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# Ant Colony Optimization

Numerical Example

## By :- Harish Kant Soni

Roll No:- 12CE31004
IIT Kharagpur
Problem
min (x12 + x1x2 + x2)
x1 = [1,2,3,4]
x2= [3,4,5]
Its better to assume same of no
ants as no of values.
So we take 4 ants for x1
and 3 ants for x2
Each ant is assigned a
discrete value.
x1j , j = 1,2,3,4
x2k , k = 1,2,3

## Ants for x1 Ants for x2

x11 1 x21 3
x12 2 x22 4
x13 3 x23 5
x14 4
Assume equal
pheromone for each
path = 1
Iteration=1
for any ant k the probability
of selecting its path is given
by
P1j = = ,
where j = [1,2,3,4]
P2k = = 1/3
where k = [3,4,5]
set roulette wheel
using cdf for each
ant.
Ants for r1 Ants for r2
x11 (0,0.25) x21 (0,0.33)
x12 (0.25, 0.50) x22 (0.33,0.67)
x13 (0.50, 0.75) x23 (0.67, 1)
x14 (0.75,1)
generate random
numbers for each ant
and find out which ant
is selected using
cdf(roulette wheel ).
Ants for x1 Ants for x2
r11
0.609684 x13 r21
0.689113 x23
r12
0.999736 x14 r22
0.706781 x23
r13
0.586537 x13 r23
0.416401 x22
r14
0.177464 x11
find out
value of
objective
fn for each
selected
set of ants.

possible
set = 4 x 3
=12
Ants for x1 Ants for x2
x11 1 x21 3
Value of objective fn
Possible sets Ant values (x12 + x1x2 + x2)
x12 2 x22 4
x13 3 x23 5
x14 4 X13, x23 3,5 49 (worst)
X13, x23 3,5 49 (worst)
X13, x22 3,4 37
X14, x23 4,5 61
X14, x23 4,5 61
X14, x22 4,4 48
X13, x23 3,5 49 (worst)
X13, x23 3,5 49 (worst)
X13, x22 3,4 37
x11, x23 1,5 31
x11, x23 1,5 31
X11, x22 1,4 21 (best)
Iteration 2

Q/Lk

Q= constant

## what we are doing so we will not consider

local updatation.
Iteration 2
assume = 0.4 and Q = 2
Update pheromone for each ant
Increase pheromone for x11 and x22 as
they are giving best solution.
Evaporate pheromone for other paths
=Q
best = 21 (only 1 time so z = 1)

Updated Pheromone
Ants for x1 Ants for x2
x11 1 (1-0.4)x1 + 2x21/49 = 1.457 x21 3 (1-0.4)x1 = 0.6
x12 2 (1-0.4)x1 = 0.6 x22 4 (1-0.4)x1 + 2x21/49 = 1.457
x13 3 (1-0.4)x1 = 0.6 x23 5 (1-0.4)x1 = 0.6
x14 4 (1-0.4)x1 = 0.6
Iteration 2
Update probability

P1j = = ?,
where j = [1,2,3,4]
P2k = = ?
where k = [3,4,5]

## Ants for x1 Ants for x2

x11 0.447 x21 0.226
x12 0.184 x22 0.548
x13 0.184 x23 0.226
x14 0.184
Updated Probability
Iteration 2
set roulette wheel
using cdf for each
ant.
Ants for r1 Ants for r2
x11 (0,0.447) x21 (0,0.226)
x12 (0.447, 0.631) x22 (0.226, 0.774)
x13 (0.631, 0.815) x23 (0.774, 1)
x14 (0.815,1)
Iteration 2
generate random
numbers for each ant
and find out which ant
is selected using
cdf(roulette wheel ).
Ants for x1 Ants for x2 x11 and x22 were
having higher
r11
0.2356 x11 r21
0.386493 x22 probability as they
r12 were best solutions
0.42656 x11 r22
0.526781 x22 so they are selected
r13
0.58687 x12 r23
0.795401 x23 twice
r14
0.7864 x13
Iteration 2
Evaluate objective
function value and
repeat the procedure
till convergence