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ECE 463/461D - Wire Communications Fiber Optic Communication 2

An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent


fiber made of a pure glass/plastic not
much wider than a human hair. It
functions as a waveguide, or "light pipe",
to transmit light between the two ends of
the fiber.

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Wider Bandwidth and Greater Information
Capacity
Immunity to Crosstalk
Immunity to Static Interference
Environmental Immunity
Safety and Convenience
Lower Transmission Loss
Security
Durability and Reliability
Economics

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Interfacing Costs
Strength
Remote Electrical Power
Optical Fiber cables are more
susceptible to losses introduced by
bending the cable.
Specialized tools, equipment and
training.

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ECE 463/461D - Wire Communications
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1880 Alexander Graham bell
experimented with an apparatus called
photophone.
1930 J.L Baird and C.W. Hansel were
granted patents for scanning and
transmitting television images through
uncoated fiber cables. Few years later,
Heindrich Lamm successfully transmitted
images through a single glass fiber.

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1951 van Heel, H.H.Hopkins and
N.S.Kapany experimented with light
transmission through bundles of fibers.
Their studies led to the development of
flexible fiberscope, which is used
extensively in the medical field.
1956 - Kapany coined the term fiber
optics

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1958 Charles H. Townes and Arthur L.
Schawlow, wrote a paper describing how it
was possible to use stimulated emission for
amplifying light waves(laser) as well as
microwaves(maser). Two years later,
Theodore H. Maiman built the first optical
maser.
1960 Laser was invented.
1967 K.C. Kao and G.A. Bockham
proposed a new communication medium
using cladded fiber cables.
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1970 Kapron, Keck and Maurer of
Corning Glass Works developed an
optical fiber with losses less than 2 dB/km
which started the big breakthrough
needed to permit practical fiber optic
communications.
1988 The American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) published the
Synchronous Optical Network(SONET).
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Core
Cladding
Coating
Buffer Jacket
Outer Cable Jacket
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Infrared 770 nm to 106 nm
Visible Light 390 nm to 770 nm
Ultraviolet 10 nm to 390 nm

1 micron = 10-6 m (1 m)
1 angstrom = 10-10 m or 0.0001 micron

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Color of Light Wavelength in nm Wavelength in
Angstrom
Extreme Ultraviolet 10- 200 100 - 2000
Far Ultraviolet 2 00- 300 2000 - 3000
Near Ultraviolet 300 390 3000 - 3900
Ultraviolet 390 455 3900 - 4550
Blue 455 492 4550 - 4920
Green 492 577 4920 5770
Yellow 577 592 5770 -5970
Orange 597 622 5970 - 6220
Red 622 770 6220 - 7700
Near Infrared 770 - 1500 7700 - 15000
Middle Infrared 1500 - 6000 15000 - 60000
Far Infrared 6000 - 100000 60000 - 1000000
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When visible light or high-frequency
electromagnetic radiation illuminates a
metallic surface, electrons are emitted
Ep = hf
where:
Ep = energy of a photon
h = Plancks constant(6.626 x 10-34 J.s)
f = frequency of light emitted
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What is the energy in eV of the photon
having a frequency of 1012 Hz?
A photon of light is said to emit an energy
equal to 3.97 x10-19 Joule, what is the color
of light?
Refraction

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Refraction

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Refraction

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Refractive index n
n=c/v
where:
n = refractive index
c = speed of light in free space
v = speed of light in a given
material

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Snells Law
n1 sin1 = n2 sin2
where:
n1 = refractive index of material 1
n2 = refractive index of material 2
1 = angle of incidence
2 = angle of refraction

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Typical Indexes of Refraction
Material Index of refraction n
Vacuum 1.0
Air 1.0003
Water 1.33
Ethyl Alcohol 1.36
Fused Quartz 1.46
Glass Fiber 1.5 1.9
Diamond 2.0 2.42
Silicon 3.4
Gallium Arsenide 2.6

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Total Internal Reflection

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Critical Angle c is defined as the minimum angle of
incidence at which a light ray may strike the
interface of two media and result in an angle of
refraction of 90 or greater

c = arcsin (n2 / n1 )
where:
n1 = refractive index of material 1
n2 = refractive index of material 2
c = Critical angle

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A fiber has an index of refraction of 1.6 for
the core and 1.4 for the cladding.
Calculate:
a.The critical angle
b.2 for 1 = 30O
c.2 for 1 = 70O
Acceptance angle it defines the
maximum angle in which external light
rays may strike the air/fiber interface and
still propagate down the fiber with a
response that is no greater than 10 dB
below the maximum value
Acceptance Cone is a representation
of rotating the acceptance angle
around the fiber axis

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Numerical Aperture is the figure of merit
commonly used to measure the magnitude
of acceptance angle.

where:
n1 = refractive index of core
n2 = refractive index of cladding
NA = Numerical Aperture
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Acceptance angle

in = arcsin (NA)
where:
NA = Numerical Aperture

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Maximum Allowable Radius

where:
rmax = maximum radius of the core
= wavelength
N.A. = numerical aperture

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Calculate the numerical aperture and
the maximum angle of acceptance for
the fiber described in the third problem.
A single-mode fiber has a numerical
aperture of 0.15. What is the maximum
core diameter it could have for use with
infrared light with a wavelength of 820
nm?

