INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY
FORM 3
TERM I
POWERPOINT #2
SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES
AND MEDIA
 Storage devices- computer hardware that
stores and retrieves data from the storage
medium
 The process of placing new data on the
medium by a storage device is called a
write operation .
 The process of retrieving that data is called
a read operation
COMPARISON OF SECONDARY
STORAGE DEVICES
 The following table will show comparison
between some secondary storage devices with
respect to speed, capacity ,portability and
accessibility.
 Direct access-allows the computer to go directly
to the exact location of data stored without
having to access any other data
 Sequential access- data is retrieved in the order in
which it was stored
 Access time- time taken to locate and retrieve
data
 Device interface- connects the storage device to
the computer. e.g. internal hard drives are
connected through the integrated drive
electronic.
DEVICE SPEED ACCESSIBILITY PORTABLE CAPACITY

Floppy Disk 84milliseconds Direct YES 1.44MB

Hard Disk 8milliseconds Direct NO (external 120GB-2TB
hard drives
are portable)
Magnetic - Sequential YES Large storage
tape capacity

CD-ROM - 700MB

DVD-ROM 4.7GB
TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH
STORAGE DEVICES
 Tracks- concentric rings on the storage
medium. Each is numbered for identification.
E.g. floppy disks
 Sector-a segment of a track on which data is
stored. E.g. floppy disks
 Cylinder- a set of matched tracks on all
platters. E.g. hard disks
 Data transfer rate- the rate at which data
can be transferred from the hard disk to the
CPU
INTERPRETING HARDWARE
SPECIFICATIONS
 Specifications- refers to a set of
requirements that a device should possess
 These could be in relation to:
1. The speed of the computer- processors in
our personal computers measure speed in
MHz (megahertz) and GHz (gigahertz)
2. The type of computer- the CPU for our
systems determines the type of
application for which a type of processor
is used.
INTERPRETING HARDWARE
SPECIFICATIONS
 There are many type of processors
developed by:
-Intel- e.g. Pentium, core and Celeron
-AMD- e.g. athlon, Sempron, turion,
and Phenom
3. The memory capacity and
memory type
OTHER SPECIFICATIONS
 Ports- there are different ports used to
connect external devices to the computer:
1. Parallel- used mainly to connect printers
but certain scanners or hard disks may
also be attached
2. Serial- used to connect certain types of
mouse, modem and printer
3. USB- used to connect about 127 devices
including keyboards, mouse, flash drives,
digital cameras, smart phones etc.
4. Firewire- used to transfer video images
from digital device
OTHER SPECIFICATIONS
 Expansion slots- sockets found on the
motherboard that can be used for adding
more memory, graphics and other special
devices
 Three types of slots are;
1. Peripheral Component Interconnect(PCI)-
used to attach sound cards, video cards etc.
2. Accelerated Graphics Card (AGP)- used
mainly to connect graphics card
3. Industry Standard Architecture(ISA)- used
for attaching modems
UNDERSTANDING HARDWARE
SPECIFICATIONS
 EXAMPLE 1: Hardware specifications-:
Intel Pentium IV 64-bit 3.6 GHz
2GB 533MHz SDRAM (Max-4GB)
160 GB SATA HDD 7200 rpm
 LINE 1- indicates the processor
manufacturer, type, word size and processor
speed
Manufacturer- INTEL
Type- Pentium IV
Word size- 64-bits
Processor speed- 3.6GHz
UNDERSTANDING HARDWARE
SPECIFICATIONS
 LINE 2- indicates memory capacity with
its maximum capacity, speed and type

Memory capacity- 2GB but allows a chip
up to 4GB
Speed- 533 MHz
RAM type- SDRAM(synchronous dynamic
RAM)
UNDERSTANDING HARDWARE
SPECIFICATIONS
 LINE 3- indicates the hard disk capacity,
speed and type of hard disk controller

Storage capacity- 160GB
Speed- 7200 rpm(revolutions per minute)
Hard disk controller- SATA( serial
advanced technology attachment)
ASSIGNMENT
1. Indicate the access method used to retrieve
data from each of the following:
- hard disk
-DVD-ROM
-Magnetic tape
2. Name two storage devices that are :
-portable
-large in capacity
3. Give an example of :
-magnetic media
-optical media
4. State three factors to consider in deciding
what storage media to use for archiving data.
5. State two reasons for using flash drives over
floppy diskettes.