,

column and main diagonal is a constantthe magic sum.

Semi-Magic Squares:

Obtains the same properties of the simple magic squares except that the

main diagonals do not sum to the magic sum.

Associated Squares:

In addition to the properties of a simple magic square, these squares

also have skew properties:

1 14 12 7

8 11 13 2

15 4 6 9

10 5 3 16

8

One other type of Magic Square is the Nasik Square:

These squares also have the property that certain pairs of cells sum to half

the magic sum.

They also have the special property that all the broken diagonals sum to

a constant as well.

1 14 7 12 Magic Sum: 34

15 4 9 6 4(4 2 1)

10 5 16 3 2

8 11 2 13

Another neat property of Nasik squares is that if you repeat the square

in all directions, you can then draw a box around any N x N array of

numbers and it will be magic.

Check out this website to see an example of it:

http://www.mathcats.com/explore/puzzles/magiccarpet1.html

9

The History of Magic Squares

marked on the back of a divine tortoise before Emperor Yu (about

2200 B.C) when he was standing on the bank of the Yellow River.

lo-shu

The 4 elements evenly balanced

Fire

2 6

7

Water

9 5 1

Metal

Wood

4 3 8

Odd (masculine) numbers or yang. With the Earth at the centre.

In the Middle Ages magic squares were believed to give

protection against the plague!

In the 16th Century, the Italian mathematician, Cardan,

made an extensive study of the properties of magic squares

and in the following century they were extensively studied

by several leading Japanese mathematicians.

During this century they have been used as amulets in India,

as well as been found in oriental fortune bowls and medicine

cups.

Even today they are widespread in Tibet, (appearing in the

Wheel of Life) and in other countries such as Malaysia, that

have close connections with China and India.

Constructing n x n Magic Squares (n odd)

Pyramid Method

2 6 2 7 6

1 5 9 9 5 1

4 8 4 3 8

7

Constructing n x n Magic Squares (n odd)

Pyramid Method

1. Build the pyramid

A 5 x 5 Construction

5

3. Fill the holes

4 10 2. Fill the diagonals

3 9 15 3 16 9 22 15

2 8 14 20 20 8 21 14 2

1 7 13 19 25 7 25 13 1 19

6 12 18 24 24 12 5 18 6

11 17 23 11 17 10 23

4

16 22

25x 26

21 Check the magic constant Sum(1 25)

2

325

n (n 1) 325

Sum(1 n) 65

2

5

Constructing n x n Magic Squares (n odd)

Pyramid Method

1. Build the pyramid

7 A 7 x 7 Construction

6 14 3. Fill the holes

2. Fill the diagonals

5 13 21

4 12 20 28 4 29 12 37 20 45 28

3 11 19 27 35 35 11 36 19 44 27 3

2 10 18 26 34 42 10 42 18 43 26 2 34

1 9 17 25 33 41 49 41 17 49 25 1 33 9

8 16 24 32 40 48 16 48 24 7 32 8 40

15 23 31 39 47 47 23 6 31 14 39 15

22 30 38 46 22 5 30 13 38 21 46

29 37 45

36 44

49x 50

43 Check the magic constant Sum(1 49) 1225

2

n (n 1) 1225

Sum(1 n) 175

2

7

Check these statements

maintains the magic.

20 8 21 14 2

2. Multiplying all entries by the same

7 25 13 1 19 number maintains the magic.

3. Swapping a pair of rows or columns that

24 12 5 18 6 are equidistant from the centre

11 4 17 10 23 produces a different magic square.

number of 5 x 5 magic squares.

There are exactly 275 305 224 distinct solutions!

https://

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_square

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