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A fiber optic cable has a core index of
1.5 and a cladding index of 1.3. It
operates at a wavelength of 700nm.
Calculate the maximum diameter and
the number of modes for this diameter.

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Index Profile
Step Index fiber
Graded Index Fiber
Modes of Propagation
Single mode
Multimode

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Modes of Propagation

where:
N = number of propagating modes
n1 = refractive index of core
n2 = refractive index of cladding
d = core diameter
= wavelength
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Single Mode Step Index
Multimode Step Index
Multimode Graded Index

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Single Mode Step Index

Advantages Disadvantages
Minimum Dispersion It is difficult to couple
light into and out of
Wider Bandwidth and the fiber
Higher Information
rates A highly directive light
source is required

Expensive and difficult


to manufacture

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Multimode Step Index
Advantages Disadvantages
Relatively Light rays take
inexpensive and many different
simple to paths down the
manufacture fiber

Easier to couple The bandwidth


light into and out and rate of
of the fiber information rates
are less than other
types of fibers
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Absorption Losses
Ultraviolet Absorption
Infrared Absorption
Ion resonance Absorption
Material, or Rayleigh, Scattering Losses
Chromatic or Wavelength, Dispersion
Radiation Losses
Modal Dispersion
Coupling Losses
Lateral displacement
Gap displacement
Angular displacement (misalignment)
Imperfect surface finish

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Absorption Losses losses caused by
impurities in the fiber. They absorb the
light and converts it to heat.
Ultraviolet Absorption caused by valence
electrons in the silica material
Infrared Absorption result of photons of light
that are absorbed by the atoms of the glass
core molecules
Ion resonance Absorption - absorption
_
caused by the OH ions in the material.
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Material, or Rayleigh, Scattering Losses
When light rays propagating down a
fiber strikes submicroscopic irregularities,
they are diffracted. Diffraction causes
the light to disperse or spread out in
many directions. Some of the diffracted
light continues down the fiber, and some
of it escapes through the cladding.

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Chromatic, or Wavelength, Dispersion
light rays that are simultaneously emitted
from an LED(or any light source that
emits light containing many
wavelengths) and propagated down an
optical fiber do not arrive at the far end
of the fiber at the same time, results an
impairment called chromatic distortion.

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Radiation Losses losses caused mainly by
small bends and kinks in the fiber.
Two types of Bends
Microbends occurs as a result of
differences in the thermal contraction rates
between the core and the cladding
material.
Macroscopic bends caused by excessive
pressure and tension and generally occurs
when fibers are bent during handling and
installation.
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Macroscopic
bend

Microbend
Modal Dispersion (Pulse Spreading)
caused by the difference in the
propagation times of light rays that take
different paths down a fiber.

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Optical Sources
LEDs
ILD
Optical Detectors
PIN Diodes
APDs

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LED an LED is a p-n junction diode,
usually made from a semiconductor
material such as aluminum-gallium-
arsenide (AlGaAs) or gallium-arsenide-
phospide (GaAsP). LEDs emit light by
spontaneous emission light is emitted as
a result of recombination of electrons
and holes.

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Semiconductor Material Wavelengths
Material Wavelength (nm)
AlGaInP 630-680
GaInP 670
GaAlAs 620-895
GaAs 904
InGaAs 980
InGaAsP 1100-1650
InGaAsSb 1700-4400

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LASER stands for Light Amplification
Stimulated by the Emission of Radiation
Laser Types
Gas Lasers
Liquid Lasers
Solid Lasers
Semiconductor Lasers

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PIN Diodes is a depletion layer
photodiode and is probably the most
common device used as a light detector
in fiber-optic communication systems.
APD stands for Avalanche
Photodiodes. They are more sensitive
than PIN Diodes and requires less
additional amplification.

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Characteristics of Light Detectors
Responsivity
Dark Current
Transit Time
Spectral Response
Light Sensitivity

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OTDR Optical Time Domain
Reflectometer
It is a troubleshooting device to find
faults, splices, and bends in fiber optical
cable
It is used to measure time and intensity of
light
It can detect light loss and pinpoint
trouble areas making repair easy
OTDR test can be anywhere along the
length of fiber from ten seconds to 3 mins
Principle of Operation

OTDR emits a high power pulse that hits


the fiber and bounce back.
What comes back is measured, factoring
in time and distance, and results in
trouble spots which can be targeted
for repair
The more quickly trouble areas are
identified and addressed the less fiber
optic network will suffer from data
transfer problem