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Ultra-Wideband Imaging Radar Based on OFDM:

Exploration of Its Potential

Presenter: Dr. Dmitriy Garmatyuk, Department of


Electrical & Computer Engineering, Miami University

Presented on June 20, 2007 at Naval Research Lab, Washington D.C.


_________________________________________________________
Miami University

In Ohio, not Florida


Established in 1809
Named after Indian tribe
the T-shirt says it all:

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Talk Overview

History of OFDM
OFDM waveform design
UWB-OFDM in Communications and Radar
UWB-OFDM SAR: First steps
Range and cross-range imaging examples
Bigger picture: General scenario of interest
AFOSR project
Summary, Q/A

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Brief History of OFDM
Originated by Bell Labs researcher R. W. Chang in 1966-68*
Next 20 years: System architecture prototype design, adaptation for digital
broadcasting, mostly, by Thomson-CSF (currently, part of Thales Group), French
electronics/communications company best achievement was 70 Mbit/s HDTV
link at 8 MHz bandwidth
The 90s: OFDM was adapted for wireless LAN applications (20 MHz
bandwidth, max of 54 Mbit/s link capacity)
February 14, 2002: FCC opens up 3.1 10.6 GHz for commercial use at 41.3
dBm/MHz, triggering R&D efforts in UWB communications among industrial
companies**; OFDM is a primary candidate for system architecture
Now: MB-OFDM is still a #1 choice for WPAN (short-range PC-to-peripherals
high data rate communications technology) and is being tapped for 4G (next-
generation cellular)

* A Theoretical Study of Performance of an Orthogonal Multiplexing Data Transmission Scheme, R. Chang


and R. Gibby, IEEE Trans. on Communications, vol. 16, no. 4, April 1968.
** Design of Multiband OFDM System for Realistic UWB Channel Environments, A. Batra, J. Balakrishnan,
G. R. Aiello, et al., IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 52, no. 9, Sept. 2004.
_________________________________________________________
Fundamental Benefits and Reasons for
Survivability
Dynamic spectrum allocation: User decides which sub-
bands are to be occupied for each outgoing pulse
Digital-friendly architecture as digital technology
becomes cheaper, so do OFDM systems
Expandability: Bandwidth is determined solely by
sampling speed
Robust against narrowband interference: Turn on/off sub-
bands adaptively
Time synchronization is not a big issue: All processing is
done in frequency domain
Very good spectral efficiency: One pulse can contain many
bits of information
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Simplest OFDM Transmitter
Step 1: Decide how many sub-bands we want Step 3: Feed this vector to IFFT processor
Example: 32 sub-bands (usually 128 or 256)
Positive frequency half-axis
Mathematical spectrum
representation
DC point
32 discrete
sub-carriers

... ...

DC
-Fmax -Fk+1 -Fk Fk Fk+1 Fmax

0 Frequency

Step 2: Create signal by populating


the frequency vector

Negative frequency half-axis (flipped)*


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* MATLAB-specific notation
Simplest OFDM Transmitter Contd
Step 4: Feed the time-domain vector to DAC
Quick calculation: If we assume 1 Gs/s
speed of D/A conversion and 65 data points
in the data vector, then there will be (65-1) Quick calculation 2: The signal
samples at DACs output, each with 1 ns of is an RF pulse at 31.25 MHz
duration output signal will be 64 ns long carrier frequency and 64 ns
duration theoretical spectrum
is a sinc-function centered at
31.25 MHz and 31.25 MHz
main-lobe bandwidth
2/Tpulse

fc

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Orthogonality Illustration
Step 5: Compose the frequency vector anew and place 1 in adjacent positions
Each sub-band has
exactly zero
interference from
other sub-bands
precisely at its
carrier frequency
(sub-carrier)

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How to Make OFDM Ultra-Wideband?
Quick calculation: If all sub-bands are ON, then the entire occupied spectrum is 0.5
GHz or half the sampling rate. This holds for any number of sub-bands, or other
system parameters total potential bandwidth of an OFDM signal is always half the
DAC speed, hence the non-existence of UWB-OFDM systems in the past.

