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The Art of Competence Recruitment

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What is Recruitment ?
Recruitment refers to the process of finding possible
candidates for a job or function. It may be undertaken
by an employment agency or a member of staff at the
business or organization looking for recruits.

Recruitment is a combination of
art and science. It requires a
great deal of enthusiasm,
inquisitiveness and patience to
thrive as a good recruiter.

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Why Recruit ?
Some of the more common business reasons for hiring include:
Business Expansion or Diversification
New Client, Customer, Market or Product
Career Progression or Retirement
Upsizing the caliber of talent because top
talent has become available
Increasing the capability of your firm by
adding new skill sets
Also, as a recruiter you should know your organisation very well and
determine the need for recruitment. Know the Vision, Mission,
Objective, Culture, Policies and the Long term and Short term
business need of your organisation.

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Objectives of Recruitment
1. To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences
that suits the present and future organizational strategies.
2. To induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company.
3. To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization.
4. To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent
people to the company,
5. To search or head hunt people whose skills fit the companys
6. To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits,
7. To seek out non-conventional development grounds of talent,
8. To search for talent globally and not just within the company.
9. To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum,
10.To anticipate and find people for positions that does not exist yet.

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Sub-systems of Recruitment

The recruitment consists of the following sub-functions :

1. Finding out and developing the sources where the

required number and kind of employees will be
2. Developing suitable techniques to attract the
desirable candidates.
3. Employing the techniques to attract candidates.
4. Stimulating as many candidates as possible and
asking them to apply for jobs irrespective of number
of candidates required.
Factors affecting recruitment - discuss
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Types of Recruitment
Centralized and Decentralized Recruitment
Recruitment practices vary from one organization to
another. Some organizations like commercial banks resort
to centralized recruitment while some organizations like
the Indian Railways (for junior level positions) resort to
decentralized recruitment practices. Personnel department
at the central office performs all the functions of
recruitment in case of centralized recruitment and
personnel departments at unit level / zonal level perform
all the functions of recruitment concerning to the jobs of
the respective unit or zone.
Discuss the Merits and Demerits
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The recruitment process
Recruitment sequence/procedure in any organization is as follows:

Identify vacancy
Prepare job description and person specification
Managing the response
Arrange interviews
Conduct the interview
Decision making
Convey the decision
Appointment action

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Identify Vacancy

The recruitment process begins when

1. An employee is to be transferred,
2. Promoted to another post,
3. Resigns,
4. Dismissed
5. Retire or
6. Other business needs

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Job Description
The primary purpose of a job description is to identify the
essential functions of the position. Essential functions are those
tasks or functions of a particular position that are fundamental to
the position (as opposed to marginal).

Knowing the essential functions of the job will aid you in:

* writing appropriate interview questions; and

* determining whether a person is qualified to perform the essential

functions; and

* identifying reasonable accommodations to enable a disabled

person to perform the essential functions.

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Define a Job

To define the job and its requirements, you need to determine the
primary responsibilities and tasks involved in the job.

Answer the question, "What does this person have to do in this job?"

What are the background characteristics needed to perform the job

and the personal characteristics required.

The two major background characteristics to consider are

education and experience.

Personal characteristics indicate how the candidate will approach

the job and how he or she might relate to co-workers.

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Recruitment Sources
Internal Recruitment:
Personal Recommendations
Notice Boards
News Letters

External Recruitment:
(a) The Press or Newspaper Advertisement (b) Radio (c) Campus
Recruitment, (d) Private Employment Agencies/Consultants,
(e) Public Employment Exchanges, (f) Professional Associations,
(g) Data Banks, (h) Casual Applicants, (i) Similar Organizations,
(j) Trade Union. (k) Internet.

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Profile Matching for the Best Fit
A job match includes not only a match in job skills, work history, and
education to the job but also a match between the supervisor and
new employees, as well.

Profile Matching can be done by the following ways:

Invite resumes through Advertisement and match
them with your job specification.
Search for the resumes through job sites on the
internet matching your job specification.
References or Word of mouth.
Search for candidates in your competitors.
The person whose behavioral style and talent matches
the profile of the job will do that job the best. Theyll be
the perfect fit for the job.

