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Remember:

Space groups for atom symmetry

Point groups for crystal face symmetry

**Crystal Faces = limiting surfaces of growth
**

Depends in part on shape of building units & physical cond.

(T, P, matrix, nature & flow direction of solutions, etc.)

Crystal

Morphology

Observation:

The frequency with

which a given face in a

crystal is observed is

proportional to the

density of lattice nodes

along that plane

Crystal Morphology

Observation:

The frequency with

which a given face in

a crystal is observed

is proportional to the

density of lattice

nodes along that

plane

Crystal Morphology

Because faces have direct relationship to the

internal structure, they must have a direct and

consistent angular relationship to each other

Crystal Morphology Nicholas Steno (1669): Law of Constancy of Interfacial Angles 120o 120o 120o Quartz 120o 120o 120o 120o .

Crystal Morphology Diff planes have diff atomic environments .

2mm 2/m 2/m 2/m Tetragonal 4. 6. 32. 422. 622. 42m 4/m. 6/m 2/m 2/m Isometric 23. 3 2/m 6. 62m 6/m. 3m 3. 43m 2/m 3. 4mm. 4/m 2/m 2/m Hexagonal 3. 2 (= m) 2/m Orthorhombic 222. 432. 4/m 3 2/m . 6mm. 4. Crystal Morphology Crystal symmetry conforms to 32 point groups 32 crystal classes in 6 crystal systems Crystal faces act just as our homework: symmetry about the center of the crystal so the point groups and the crystal classes are the same Crystal System No Center Center Triclinic 1 1 Monoclinic 2.

Crystal Morphology Crystal Axes: generally taken as parallel to the edges (intersections) of prominent crystal faces b a c .

Crystal Morphology Crystal Axes: generally taken as parallel to the edges (intersections) of prominent crystal faces The more faces the better prism faces & quartz c-axis. We must also keep symmetry in mind: c = 6-fold in hexagonal With x-ray crystallography we can determine the internal structure and the unit cell directly and accurately The crystallographic axes determined by XRD and by the face method nearly always coincide This is not coincidence!! . halite cube. etc.

Crystal Morphology How do we keep track of the faces of a crystal? .

face sizes may vary. Crystal Morphology How do we keep track of the faces of a crystal? Remember. but angles can't Note: “interfacial angle” = the angle 120o 120o 120o between the faces 120o 120o measured like this 120o 120o .

face sizes may vary. Crystal Morphology How do we keep track of the faces of a crystal? Remember. but angles can't Thus it's the orientation & angles that are the best source of our indexing Miller Index is the accepted indexing method It uses the relative intercepts of the face in question with the crystal axes .

Crystal Morphology Given the following crystal: 2-D view b looking down c a b a c .

Crystal Morphology Given the following crystal: b How reference faces? a a face? b face? -a and -b faces? .

Crystal Morphology Suppose we get another crystal of the same mineral with 2 other sets of faces: b How do we reference them? w x y b a a z .

Miller Index uses the relative intercepts of the faces with the axes Pick a reference face that intersects both axes Which one? b b w x x y y a a z .

The choice is arbitrary. Suppose we pick x b b w x x y y a a z . Just pick one.Which one? Either x or y.

MI process is very structured (“cook book”) a b c unknown face (y) 1 1 reference face (x) 2 1 1 b invert 2 1 1 1 1 clear of fractions 2 1 0 x Miller index of y face y using x as (2 1 0) the a-b reference face a .

1 a .What is the Miller Index of the reference face? a b c unknown face (x) 1 1 reference face (x) 1 1 1 b invert 1 1 1 1 1 clear of fractions 1 1 0 x (1 1 0) Miller index of y the reference face (2 1 0) is always 1 .

What if we pick y as the reference. What is the MI of x? a b c unknown face (x) 2 1 reference face (y) 1 1 1 b invert 1 1 1 2 1 clear of fractions 1 2 0 x (1 2 0) Miller index of y the reference face (1 1 0) is always 1 .1 a .

Which choice is correct? 1) x = (1 1 0) b y = (2 1 0) 2) x = (1 2 0) y = (1 1 0) x The choice is arbitrary y What is the difference? a .

What is the difference? b unit cell unit cell b shape if b shape if y = (1 1 0) x = (1 1 0) a a x x b y y a a axial ratio = a/b = 0.60 .80 axial ratio = a/b = 1.

The technique above requires that we graph each face A simpler (?) way is to use trigonometry Measure the b b interfacial angles w x 148o ? x y ? interfacial angles 141o y a a z .

The technique above requires that we graph each face A simpler (?) way is to use trigonometry b b w tan 39 = a/b = 0.600 58o 148o x y 39o 141o y a a z .801 x tan 58 = a/b = 1.

What are the Miller Indices of all the faces if we choose x as the reference? Face Z? b w (1 1 0) (2 1 0) a z .

The Miller Indices of face z using x as the reference a b c unknown face (z) 1 reference face (x) 1 1 1 b invert 1 1 1 1 w (1 1 0) (2 1 0) clear of fractions 1 0 0 (1 0 0) Miller index of a z face z using x (or any face) as the reference face .

b Can you index the rest? (1 1 0) (2 1 0) (1 0 0) a .

b (0 1 0) (1 1 0) (1 1 0) (2 1 0) (2 1 0) (1 0 0) (1 0 0) a (2 1 0) (2 1 0) (1 1 0) (1 1 0) (0 1 0) .

3-D Miller Indices (an unusually complex example) a b c c unknown face (XYZ) 2 2 2 reference face (ABC) 1 4 3 C invert 1 4 3 Z 2 2 2 clear of fractions (1 4 3) O A Miller index of X Y face XYZ using B ABC as the reference face a b .

Demonstrate MI on cardboard cube model .

picked (211) and called it (111) Best to change it Mineralogy texts listed axial ratios long before XRD We had to change some after XRD developed . the ratios should be the same If not.e. will be off by some multiple .We can get the a:b:c axial ratios from the chosen (111) face We can also determine the true unit cell by XRD and of course determine the a:b:c axial ratios from it If the unit face is correctly selected.i.

Form = a set of symmetrically equivalent faces braces indicate a form {210} b (0 1) (1 1) (1 1) (2 1) (2 1) (1 0) (1 0) a (2 1) (2 1) (1 1) (1 1) (0 1) .

tetragonal.Form = a set of symmetrically equivalent faces braces indicate a form {210} Multiplicity of a form depends on symmetry {100} in monoclinic. isometric . orthorhombic.

Form = a set of symmetrically equivalent faces braces indicate a form {210} F. 49-52) pinacoid prism pyramid dipryamid related by a mirror related by n-fold or a 2-fold axis axis or mirrors . 2.36 in your text (p.

Form = a set of symmetrically equivalent faces braces indicate a form {210} Quartz = 2 forms: Hexagonal prism (m = 6) Hexagonal dipyramid (m = 12) .

Isometric forms include Cube Octahedron _ 111 111 __ _ 111 111 Dodecahedron 101 011 _ 110 110 _ _ 101 011 .

Octahedron to Cube to Dodecahedron Click on image to run animation .

All three combined: 001 011 _ 101 111 111 _ 110 010 100 110 __ 111 _ 111 _ _ 011 101 .

b. Zone Any group of faces || a common axis Use of h k l as variables for a. the result = MI of a face between them & in the same zone . c intercepts (h k 0) = [001] If the MI’s of 2 non-parallel faces are added.

BUT doesn't say which face (010) (110)? Which?? (110)? (100) .

BUT doesn't say which face (010) (110) (210) (010) (110)? Which?? (100) (110)? (010) (120) (100) (110) Either is OK (100) .

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