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UWB-OFDM in Communications

Can apply QPSK before feeding the frequency-domain vector to the DAC: Each
sub-band will then represent a 4-bit symbol
Make use of fast integrated FFT/IFFT processors and D/A and A/D converters
With 128 sub-bands we can squeeze 128x4=512 bits into 128 ns pulse
(theoretically) translates to 4 Gb/s!
Practically, of course, some bits in the sequence will be needed for
synchronization, etc, plus low power requirement will result in losses at the
receiver and the necessity to re-transmit data several times, thus realistically
100-500 Mb/s are currently achievable

Pros: Fading/multi-path resistance, Cons: Doppler sensitivity, issue of


excellent spectral efficiency, good high peak-to-average power ratio
potential for interference mitigation,
relatively cheap implementation in
integrated CMOS technology, good
scalability/spectrum flexibility potential

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UWB-OFDM Benefits for Radar

High waveform diversity potential


Dual-use architecture (radar/communications)
Noise-like waveforms for increased LPI/LPD
Ease of narrowband jamming and interference mitigation
High potential for coexistence with other services/radars
High resolution and multi-path potential
Modern technology allows for inexpensive implementation

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First Step: UWB-OFDM SAR

Stripmap SAR topology was assumed


24 m
15 m
Radar
TX/RX 150
160 range delays
antenna
Radar
antenna Cross-range Antenna beam

Cross-range
movement swath: 16 m Range

Backprojection algorithm in fast- and slow-time domains was


chosen as a basis for image formation
Standard SAR setup and analysis
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- REFERENCE: M. Soumekh, Synthetic aperture radar signal processing with MATLAB algorithms, John Wiley & Sons, 1999
First UWB-OFDM Radar Simulation Test-Bench
Point reflectivity
coefficients
s1
Time delay 1
and
Path attenuation
s2
Time delay 2 + Signal out
Signal in and +
Path attenuation ++
s16
Time delay16
and
Path attenuation
AWGN
Generator

Single range
profile response

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Range Profile Recovery: Standard SAR

Focusing
via
matched
filtering

_________________________________________________________
D. Garmatyuk, Simulated imaging performance of
UWB radar based on OFDM, Proceedings of The 2006
IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, pp.
237-242, Waltham, MA, September 2006.
Cross-Range Profile Recovery: OFDM
Benefits from Easy Sub-Carrier Extraction

In cross-range signals are represented in phase


domain before computing their cross-correlation

2
sRX (0 , u ) TFn exp j 2 0 xn + yn u
2

In OFDM single- n c
frequency components
in frequency domain
s 0 ( 0 , u ) exp j 2 0 Xc +u2
2

are already available c


after FFT in the
receiver*!
where sRX(0,u) represents radar signal at frequency 0 received when
the radar platform was at the cross-range coordinate u; TFn is a
reflectivity constant of nth target within the radar beamwidth; xn and yn
are range and cross-range coordinates of the nth point target; and
s0(0,u) is defined as an ideal return from a unit reflector located at the
centre of the radar-scanned target area i.e. (xn, yn) = (Xc, 0), where Xc
is the range distance to the centre of targets area.
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* Receiver:
Ref Phase Function Generation: An Illustration
- Beamwidth Coverage

Target

0. 8

0. 6

0. 4

0. 2

-0. 2

-0. 4
yo =
-0. 6
0
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-0. 8

-1
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Cross-Range (m e te rs)
Cross-Range Imaging Result

Span of 16 meters was assumed and various PRFs were simulated

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Full Image

Successful target recovery


for SNRs down to 20dB
with resolution 0.11 meter

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General Scenario of Interest

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Scenario feasibility study will be presented at EuRAD07
(October 11, Munich) and published in the proceedings
(Feasibility study of a multi-carrier dual-use imaging radar
and communication system, Dmitriy Garmatyuk, Jon
Schuerger, Jade Morton, Kyle Binns, Michael Durbin, John
Kimani; all Miami University)
Senior Design Project (Spring07): UWB-
OFDM Image Communication System
Simulator in MATLAB

