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Presentation - Instrumentation

30.01..2009 1
BASIC INSTRUMENTATION
Introduction:
The field of instrumentation includes the science and the art of measurement, control,
and process manipulation. Specifically, instrumentation is the technology of
creating, constructing, and maintaining the measuring and control devices and
systems that equip the manufacturing plants and research institutions.
So vital to todays expanding economy. Variables measured include temperature,
pressure, flow, liquid level, velocity, density, and many others.

The process automation has mainly three components


1. Measurement
2. Control
3. Display / Recording

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Benefits of Electronics & Instrumentation in personal life & process
Industries.
Impact of Instrumentation in personal life increase Alertness,
Security, Time Saving etc
Alarming.
Fast response time
Increase process efficiency
Accurate Measurement & controls.
Data monitoring & historisation.
Graphical Presentation.
Fault diagnosis.

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1. Measurement :

The art of measurement plays an important role in all branches of engineering and
science. Transducers and signal conditioners are the components of control loop,
which performs this task.

The transducer is defined as a device which, when actuated by one form of energy is
capable of converting into another form of energy. The transduction may be from
mechanical, electrical or optical to any other related form.

The signal conditioner can vary in complexity from a simple resistance network or
impedance matching network to complex multi stage amplifiers with or without
detectors demodulators and filters. Alternately, they are termed as signal modifier or
signal processors. The output signal may be usable analog or digital quantity.

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Types of Signals:

Signals represent information. The representation may refer to the value (or) the
change in values of a physical dimension and may refer to transmission, processing
(or) storage of information.

1.1 Analog signals:

An analog signal is a signal where each point in a continuous range of values of the
single parameter conveys different information.
Example:
1. Temperature range on thermometers

1.2 Discrete signal:

This is understood to mean a signal where information parameters can only be


assigned a finite number of values within certain set limits. These values bear no
relation to one another. Each value is assigned a given piece of information.
Example:
1. Density of traffic according to time of day.

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1.3 Digital signal :

A digital signal is a discrete, signal with a number of intervals of values of the signal
parameter.
Example:
1. Digital clock
2. Counting mechanism
2. Digital measuring device

1.4 Binary signal:

A binary signal (two-point signal) is a single parameter signal with only two value
ranges.
It is therefore a signal conveying only two items of information.

E.g. On - Off
Yes- No
1 -0

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2. Control :

There are basically two types of control loops


2.1 Open loop control
2.2 Close loop control

2.1 Open loop control :

In open loop control the transducer senses the physical parameter and it is converted to
usable signal by means of signal conditioner. The output of the signal conditioner can
be used for displaying or recording the physical quantity. It can be used to generate the
alarm condition but it does not influence the process on the basis of measured
parameter quantity.
ALARM

DISPLAY

PROCESS SENSOR SIGNAL INDICATOR RECORDER

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2.2 Close loop control :

Automatic Control or close loop control is a process in which one variable to be


controlled (process variable), is continuously measured and compared with another
variable, called the command variable (set point), the process is being influenced
according to the result of this comparison by modifying the control variable to match the
set point. The sequence of actions resulting from this takes place in a closed loop.
The purpose of the closed loop Control is to match the value of the controlled variable to
the value specified by the set point. SET POINT
SP
PROCESS

CV
SENSOR / PV
SIGNAL
CONDITIONER

CONTROLLER

CONTROLLED FEEDBACK
ELEMENT

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CALIBRATION

Calibration is an essential part of industrial measurement and control. It can be


defined as the comparison of specific value of the input and output of an instrument
with a corresponding reference standard. It offers a guarantee to the device or
instrument that it operates with the required accuracy and the range specifications
under the stipulated environment conditions.

Calibration must be performed periodically to test the validity of the performance of the
device or the system and requires the use of a standard for comparison of values.

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ACCURACY

The accuracy of a measurement or reading is purely a relative term.


Accuracy is defined as the closeness with which the reading or measured value
approaches the accepted standard value or the true value.
The accuracy is determined by calibration under certain operating conditions and is
expressed as within plus or minus a certain specified amount or a percentage at
certain point of scale or between specified point of scale. All devices and instruments
are classified and designated into different classes depending upon the accuracy of
the product.

