SALIVARY GLANDS

ANATOMY & APPLIED
ASPECTS

Joel D’silva
Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

The salivary glands are exocrine glands, glands with
INTRODUCTION
ducts, that produce saliva and pour their secretion in
the oral cavity
Major (Paired)
Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual
Minor
Those in the Tongue, Palatine Tonsil,
Palate, Lips and Cheeks

DEVELOPMENT

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STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT .

STAGE 1 Bud formation: Introduction of the oral epithelium by underlying mesenchyme .

STAGE 2 Formation and growth of epithelial cord .

STAGE 3 Initiation of branching in terminal parts of epithelial cord and continuation of glandular differentiation .

STAGE 4 Dichromatous branching of epithelial cord and lobule formation .

STAGE 5 Canalization of presumptive ducts .

STAGE 6 Cytodifferentiation .

UNDERSTANDING THE HISTOLOGY .

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25gm Irregular lobulated mass lying mainly below the external acoustic meatus between mandible and sternomastoid. On the surface of the masseter.PAROTID GLAND Largest Average Wt . small detached part lies b/w zygomatic arch and parotid duct- accessory parotid gland or ‘socia parotidis’ .

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. closely adherent-sends fibrous septa into the gland. mandible and tympanic plate.attached to styloid process. • Deep lamina-thin.Parotid Capsule • Derived from investing layer of deep cervical fascia. • Stylomandibular ligament. • Superficial lamina-thick.

External Features • Resembles an inverted 3 sided pyramid • Four surfaces • Superior(Base of the Pyramid) • Superficial • Anteromedial • Posteromedial .

• Separated by three borders • Anterior • Posterior • Medial .

Temporal vessels . Aspect of temperomandibular joint • Auriculotemporal Nerve • Sup.Relations • Superior Surface • Concave • Related to • Cartilaginous part of ext acoustic meatus • Post.

• Apex • Overlaps posterior belly of digastric and adjoining part of carotid triangle • Superficial Surface • Covered by • Skin • Superficial fascia containing facial branches of great auricular N • Superficial parotid lymph nodes and post fibers of platysma .

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• Anteromedial Surface • Grooved by posterior border of ramus of mandible • Related to • Masseter • Lateral Surface of temperomandibular joint • Medial pterygoid muscles • Emerging branches of Facial N .

• Posteromedial Surface • Related • to mastoid process with sternomastoid and posterior belly of digastric. which enters the gland through the surface • Internal Carotid A. • Styloid process with structures attached to it. • External Carotid A. which lies deep to styloid process .

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BORDERS .

• Anterior border • Separates superficial surface from anteromedial surface. • Structures which emerge at this border • Parotid Duct • Terminal Branches of facial nerve • Transverse facial vessels .

• Posterior Border • Separates superficial surface from posteromedial surface • Overlaps sternomastoid .

• Medial Border • Separates anteromedial surface from posteromedial surface • Related to lateral wall of pharynx .

Structures within the parotid gland .

ARTERIES .

VEINS .

NERVES .

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.• Facial Nerve trunk lies approximately 1 cm inferior and 1 cm medial to tragal cartilage pointer of external acoustic meatus.

. Stensen’s duct • 5 cm in length • Appears in the anterior border of the gland • Runs anteriorly and downwards on the masseter b/w the upper and lower buccal branches of facial N.Parotid Duct • ductus parotideus.

• At the anterior border of masseter it pierces • Buccal pad of fat • Buccopharyngeal fascia • Buccinator Muscle • It opens into the vestibule of mouth opposite to the 2nd upper molar .

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Surface anatomy of Parotid Duct • Corresponds to middle third of a line drawn from lower border of tragus to a point midway b/w nasal ala and upperlabial margin .

Jugular Vein Lymphatic Drainage Upper Deep cervical nodes via Parotid nodes . Carotid A • Venous • Into Ext. Blood supply • Arterial • Branches of Ext.

NERVE SUPPLY .

• Parasymapthetic N • Secretomotor via auriculotemporal N • Symapathetic N • Vasomotor • Delivered from plexus around the external carotid artery • Sensory N • Reach through the Great auricular and auriculotemporal N .

Applied aspects • Parotid swellings are very painful due to the underlying nature of the parotid fascia. • Mumps is infection of salivary gland caused by paromyxovirus which will cause severe pain .

Incision • Lazy ‘S’ incision • Pre-auricular—mastoid-cervical incision .

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• During surgical removal of parotid gland for any tumour the facial nerve is preserved by removing the glands in two parts superficial and deep lobe separately. .

Superficial parotidectomy
• Hypotensive anaesthesia
• Head up position
• Infiltration with 1:80,000 LA with adrenaline
• Long term paralytic agents should be avoided for
C VII monitoring whenever indicated

Facial Nerve injury

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• An infection may also spread due to the parotid lymph node draining an infected area .• A parotid abscess may be caused by the spread of infection from the oral cavity.

• Parotid abscess is best drained by horizontal incision according to Hiltons method of incision and drainage. Vertical incision on skin but transverse incision on the parotid fascia to safeguard facial nerve and branches .

• Frey's syndrome .

• The lobule of the ear is often pushed up in parotid swelling • For tumours of the parotid gland incision biopsy is not indicated as it will cause the seeding of the tumour .

Inflamatory diseases of parotid .

• In carcinomas mucoepidermoid ca> adenoid cystic ca > adenocarcinoma . • Of these 50% are benign and 50% and malignant. • In parotid glands. 80% of tumors are benign.Neoplasms of the salivary gland • 75% occur in the parotid glands. • Of these 80% are Pleomorphic adenomas. • 15% of salivary tumors occur in submandibular glands.