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To be presented in October at EuRAD07
AFOSR-Sponsored Project
Objectives:
Design workable UWB-OFDM transceiver
Test imaging performance of UWB-OFDM radar
Test data communication performance of UWB-OFDM
Lay foundation for subsequent research of UWB-OFDM imaging radar
networks
Plans and personnel:
1st year: System component acquisition and theoretical analysis of
realistic 256 sub-band (0.5 GHz BW) SAR
2nd year: Imaging radar assembly and test
3rd year: Image communication test and imaging radar network analysis
(theory)
1 faculty member (me) and 1 M.S. student (who is much interested in
working for NRL or AFRL after graduation)
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UWB-OFDM System Prototype Plan
Virtex-4 AC-coupled
Rev 3.0
PCI interface DAC281 OUT Microwave Dynamics
IFFT core
64-bit 1Gs/s DRO-1000
Free-running oscillator
Summer07: FPGA-
66 MHz Sampling card
256-point IFFT (7.5 GHz, 13 dBm) TRC Electronics
(1 Vpk-pk out) SMA
3.68 ms Power Supply PBA30F-15-N:

PC w/MATLAB PCI interface


256 MB
85-264V IN, 15 V/2 Amps OUT
based digital transceiver
design and assembly;
DDR2 SDRAM
64-bit
66 MHz FM480 board: TX

Advanced Technical Materials


Fall-Winter07: Digital
PCI
interface Low-loss cable (N(m)-SMA(m))
CF-300-3M-NM-SM (3 meters)
SMA(f) Narda
Microwave
RF (out) testing and antenna
system acquisition and
Miteq
DBP-0208N533 IF PD2-4000/8000-30S
Power Amplifier LO
test;
N(f) Power divider
(33 dBm)
Miteq DM0412LW2
Mixer Spring08: RF assembly
SMA(f) AC-coupled
OUT
Virtex-4 and test
Summer08: Complete
ADC291 IFFT core
Advanced Technical Materials Standard horn antenna 1Gs/s
Sampling card
system test and
(137-441-2, 15 dB) and coax N-type adaptor flange (137-253B-2) 256-point FFT
(0.5 Vpk-pk in)
SMA 3.68 ms
N(f)
256 MB implementation
DDR2 SDRAM

FM480 board: RX
Miteq DM0412LW2
Advanced Technical Mixer LO Component Price per unit TX or RX Units total
Materials Low-loss FM480 $ 20,000.00 TX/RX 2
Advanced Technical Materials cable (N(m)-SMA(m)) RF DRO-1000 $ 950.00 TX 1
Low-loss cable (N(m)-SMA(m)) CF-300-3M-NM-SM IF (out) PD2-4000/8000-30S $ 315.00 TX 1
CF-300-3M-NM-SM (3 meters) (0.5 meters) DM0412LW2 $ 435.00 TX/RX 2
DBP-0208N533 $ 2,000.00 TX 1
Antenna+adaptor $ 550.00 TX/RX 2
Antenna cables $ 250.00 TX/RX 2
Miteq AFS3-02000800-18ULN $ 945.00 RX 2
AFS3-02000800-18ULN PBA30F-15-N Pwr Sup. $ 50.00 TX/RX 5
Ultra-Low Noise Amplifier Miteq
Misc. (cables, conn., etc) $ 500.00 TX/RX 1
(24 dB) AFS3-02000800-18ULN
Total : $ 48,375.00
Ultra-Low Noise Amplifier
(24 dB)