PRECISION
Precision is the closeness with which individual measurements are distributed about
their mean value. It refers to the degree of agreement of a set group of measurement
among themselves. It is equal to the mean value of the scatter of individual
measurements. It combines the uncertainty due to both random differences in results
in a number of measurement and the smallest readable increment in scale or chart
(given as the deviation of mean values).
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ERROR
The output of a transducer is affected by the non-ideal behavior or the device, which
causes the indicated measurand value to deviate from the true value. The algebraic
difference between the indicated value and true value of the measurement and is
termed the error or the device. This error is usually expressed in per cent of the full-
scale output (% F.S.). The ratio of this error to the full-scale output is a measure of the
accuracy of the device.

ZERO DRIFT

Zero drift is the deviation observed in the instrument output with time from the initial
value when all the other measurement conditions are constant. This can be caused by
a change in component value due to variation in ambient conditions or due to aging.

SPAN

The range of the measurand variable for which an instrument is designed to measure
linearly is called the span. Sometimes it specifies the linear operating range of the
total scale.

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PID Controlling:

PID stands for Proportional, Integral & Derivative. Controllers are designed to eliminate
the need for continuous operator attention. Controllers are used to automatically adjust
some variable to hold the measurement (or process variable) at the set-point. The set-
point is where you would like the measurement to be. Error is defined as the difference
between set-point and measurement.
(error) = (set-point) - (measurement) The variable being adjusted is called the
manipulated variable which usually is equal to the output of the controller. The output
of PID controllers will change in response to a change in measurement or set-point.
Manufacturers of PID controllers use different names to identify the three modes.
These equations show the relationships:
P Proportional Band = 100/gain
I Integral = 1/reset (units of time)
D Derivative = rate = pre-act (units of time)

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Proportional Band

With proportional band, the controller output is proportional to the error or a change in
measurement (depending on the controller).
(controller output) = (error)*100/(proportional band)

With a proportional controller offset (deviation from set-point) is present. Increasing the
controller gain will make the loop go unstable. Integral action was included in controllers to
eliminate this offset.
Integral
With integral action, the controller output is proportional to the amount of time the error is
present. Integral action eliminates offset.
CONTROLLER OUTPUT = (1/INTEGRAL) (Integral of) e(t) d(t)
Notice that the offset (deviation from set-point) in the time response plots is now gone.
Integral action has eliminated the offset. The response is somewhat oscillatory and can be
stabilized some by adding derivative action.
Derivative
With derivative action, the controller output is proportional to the rate of change of the
measurement or error. The controller output is calculated by the rate of change of the
measurement with time.
CONTROLLER OUTPUT = dm/dt where m is the measurement at time t.

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Various process parameter measurements and controlling :

a) Pressure

b) Level

c) Temperature

d) Flow

e) Ph & Conductivity

f) Weighing

g) Final Control Elements

h) Drives

i) PLC / SCADA / DCS

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Various Instruments used for process parameter measurements and controlling :

a) Pressure :

Pressure Gauges For indication only

Pressure Transmitters Electronics, for indication as well as transmission.

Pressure switches For alarming and on/off controlling

PID controllers For Indication, alarming and controlling.

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PRESSURE GAUGE

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PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

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PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

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PRESSURE SWITCH

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b) Level :

Level Gauges For level indication only

Level transmitters Electronics, for indication as well as transmission

Level Switches - For alarming and on/off controlling

PID controllers For Indication, alarming and controlling.

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LEVEL GAUGE

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LEVEL GAUGE

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LEVEL SWITCH

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LEVEL TRANSMITTER

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c) Temperature :
Hotness or coldness measure of any substance. Also known as degree
of heat or quantity of heat.

Measuring Units:
Fahrenheit ( 0F ) : Introduced in 1709 by German philosopher
Fahrenheit. Melting point of ice is of 320F & boiling point of it is 212 0F.
0F = 9/5 X 0C + 32

Degree Celsius (0C) : Celsius(Centigrade) scale introduced in 1742 by


Swedish Astronomer & professor Celsius. Melting point of ice is 0 0C &
boiling point of it is 100 0C.
0C = 5/9 X ( 0F 32 )

0K (Kelvin) & 0R (Rankine) : Temperature scales are called absolute


scales because they use absolute zero as one of their reference point.
0K = 0C + 273.15
0R = 0F + 459.69