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Steps to match profile for the best fit:
1. Develop accurate job descriptions.
2. Compile a "success profile"
3. Draft the ad, describing the position and the key qualifications required
4. Post the ad in the mediums most likely to reach your potential job candidates
5. Develop a series of phone-screening questions
6. Review the resumes you receive and identify your best candidates
7. Screen candidates by phone
8. Select candidates for assessment
9. Assess your potential candidates for their skills and attributes using a proven
assessment tool
10. Schedule and conduct candidate interviews
11. Select the candidate
12. Run a background check on the individual to uncover any potential problems
not revealed by previous testing and interviews
13. Make your offer to the candidate

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Interview Preparation

1. Line - up Candidates
2. Form the Interview Team
3. Familiarize the Interviewer(s) With the Position
4. Establish Criteria for Selection
5. Develop Job-Related Questions
6. Develop Interviewing Strategies
7. Establish a System to Evaluate the Responses
8. Also
Schedule interviews to allow sufficient time for post interview discussion,
completion of notes, etc.
Secure an interview setting that is free from interruptions or distractions.
Review applications and resumes provided by the applicants.
Provide an accurate position description to each applicant and allow
adequate time for reading before the interview begins.

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Interviewing Strategies

Situational interviewing.
Stress interviewing.
Behavioral interviewing.

Each of these strategies has its strengths and weaknesses. One

strategy should not be used exclusively for all interviews. Different
position levels might require different interview approaches. The
sensible approach is to take the best aspects of each style and
combine them to produce a comprehensive strategy.

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Types of Interviews
One-On-One Interviews
Panel/Board Interviews
Impromptu Interviews
Dinner Interviews
Telephone Interviews
Group Interviews
Stress Interviews
Depth Interview
Behavioral Interview
Second Interviews

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Interviewing & Selection
An interview is a 2-way communication ; however, it
should be controlled by the interviewer
Every interviewee is a guest in your organization and
should be treated in such a manner
Always welcome the interviewees with a warm greeting
Encourage interviewees to respond positively and
share the information
It is always better to take notes during Interview
Good interviews flow smoothly when both the
interviewer and the candidate take part in an
information exchange

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Conducting the Interview
There are 3 steps to follow while conducting an Interview:

Open the Interview (Put the candidate at ease)

Gather Information (Ask questions & listen to responses)

Close the Interview (Create a positive impression of your

organization )

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Opening an Interview

While opening an interview, your purpose is to put both

you and candidate at ease, and set the stage for an open

There are 3 steps you should complete when opening

the interview:

Build rapport
State the agenda
Ask for acceptance

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Gathering Information
Gathering Information represents 70 to 80 percent of the

There are 3 steps you should complete when gathering

information from the interviewee:

Ask lead questions

Ask follow-up questions
Transition to the next subject

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Closing an Interview

The close of the interview is used to indicate to the

candidate that the information-gathering portion is
complete and the interview is about to wind down.

Take the following 4 steps when closing an interview:

Ask for and answer questions

Promote the organization and the job
Outline next steps
Thank the candidate

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Evaluation of candidates
Manage your bias
(a) Interviewer should be very careful to identify and
overcome any biases
(b) Bias is a form of extreme generalization. You may
generalize that a candidate lacks written communication
skills because of last two people hired from the same
college had poor written communication skills

2 steps to evaluate the candidate

(a) Summarize the interview (Refer the candidates resume,
and the notes taken during interview)
(b) Score the candidate ( Review Job requirement, mention
success factors , and calculate)

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Effective communication techniques during

Effective communication techniques include:

Active Listening (Follow 70/30 rule : Listen 70 percent of

the time Talk 30 percent of the time)

Nonverbal behavior (silence, lean forward, eye contact)

Verbal devices (Restatement, expanders e.g. I see,

Thats interesting)

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Some Points to remember

A successful interview should determine if there is a

match between the individual and the job
Be prepared for the interview
Analyze candidates resume before the interview and
frame the lead questions
Follow a structured process
Develop a simple outline that covers general job duties
Behave politely with the candidates

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Interview Tips for Interviewers

1. Write down a list of questions that directly relate to the job's

2. Ask behavioral questions, as in "tell me about a time when you..."
3. Review the candidate's resume before the interview.
4. Outline the interview structure for the candidate.
5. Don't talk too much.
6. Extend professional courtesies.
7. Watch nonverbal signals.
8. While being polite and professional, don't get too friendly.
9. Whether it's by email or phone, follow up to let candidates know
whether they got the job.
10. Talk ten percent and listen ninety percent.

More on Interviewing Skills

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What are competencies?

There are two main themes when defining competencies.

These are:
Descriptions of work tasks or job outputs - a 'competence'.
Descriptions of behaviours - a 'competency'. These have
evolved from the work of researchers who linked into what
made effective managers. One of these researchers, describes
a competency as "an underlying characteristic of a person in
that it may be a motive, a trait, a skill, an aspect of one's self-
image or social role, or a body of knowledge which he or she

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Why Competency Based Selection ?

There is a need for competency based selection because:

The person employed performs poorly in a critical job for he
lacks the competencies required for that role.
There is high turnover due to high failure rate among new hires.
The organization needs to identify new hires with the potential to
become future managers or leaders.
A gap between the competencies needed and what the
organization can hire for indicates the training new hires will need.
A lengthy training period may transpire before new hires become
productive. New hires with the competencies to do a job become
fully productive faster.

