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Many surveys have shown the widespread

nature of gingivitis in children, a prevalence of

over 80% has been reported. The disease is
much more prevalent and more severe in many
Asian and African countries than in USA &
Scandinava. Identify the periodontal status in
our part of world & compare the same with
other developed countries.
According to John M Last 1988 defines
epidemiology as the study of distribution
and determinants of health related states or
events in specified populations, and the
application of this study to the control of
health problems
Gingivitis, swelling of gum, is the mildest form of
periodontal disease. There is usually little or no
discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is primarily
caused by inadequate oral hygiene and is
reversible with professional treatment and good
oral home care.
Factors that may contribute to gingivitis include,
diabetes, smoking, aging, genetic predisposition,
systemic diseases and conditions, stress,
inadequate nutrition, puberty, hormonal
fluctuations, pregnancy, substance abuse, HIV
infection, and certain medication use
In general, clinical features of gingivitis may
be characterized by the presence of any of
the following clinical signs: redness and
sponginess of the gingival tissue, bleeding on
provocation, changes in contour, and
presence of calculus or plaque with no
radiographic evidence of crestal bone loss.

To investigate prevalence and severity of gingivitis in representative
American adults.
Subjects (1,000) in Loma Linda, California; Seattle, Washington; and
Boston, Massachusetts were examined for Le-Silness Gingivitis Index
(GI). Mann-Whitney rank sum test was used to determine significances in
the GI between genders. The data among study sites and races were
compared using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA on ranks. The
correlation of the GI and age was examined by the Spearman rank order
correlation. Age differences among three sites were analyzed using the
one-way ANOVA.
The race composition of the subjects (mean age 37.9) approximated to
the 2004 U.S. Census data. The overall average GI was 1.055. Only 6.1% of
subjects showed mean GI<0.50; most (93.9%) were > or = 0.50, with
55.7% > or = 1.00. There was a significant correlation (P<0.001) between
the age and GI. The males' GI was significantly higher (P<0.001) than the
females'; African-Americans showed a significantly higher GI (P<0.05)
than other races except for the Native-Americans.
*This table demonstrates high prevalence of severe
gingivitis in the older age group (above 30 years).
On the other hand, prevalence of moderate
gingivitis was high in younger age groups (0-30
years). However, in combined age groups,
prevalence of normal gingiva was very low (ranged
from 0 to 4.1 percent). Prevalence of both
moderate and severe gingivitis was higher among
female than male and prevalence of various
categories of gingivitis in relation to both sex and
age groups were statistically significant.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of gingivitis the patients
visiting Dental OPD of Dhulikhel Hospital. Materials and Methods: A
sample of 100 subjects was randomly selected from subjects
escorting outpatients attending a Dhulikhel Hospital. A brief
history about the brushing habit was taken and the full mouth
gingival examination was performed. Data collection was done
through full mouth examination of gingiva and the gingival index
score was assigned as criteria of Loe and Silness. Collected data
was analyzed by using software SPSS 16.

Results: Gingivitis was more frequent among females than males and
the prevalence increased with age. About 62% had mild gingivitis,
33% had moderate gingivitis and 5% had severe gingivitis.

Conclusions: This is the first study to report on the prevalence of

gingivitis in Nepal. Although the results of our study demonstrate
higher prevalence of gingivitis in Nepalese adult, larger study with
greater sample size is required to elucidate this finding
NCBI journals
Journals of dental association