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Matakuliah : J0084 / Introduction to Management

and Business
Tahun : 2007
Versi :1/3

Pertemuan 06 (Sixth Meting)

Planning Tools and


Techniques
Halaman 1
Learning Outcome

Student should be able to show the use of


planning tools and techniques which
are needed by the organization -> C3

Halaman 2
Learning Outline

Techniques for Assessing the Environment


Techniques for Allocating Resources
Contemporary Planning Techniques

Halaman 3
1. Techniques for Assessing the Environment

a. Environmental Scanning
Its the screening of large amounts of
information to anticipate and interpret
changes in the environment
1) Competitor Intelligence
Its a process by which organization gather
information about their competitors.
Who are they? What are they doing?
How will what theyre doing affect
us?
2) Global Scanning
Halaman 4
b. Forecasting

1) Forecasting Techniques
a) Quantitative forecasting applies a set of
mathematical rules to a series of past data

to predict outcomes
b) Qualitative forecasting, in contrast, uses
the judgment and opinions of
knowledgeable individuals to predict
outcomes

Halaman 5
2) Forecasting Effectiveness

a) Forecasting techniques are most


accurate when the environment is not
rapidly changing
b) Use simple forecasting methods
c) Use rolling forecasts that look 12 to 18
months ahead, instead of using a single,
static forecast
d) Dont assume that you can accurately
identify turning points in a trend
e) Remember that forecasting is a
managerial skill and as such can be
practiced and improved

Halaman 6
c. Benchmarking
Benchmarking is the search for the best practices
among competitors or non competitors that lead to their
superior performance
Identify:
Steps in What is to be benchmarked
Form a Comparative organizations
Bench benchmarking Data Collection methods
marking planning team

Prepare and
Best
implement
action plan practices Gather internal
and
Analyze data to external data
identify
performance gaps
Halaman 7
2. Techniques for Allocating Resources

a. Budgeting
Expense Budget
Lists primary
Revenue Budget
Cash Budget activities
Project future
Forecasts cash on and allocates dollar
sales
hand and how much amount to each
will be needed

Variable Budget Fixed Budget


Takes into account Assumes fixed
OR
the cost that vary level of sales
with volume production

Profit Budget
Combines revenue and expense
budget of various units to determine
each units profit contribution Halaman 8
b. Scheduling
1) Gantt Charts
Activity Month
1 2 3 4
Copyedit manuscript
Design sample pages
Draw artwork

Print first pages


Print final pages
Design cover

Actual progress
Goals Reporting Date

Halaman 9
2) Load Charts

Editors Month
1 2 3 4 5 6
Annie
Antonio
Kim

Maurice
Dave
Penny

Work scheduled

Halaman 10
3) PERT Network Analysis

a) Event
b) Activities
c) Slack time
d) Critical path

Halaman 11
Event Description Expected Preceding
time event
(week)
A Approve design and get permit 10 None
B Dig subterranean 6 A
C Erect frame and siding 14 B
D Construct floor 6 C
E Install windows 3 C
F Put on roof 3 C
G Install internal wiring 5 D, E, F
H Install elevator 5 G
I Put in floor covering and 4 D
paneling
J Put in doors and interior decorate 3 I, H
trim
K Turn over to building 1 J
management group
Halaman 12
A PERT Network for constructing an office building

4
6 D I
5
10 6 14 3 5 5 1
Start A B C E G H J K
3
3 5
F
Calculation the length of time that
each path of activities will take:
A-B-C-D-I-J-K (44 weeks)
A-B-C-D-G-H-J-K (50 weeks)
A-B-C-E-G-H-J-K (47 weeks)
A-B-C-F-G-H-J-K (47 weeks) Halaman 13
c. Break Even Analysis

TFC
BE =
P - VC

Note:
BE = Break Even Point
P = Price
TFC = Total Fixed Cost
VC = Variable Cost

Halaman 14
Break even analysis
70.000 Total
Revenue Profit
60.000 Area
Revenue/Cost ($)

50.000 Loss Variable


Area
40.000 Break Costs
Even
30.000 Point Total
Cost
20.000 s
Fixed
10.000 Costs

100 200 300 400 500 600

Output (in thousands)


Halaman 15
d. Linear programming
Production Data for
Cinnamon-Scented Products
Numbers of Hours Required (per unit)
Potpourri Scented Monthly
Department Bags Candles Production
Capacity (in
hours)
Manufacturing 2 4 1,200
Assembly 2 2 900
Profit per unit $ 10 $ 18

2P + 4S < 1,200
2P + 2S < 900
Halaman 16
Graphical Solution to Linear
Programming Problem

Quantity of Scented Candles 700

600

500
F
400

300 B

200 C
Feasibility
100 Region
A D E
100 200 300 400 500 600

Quantity of Potpourri Bags

Halaman 17
3. Contemporary Planning Techniques
a. Project Management

Project Planning Process


Identify
Establish
Define Activities Establish
time for
Objectives and sequences
activities
resources

Determine Determine
Project Compare additional
completion with resources
date objectives requirement
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b. Scenario Planning

Preparing for Unexpected Events


1) Identify potential unexpected events
2) Determine if any of these events would
have early indicators
3) Set up an information gathering system
to
identify early indicators
4) Have appropriate responses (plans) in
place if these unexpected events occur

Halaman 19