• 10% of salivary tumors occur in sublingual and minor salivary glands • 60-70% of these are malignant .

Classification .

Epithilial tumors • Benign • Pleomorphic adenoma (Mixed tumor) • Oxyphil adenoma • Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (Warthin’s tumor) • Basal cell adenoma .

Epithelial tumors • Malignant • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma • Adenoid cystic carcinoma • Acinic cell ca • Papillary adenocarcinoma • SCC • Undifferentiated ca • Ca arising in pleomorphic adenoma .

Connective tissue tumors • Benign • Hemangioma • Lipoma • Neurilemmoma • Fibroma • Malignant • Malignant lymphoma • Above mentioned benign tumors may turn malignant. .

submandibular salivary gland .

Border of mylohyoid . • Irregular in shape • Large superficial and small deeper part continous with each other around the post.Submandibular Glands are….

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Lateral . Medial.Superficial Part • Situated in the digastric triangle • Wedged b/w body of mandible and mylohyoid • 3 surfaces • Inferior.

Capsule • Derived from deep cervical fascia • Superficial Layer is attached to base of mandible • Deep layer attached to mylohyoid line of mandible .

Relations • Inferior.covered by • Skin • Superficial fascia containing platysma and cervical branches of facial N • Deep Fascia • Facial Vein • Submandibular Nodes .

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• Lateral surface • Related to submandibluar fossa on the mandible • Madibular attachment of Medial pterygoid • Facial Artery .

Hyoglossus.Styloglossus.9th nerve and wall of pharynx .• Medial surface • Anterior part is related to myelohyoid muscle. styloglossus. submandibular ganglion. stylohyoid ligament. • Posterior Part . hypoglossal nerve and deep lingual vein. lingual nerve. nerve and vessels • Middle part .

• Deep part • Small in size • Lies deep to mylohyoid and superficial to hyoglossus and styloglossus • Posteriorly continuous with superficial part around the posterior border of mylohyoid .

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Border of hyoglossus it is crossed by lingual nerve • Opens in the floor of mouth at the side of frenulum of tongue .Submandibular Duct • Whartons duct • 5 cm long • Emerges at the anterior end of deep part of the gland • Runs forwards on hyoglossus b/w lingual and hypoglossal N • At the ant.

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Blood supply and lymphatics .

• Arteries • Branches of facial and lingual arteries • Veins • Drains to the corresponding veins • Lymphatics • Deep Cervical Nodes via submandibular nodes .

Nerve supply • Parasymapthetic fibers from chorda tympani • Sensory fibers from lingual branch of mandibular nerve • Sympathetic fibers from plexus on facial A .

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Applied aspects • The formation of calculus is more common in the submandibular gland than in the parotid. • For excision of the submandibular salivary gland( for calculus or tumour). a skin crease incision is as a rule.5cm) below the angle of the jaw • A stone in the submandibular duct(wharton’s duct) can be palpated bimanually in the floor of the mouth and can even be seen if sufficiently large. . given more than 1inch( 2.

Tumors of submandibular glands • Tumors in this gland are uncommon • Enlargement is more due to calculus • Of all tumors. mixed tumor is most common • Swelling is hard but not stony hard and should be differentiated from submandibular lymph node .

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Submandibular gland excision • Indications : • Chronic sialoadenitis • Stone in submandbular gland • Submandibular gland tumors .

parallel to it • Preserve : • Marginal mandibular nerve • Lingual nerve • Hypoglossal nerve .Incision • Placed 2-4 cm below the mandible.

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lingual nerve . hypoglossal nerve .Complications • Hemorrhage • Infection • Injury to mandibular nerve.

Sublingual Salivary Glands .

• smallest of the three glands • weighs nearly 3-4 gm • Lies beneath the oral mucosa in contact with the sublingual fossa on lingual aspect of mandible. .

raised as sublingual fold • Below • Myelohyoid Infront • Anterior end of its fellow • Behind • Deep part of Submandibular gland .Relations • Above • Mucosa of oral floor.

• Lateral • Mandible above the anterior part of mylohyoid line • Medial • Genioglossus and separated from it by lingual nerve and submandibular duct .

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Duct • Ducts of Rivinus • 8-20 ducts • Most of them open directly into the floor of mouth • Few of them join the submandibular duct .

chorda tympani and sympathetic fibers) .• Blood supply • Arterial from sublingual and submental arteries • Venous drainage corresponds to the arteries • Nerve Supply • Similar to that of submandibular glands( via lingual nerve .

sailoliths • Inflammatory salivary gland diseases • Tumors as described before but it rarely effects sublingual glands . Sublingual and minor salivary gland diseases • Mucous cyst (retention cyst) : Ranula.

Applied aspects
• The structures at risk during dissection of the
gland are the submandibular duct and the
lingual nerve.
• The duct lies superficially in the floor of the
mouth medial to the sublingual fold, and is
crossed inferiorly by the nerve which then
enters the tongue
• The sublingual artery and vein also lie on the
medial aspect of the gland close to the
submandibular duct and lingual nerve.

Incision

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1994; 76: 108-109

D.Kruger • Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1994. 76: 108-109 .by Sicher and DuBruls • Gray’s anatomy • Oral and maxillofacial surgery-by Nilima Malik • Oral and maxillofacial surgery.Chaurasia • Oral anatomy.REFERENCES • Anatomy – by B.