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Foundation of
Human Growth and
Growth - These are the series of physical
changes that occur from conception through
Development - The progressive series of
change in something.
Maturation is the process through which
genetic determinants are expressed.
Psychologists view that these are orderly
sequences of development related to the
maturation of the organism as it interacts
with the environment.
Stages of Growth and Development

Infancy Middle Childhood

Neonate School age
Birth to 1 month
6 to 12 years
1 month to 1 year Late Childhood
Early Childhood Adolescent
Toddler 13 years to
1-3 years approximately 18
3-6 years
Principles of Growth and Development

Growth is an orderly process, occurring

in systematic fashion.
Rates and patterns of growth are
specific to certain parts of the body.
Wide individual differences exist in
growth rates.
Growth and development are influences
by a multiple factors.
Principles Continued
Development proceeds from the simple
to the complex and from the general to
the specific.
Development occurs in a cephalocaudal
and a proximodistal progression.
There are critical periods for growth
and development.
Rates in development vary.
Development continues throughout the
individual's life span.
Why developmental
Early detection of deviation in childs
pattern of development
Simple and time efficient mechanism to
ensure adequate surveillance of
developmental progress
Domains assessed: cognitive, motor,
language, social / behavioral and adaptive
Fine motor and cognitive abilities
Buttoning clothing
Holding a crayon / pencil
Building with small blocks
Using scissors
Playing a board game
Have child draw picture of himself

Pre-school tasks
Red flags: preschool
Inability to perform self-care tasks, hand
washing simple dressing, daytime toileting
Lack of socialization
Unable to play with other children
Able to follow directions during exam
Performance evaluation of pre-school
teacher for kindergarten readiness
Major Theories of Education
Behaviorism stimulus and reinforces
Cognitivism mental operation
Humanistic psychology whole child (social,
psychology, and cognitive development)
is primarily concerned with observable and
measurable aspects of human behavior. In
defining behavior, behaviorist learning
theories emphasize changes in behavior that
result from stimulus-response associations
made by the learner.
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov, Watson)
Stimuli association (Bell and food)
Key to learning
Condition the child in early years of life to train
them what you want them to be
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
Elicited responses definite stimulus
Emitted responses unrelated identifiable
Key to learning
Reinforcement (Positive and Negative)
Lead to acquisition of new operants
Behavior modification
Observational Learning and Modeling
People learn through observation and

Key to learning
Through modeling, learner can learn how to
perform at sophisticated levels of performance
Behaviorism and Education
Education should be organized so students
experience success in master the subject
Behaviorist are very prescriptive and
diagnostic in their approach.
Rely on step-by-step structured methods for
Behaviorism in education includes careful
analyzing and sequencing of the learners
needs and behaviors.
Cognitive Psychology
is the study of mental processes such as
"attention, language use, memory,
perception, problem solving, creativity, and
Theories of Jean Piaget
Describes cognitive development in terms of
stages from birth to maturity
Sensorimotor stage (0-2), preoperational stage (2-
7), concrete operations stage (7-11) and formal
operations (11 onwards)

Key to learning
Assimilation (incorporation of new experience),
accommodation (learning modification and
adaptation) and equilibration (balance between
previous and later learning)

Kholberg Preconventional (no sense of right

or wrong), Conventional (concerned about
what people think), Postconventional (morality
is based on what other people feel
Thinking and Learning theories
Gardners multiple intelligences.
Learning styles: Myth???
Golemans emotional intelligence. Emotion
contain the power to affect action.
Constructivism (Vygotsky)
Individual as the active person in the process of
thinking, learning and coming to know
Learner is the key player

Key to learning
The learner constructs understanding from the
inside, not from an external source.
Learners must make knowledge personally relevant
Individual must construct own knowledge- make
Other Problem Solving and Thinking
Reflective thinking (Dewey)
Critical thinking (Ennis, Lipman and
Creative thinking (Fromm, Sternberg,
Picasso, Dylan)
Intuitive thinking (Bruner)
Discover Learning (Phenix, Bruner, Taba)
Cognitivism and Curriculum
Why use cognitivism in education?
Cognitive approach constitutes a logical
method for organizing and interpreting
Rooted in the tradition of subject matter
Educators been trained in cognitive
Schools are the place for cognitive learning.
Students should not afraid to ask, not afraid
of being wrong, not afraid of not please
teacher, and not afraid of taking risk and
playing with ideas.
Gestalt Theory (Gestalt)
Learning is explained in terms of wholeness of
the problem
Human beings do not respond to isolated stimuli
but to an organization or patter of stimuli.
Key to learning
Learning is complex and abstract
Learner analyzes the problem, discriminates
between essential and nonessential data, and
perceive relationships.
Learners will perceive something in relation to the
whole. What/how they perceive its related to their
previous experiences.
Self-Actualization Theory (Maslow)
Classic theory of human needs.
A child whose basic needs are not met will
not be interested in acquiring knowledge of
the world
Put importance in human emotions, based
on love and trust

Key to learning
Produce a healthy and happy learner who can
Nondirective and Therapeutic Learning
Established counseling procedures and
methods for facilitating learning.
Childrens perceptions, which are highly
individualistic, influence their learning and
behaviour in class.
Key to learning
Curriculum concerns with process, not
product; personal needs, not subject matter,
psychological meaning, not cognitive scores.
Psychology and Education
Motivation and Achievement
Self esteem and self concept must be recognized as
essential factors
Affective needs are more important than cognitive
Support and nurture
The Concept of Freedom
Freedom permits the learners to probe, explore and
deepen understanding
Enhance learning opportunities and alternatives
In search of Education
Leaners draw on experiences, subject matter, and
intellectual skills to attain full potential
Affection is measured through testimonials