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Checking References
Some tips for collecting reference information are:

During the interview, tell the applicant that you will be checking
references. Gather names of several job-related references not
listed on the candidate's own reference list.
Conduct reference checking as the last step in the hiring
Check more than one reference.
Ask open-ended questions about employment history, job
performance, and potential problems.
Evaluate negative references fairly. A negative response from
one individual doesn't necessarily mean the candidate is
unqualified or difficult to work with.

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Types of Candidates
Before Interviewing, develop an understanding of the following
types of candidates:

Nervous candidate
Uncommunicative candidate
Talkative candidate

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Handling a nervous candidate
Give them an especially warm greeting
Engage in more small talk than usual
Point out various facilities or areas of interest within
your organization
Start with specific , fact-based questions that are easy
for the candidate to answer and unlikely to be stressful
Speak slowly in a relaxed, informal manner

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Handling an uncommunicative candidate

Many reserved or uncommunicative candidates simply

need to be encouraged to share their thoughts
Using silence can be effective
If the candidate is having trouble in answering questions
related to their strengths and weaknesses, tell them that
you will give them some time to think about it and come
back to the question later

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Handling a talkative candidate

Candidates who talk too much , often about things unrelated

to the job or interview can be challenging
Tell the candidate that you will be following a structure, and
stress on the time available for each section of the interview
When necessary, remind the candidate of the time limits
Redirect the conversation as politely as possible

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Building Rapport and Observing Candidate

It's time to meet your candidate. You extend your hand to greet the
applicant. You both sit down, and you immediately begin asking questions.
Right? Not quite.

1. Building Rapport 5. Field Candidate Questions

2. Concentrate on the Candidate 6. The Job Offer
3. Take Notes 7. Conduct Pre-employment Testing
4. Observe Body Language and Behavior

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Observing the Body Language of the Candidate
Everyone communicates with body language, but it takes place
mostly on a subconscious level. At the same time, studies claim
that 93 percent of communications about our feeling and attitudes
are conveyed through our bodies and voice tones. People are
untruthful with their words at times, but body language almost
never lies.



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Observing the Body Language

1. Before the interview 6. The Face

2. Come in to my office 7. Look for the heart window
3. The handshake 8. Hands, Arms, Feet and Legs
4. Have a Seat 9. It isnt over till the applicant exits
5. Eye Contact

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Handling Salary Negotiation
Try to keep these basic tips in mind when negotiating, for a better deal.

Review the existing salary levels

Address the employees' needs
Be quick
Highlights the reasons of better future prospects
Give Time to evaluate
Flexible Approach
Objective Criteria
Closing Negotiations
Make a backup plan

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Offer Letter and Appointment Letter

In their basic form, job offer letters usually include the


Job title or position offered

Salary or wage, benefits and perks offered

Instructions to accept or decline the job offer

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Offer Letter and Appointment Letter
The appointment letter should be as per the need of the company,
however following clauses should be included.

1. Date of appointment
2. Reporting
3. Probation period
4. Compensation
5. KRA and job profile
6. Leaves applicable
7. Social security applicable (like gratuity/PF/ESIC etc)
8. Non-Disclosure of information
9. Information Security
10. Code of conduct

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Dealing with Rejects
There is no law that requires a potential employer to tell an applicant why
they are being rejected for a certain position.
If more specific information is given to a rejected applicant, make sure to
follow some guidelines

Get to the point and be truthful and factual;

Make sure to give legitimate business-reasons, not anything that could
be labeled as discriminatory;
Provide ways in which the candidate can improve his interviewing
Do not give more information than you are comfortable with;
If the applicant makes threats immediately stop talking and thank them
for their time;
Be firm, but kind.

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Ethics and Recruitment
The challenge of acquiring large volumes of employable candidates
is so immense that organizations prefer to pass on this task to a
recruitment agency. These agencies are faced with their own share
of troubles.
Most candidates lie to varying degrees on their CVs.
The rapidly multiplying of job websites is something of a problem.

Recruiters to maintain ethical standards must follow:

Maintain high moral standards and deliver full value for money to the clients.
Candidates confidentiality is really kept confidential.
Avoid cutting service levels to get assignments at cut prices.
Keep away from corrupting clients HR people for more assignments.
Get assignments from clients by proven track record in recruitments.

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Ethics and Recruitment
Assuming you practice ethical recruiting, how can your organization
meet its needs for talent?

There are many alternatives to unethical recruiting and to filling

talent shortages.

Create a Strong Brand

Hire a Recruitment Process Outsourcing Firm
Look Inside
Short-Term Training and Coaching
Educating Hiring Managers

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