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Thermocouple:
Working Principle of Thermocouple is thermoelectric effect. If two
dissimilar metals are joined together so as to form a closed circuit,
there will be two junctions where they meet each other. If one of
these junctions is heated, then current will flow in the circuit. It can
be measured by electronic instrument. Current will flow
continuously until both temperatures become equal
Practical diagram

Indicator

Reference Junction ( Cold


junction )
Protection
thermowell Extension
leads

Measuring Junction ( Hot


junction )

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Thermocouple details :-

Type M.O.C Range 0C Colour code


+Ve -Ve
+Ve -Ve
Sheath

J Iron -200 to +750 White Red Black


Constantant
K Chromel Alumel -250 to +1250 Yellow Red Yellow

E Chromel Constantant -250 to +900 Violet Red Violet


T Copper Constantant -250 to +350 Blue Red Blue
S 90% Pt Pt 10% -50 to +1750 Black Red Green
Rh
R 87% Pt Pt 13% -50 to +1750 Black Red Green
Rh
B 70% Pt 94% Pt -50 to +1750 Black Red Green
30% Rh 6%
Rh

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Resistance temperature detector: (RTD)

The electrical resistance of a conductor changes as its temp. varies. The magnitude
of this changed with respect to a 1 deg.C change in temp. is known as the Temp.
Co-efficient. For Platinum it is 0.00385.

Rt = Ro ( 1+ T )
Rt = Resistance in ohms at Temperature T
Ro = Resistance in ohms at a reference temperature
= Temp. Co-efficient of resistance

Material Temp. Features


Platinum -250 to +850 deg. C Greater range, Best stability &
Good linearity

Copper -100 to +200 deg.C Best linearity


Nickel -100 to +200 deg.C Low cost, High sensitivity

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Difference between RTD and Thermocouple :-

SR RTD THERMOCOUPLE
1 Low Range (-200 Deg. C to 600 High Range (-270 Deg. C to 2800 Deg. C)
Deg. C)

2 Limited designs Wide Variety of designs on both standards ANSI &


EN.
3 Chances of inaccuracy during long Long transmission distance.
distance transmission.

4 Below 33 Deg. C of span Not possible because ref. Junction is the ambient
measurement is possible. temp.
5 Parallel application not possible using It is possible.
one sensor.

6 Best Accuracy Good Accuracy


7 Errors not possible due to electrical It can pickup the voltages & causes the error.
voltage leakages.

8 Best stability & Linearity Low stability & Linearity

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d) FLOW :

Introduction :
Measurement of flow rate and quantity of the oldest of all measurements of process
variables in the field of instrumentation. Without flow measurements, plant
material balancing, quality control and even the operation of any continuous
process would be almost impossible.
Flow measurements are made both for fluids and solids.

1. Variable Head
2. Magnetic type
3. Turbine type
4. Variable area
5. Vortex flow meter
6. Ultrasonic flow meters

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Vortex Flow Meter

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e) PH :

1. Introduction :
A pH meter measures pH of solution and identify whether it is Acidic or Basic in nature.
Solution having pH more than 7 are Basic in nature and less than 7 are Acidic in nature.
Solutions having 7 pH is neutral.

pH is the measure of ve hydrogen ions concentration. In this systems a pH responsive


glass takes up hydrogen ions and establishes a potential at the glass surface with
respect to the solution.

Conductivity :

Conductivity analyser measure ionic concentration of electrolyte samples. Cells and


instrumentation are designed to measure the electrical resistance ( or its reciprocal
Conductance ) of the solution.

The unit of conductance , the reciprocal of OHM, is SIEMNs (s).It express the
measurement of the mobility or velocity of ions in an electrolyte under an imposed
electric field. Value of conductance, reported for one gram equivalent weight of the
conducting ion are termed equivalent conductivity..

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f) Weighing:
To weigh an object means to measures the force of gravity on its mass at a particular
location.
W = mg
Where, W= weight of the object.
m = mass.
g = acceleration due to gravity.

Weight measurement can be done by :


1) Mechanical lever scales.
2) Spring Balance scales
3) Pneumatic load cells.
4) Electric load cells.
5) Induction load cell.
6) Belt conveyor-weighing system.