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Topics NOT Covered So Far

RF detriments in the transceiver and how they


will affect system performance
Doppler effect*
Clutter effects on various frequencies in UWB-
OFDM bands
Custom design (e.g. high transmit power,
integrated ASIC-based digital part)
Weight/power/complexity trade-offs for practical
usage models
Intelligent signal design (e.g. to reduce PAPR)
Actual effects of jamming on performance
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* But TU-Delft (The Netherlands) researchers have
concluded that it is possible to perform Doppler
estimation using OFDM:
G. E. A. Franken, H. Nikookar and P. van Genderen,
Doppler tolerance of OFDM-coded radar signals, in
Proc. 3rd European Radar Conf., 2006, pp. 108-111.
Summary: UWB-OFDM system at Miami U
Platform collecting High-resolution airborne radar
target image data
imaging (SAR, 0.31 meter
Platform receiving resolution theoretical bounds)
Image data transmission target image data

Broadband image data


communication between
airborne platforms

SNR
-10.07dB

Potential for image-based


PCI interface
64-bit
66 MHz
Virtex-4
IFFT core DAC281
1Gs/s
Sampling card
AC-coupled
OUT Microwave Dynamics
DRO-1000
Free-running oscillator
Rev 3.0
navigation in GPS-denied
environments (future topic)
256-point IFFT (7.5 GHz, 13 dBm) TRC Electronics
(1 Vpk-pk out) SMA
3.68 ms Power Supply PBA30F-15-N:
85-264V IN, 15 V/2 Amps OUT
PC w/MATLAB 256 MB
PCI interface DDR2 SDRAM
64-bit
66 MHz FM480 board: TX

Complete simulation-based
PCI Advanced Technical Materials
Low-loss cable (N(m)-SMA(m)) SMA(f) Narda
interface RF (out)
CF-300-3M-NM-SM (3 meters) Microwave Miteq
DBP-0208N533 IF PD2-4000/8000-30S
Power Amplifier LO Power divider
N(f) (33 dBm)

feasibility study is ~80% done


Miteq DM0412LW2
Mixer
SMA(f) AC-coupled Virtex-4
OUT ADC291 IFFT core
Advanced Technical Materials Standard horn antenna 1Gs/s
(137-441-2, 15 dB) and coax N-type adaptor flange (137-253B-2) Sampling card
256-point FFT
(0.5 Vpk-pk in)
SMA 3.68 ms

and hardware assembly plan


N(f)
256 MB
DDR2 SDRAM

FM480 board: RX
Miteq DM0412LW2
Advanced Technical Mixer LO Component Price per unit TX or RX Units total

Questions, discussion
Materials Low-loss FM480 $ 20,000.00 TX/RX 2

commenced in April07
Advanced Technical Materials cable (N(m)-SMA(m)) RF DRO-1000 $ 950.00 TX 1
Low-loss cable (N(m)-SMA(m)) CF-300-3M-NM-SM IF (out) PD2-4000/8000-30S $ 315.00 TX 1
CF-300-3M-NM-SM (3 meters) (0.5 meters) DM0412LW2 $ 435.00 TX/RX 2
DBP-0208N533 $ 2,000.00 TX 1
Antenna+adaptor $ 550.00 TX/RX 2

_________________________________________________________
Antenna cables $ 250.00 TX/RX 2
Miteq AFS3-02000800-18ULN $ 945.00 RX 2
AFS3-02000800-18ULN PBA30F-15-N Pwr Sup. $ 50.00 TX/RX 5
Ultra-Low Noise Amplifier Miteq
Misc. (cables, conn., etc) $ 500.00 TX/RX 1
(24 dB) AFS3-02000800-18ULN
Total : $ 48,375.00
Ultra-Low Noise Amplifier
(24 dB)

1. D. Garmatyuk, Ultrawideband imaging radar based on OFDM: System


simulation analysis, Proceedings of SPIE, Radar Technology X, Vol. 6210, pp. 66-
76, Orlando, FL, May 2006.
2. D. Garmatyuk, Simulated imaging performance of UWB radar based on OFDM,
Proceedings of The 2006 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, pp.
237-242, Waltham, MA, September 2006.
3. D. Garmatyuk, Y. Jade Morton, On co-existence of in-band UWB-OFDM and GPS
signals, Proceedings of The 2007 Institute of Navigation National Technical
Meeting, San Diego, CA, January 2007.