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g) Final Control Elements :
Control valves
I/P converters
Solenoid valves

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Control Valve Classification

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Control Valve

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Butterfly Valve Globe Valve

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Ball Valve

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I/P Converters

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h) VFD :
What is VFD :
Variable Frequency Drives vary the speed of an AC motor by varying the
frequency to the motor.
Benefits of VFDs
Step less speed can be achieved which is required in process control.
Energy Saving
Improvement in productivity.
Protection to motor from over Current. Life of equipments will increase.

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i) PLC: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

Introduction :
Programmable logic controllers are microprocessor based controller devices generally
used for processing digital Inputs/Output and digital data. Modern PLCs have the
enhanced communication capabilities and ability to process the Analogue signals also.
It is generally used for performing Arithmetic & logical operations, Sequential
operations, interlocks and Motion control.

PLC Diagram:

CPU PS MODULES

CHASIS

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CPU
SLC 5/04 CPU

RUN FORCE

FLT DH+

BATT RS232

RUN REM PROG

*
*
*

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Functions / Operations:

1. Offline: Work is going on in PC ( Harddisk ), 2. Online: Processor through the


PC.
this will not affect the PLC / SLC Operation. * PC must be comm. with
processor.
PC PLC / SLC PC PLC / SLC

3. Download: Transfer or copy of program 4. Upload: Copy & Saved the program
from PC to Processor. from processor to PC.
( Harddisk )
PC PLC / SLC
PC PLC / SLC

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Addressing & Processor operation:

I / O addressing: I I - Input
or : e. s / b O - Output
: - Element Deliminator
E - Slot Number
. - Word Deliminator
s - Word Number
/ - Bit Deliminator
b - Terminal Number
Scan Time:
Scan Time = I /O scan + Program scan.
If program is small then scan time less, it depends on program.
Processor
Signal Flow:
Input Device Data Files Control
I : 1/0 Element
I : 1/0 O : 2/0

Input Module Program Files Output Module

I : 1/0 O : 2/0
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Operating Cycle:
Input / Output
Scan

Program Scan
Overhead
Process

Communication

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PLC Language:

1. Ladder Diagram ( LAD )


2. Control System Flowchart ( CSF )
3. Statement List ( STL )

Ladder Diagram:

Symbol
Address Power Rail

PUSH BUTTON
I : 1/0 O : 2/0
Rung

Branch
O : 2/1

Instructions

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CSF: Q 4.0
I 1.0
& =
I 1.1

CSF represents logic operations with graphic symbols.

Statement List :
: A I 1.0 Where, A is logical operation
: A I 1.1 I is Operand ID
: = Q 4.0 0.1 is parameter
: BE

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DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM ( DCS )

Introduction
A system that controls / functions throughout the plant .
Many processors handle the control / management functions .
Use a common data bus for communication .

ZIP PRINTE PRINTE


DRIVE R R

US 1 US 2 US 3 US 4 US 5
AM AM HM 12

1 2 3 4 5 13 15

LCN - A

LCN - B
31 NIM NIM 32
NIM NIM
LCNA
AP 3/4
AP
14 MM

PRINT
ER
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PHD
DCS Distributed Control System

Single window to the plant.


History collection and data storing.
Report and Trend Generation.
Graphical View.
Sets production targets.
Advance control and alarming.
Calculations and optimize loops.
No limitations of Inputs and outputs.
Data transfer speed is 5 million bits per second.
Optimise inventory.
Modification / Addition / Deletion is easy and online.
PLC can be connected to DCS

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PLC Programmable Logic Controller

Software limitations.
No Graphical view Directly.
Report or Trending facility can be can be availed by using external PC.
No direct alarming.
Modification / Addition / Deletion online not possible.

SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

This is same as DCS, small DCS.


PC is connected to PLC for Graphical view, Reporting and Trending purpose.
One or More PLCs can be connected to one PC / Workstation.

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Important points for Selection of Instruments:
Application
Process Detail
Operating conditions e.g. Pressure , Temperature
Type of Instruments
Range
Size
Area of Operation
MOC
Installation
Make
Reliability
Cost

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Dos & Dont for Instruments:
Dos :
Proper Inputs for selection of instrument.
Installation as per Process & Instrument standards.
Predictions, observations & Immediate actions.
Proper protections, cares.
Proper pneumatic & electrical connections.
Proper start ups & shutdowns
Maintain Basic conditions.
Inform to Instrument dept. about any abnormality in field Instrument.

Dont :
Avoid damping due to process variations.
Dont use instrument above the span.

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