PERCEPTION

• THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE COME TO KNOW THE WORLD
AROUND US…AN INDIVIDUAL’S WINDOW TO THE WORLD.

ATTITUDES
• PREDISPOSITIONS TO RESPOND CONSISTENTLY TO CERTAIN
PEOPLE, IDEAS, OR SITUATIONS.
• WE HAVE ATTITUDES ABOUT SPECIFIC “THINGS”
• ATTITUDES ARE A RELFECTION OF AN INDIVIDUAL’S
VALUES AND BELIEF SYSTEM
• THE WORLD’S WINDOW INTO THAT INDIVIDUAL

PERSONALITY
• REFLECTS AN INDIVIDUAL’S VALUES & BELIEF SYSTEM
• CHARACTERISTICS THAT CAUSE CONSISTENT PATTERNS IN
BEHAVIOR OVER TIME
• MORE ENDURING AND STABLE THAN ATTITUDES

PERCEPTION IN ORGANIZATIONS
• GETTING YOUR ATTENTION
• CONSTRUCTING A “REALITY”
• INTERPRETING MEANING
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OBJECT
Novelty (or it’s yours!)
Contrast, color, pattern
Movement
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERSON
Attitudes, values, personality
Salience (sensitized importance)
Perceptual set / disposition
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SITUATION
Selection & filtering
Information overload
Contrasts

THE PERCEPTUAL GAP BETWEEN SUPERVISORS & WORKERS LIKERT (61) SUPERVISORS WORKERS SAY THEY GIVE: SAY THEY GET: PRIVILEGES 52 % 14 % MORE RESPONSIBILITY 48 % 10 % A PAT ON THE BACK 82 % 13 % SINCERE PRAISE 80 % 14 % TRAINING 64 % 9% INTERESTING WORK 51 % 5% .

and salience . strictness bias • SELF-FULFILLING PROPHESY – People respond the way you “expected” they would • SELECTIVE PERCEPTION (MIND SETS) – Filtering. leniency. PERCEPTUAL ERRORS & ATTRIBUTIONS • STEREOTYPES – Based on appearance • HALO (HORN) EFFECTS – One outstanding characteristic noted • CONTRAST EFFECT – Ordering • RECENCY EFFECT – Limited recall • PROJECTION – “Similar to me” Error • SKEWING ERRORS – Central tendency. selection.

PERCEPTUAL “MIND SET” ERRORS ROSENHAN (73) Ho: THESE PEOPLE ARE INSANE…(Don’t let them out!) TRUTH SANE INSANE SANE ----------------------------------------------------------- OK TYPE I ERROR OBSERVED ------------------------------------------------ BEHAVIOR TYPE II OK ERROR INSANE ----------------------------------------------------------- 35/118 “You’re ok” TYPE I ERROR = Rejecting HO: when it is true (Alpha Error) TYPE II ERROR = Acceptin HO: when it is false (Beta Error) .

BASED ON SENSITIZATION Ho: THESE PEOPLE MIGHT BE SANE… (Don’t keep anyone who is ok!) TRUTH SANE INSANE SANE ----------------------------------------------------------- OK TYPE II ERROR OBSERVED ------------------------------------------------ BEHAVIOR TYPE I OK ERROR INSANE ----------------------------------------------------------- 41 “Ringers” spotted by staff 23 by psychiatrists . PERCEPTUAL “MIND SET” CONTD ROSENHAN (73) NOTE THE CHANGE IN BIAS.

ATTRIBUTION ERRORS • THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR – THE CAUSE OF POOR PERFORMANCE (BY OTHERS) IS DUE TO PERSONAL FACTORS (LAZY…DIDN’T TRY VERY HARD) • SELF-SERVING BIAS – THE CAUSE OF POOR PERFORMANCE (BY MYSELF) IS DUE TO SITUATIONAL FACTORS (POOR SUPPORT). NOT BECAUSE OF A LACK OF EFFORT .

ATTRIBUTION THEORY KELLEY (73) IS THE CAUSE OF THE BEHAVIOR SEEN AS INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL? WE LOOK FOR THREE TYPES OF INFORMATION TO DECIDE: DISTINCTIVENESS IS THIS PERSON’S PERFORMANCE DIFFERENT ON OTHER TASKS AND IN OTHER SITUATIONS? CONSISTENCY OVER TIME. IS THERE A CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR OR RESULTS ON THIS TASK BY THIS PERSON? CONSENSUS DO OTHERS PERFORM OR BEHAVE SIMILARLY WHEN IN A SIMILAR POSITION? “YES” answers lead to EXTERNAL attributions (Environmental causes) “NO” answers lead to INTERNAL attributions (Personal causes) .

ATTRIBUTIONAL MODEL OF FAILURE INTERNAL ATTRIBUTION (Person Responsible?) • LACK OF EFFORT • LACK OF ABILITY EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTION (Environment/situation Responsible?) • DIFFICULT TASK • BAD LUCK WHAT IS THE SUPERVISOR’S RESPONSE? NO ABILITY Training or Transfer NO EFFORT Reprimand or Motivational Strategy HARD TASK Job Redesign BAD LUCK Sympathy and Support .

HIGHLY INTENSE VALUES MAKE UP THE CORE OF OUR VALUE SUSTEM CONTENT What exactly is the mode of conduct or end-state being judged? INTENSITY How important is this value? Values can be ranked in importance to create a value hierarchy. BASED ON THEIR IMPORTANCE TO US. VALUES GENERALLY INFLUENCE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR . VALUES PREFERENCES THAT ENDURE BASIC CONVICTIONS ABOUT WHAT CONDUCT OR END-STATE IS “GOOD” OR RIGHT FOR YOU. (JUDGMENTAL) VALUES ARE RELATIVELY STABLE AND ENDURING WE CREATE A HIERARCHY OF VALUES.

TYPES OF VALUES ROKEACH TERMINAL VALUES END STATES OF EXISTENCE HAPPINESS (SATISFACTION IN LIFE) LASTING FRIENDSHIPS KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM RECOGNITION FROM PEERS PEACE & HARMONY IN THE WORLD SALVATION (ETERNAL LIFE) A SENSE OF ACCOMPLISHMENT PROSPERITY & WEALTH SECURITY (FREEDOM FROM THREAT) SELF-RESPECT A WORLD OF BEAUTY FREEDOM (INDEPENDENCE) MATURE LOVE (INTIMACY) EQUALITY INSTRUMENTAL VALUES PREFERRED WAYS TO ACHIEVE TERMINAL VALUES AMBITIOUS & HARD-WORKING INTELLECTUAL BROAD-MINDED INDEPENDENT CAPABLE & COMPETENT LOGICAL & RATIONAL CHEERFUL OBEDIENT COURAGEOUS POLITE FORGIVING RESPONSIBLE HELPFUL SELF-CONTROLLED HONEST LOVING .

SPIRITUALITY. Religious. Theoretical. Social. LOVE AND HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS • POLITICAL – INTEREST IN POWER AND INFLUENCING OTHER PEOPLE • RELIGIOUS – INTEREST IN UNITY. AND IN UNDERSTANDING THE COSMOS AS A WHOLE ---------------------------------------------------------------- RANKED VALUE-HIERARCHIES FOR MINISTERS AND EXECUTIVES MINISTERS -. Social . Political. ALLPORT’S SIX VALUE CATEGORIES • THEORETICAL – INTEREST IN THE DISCOVERY OF TRUTH THROUGH REASONING & SYSTEMATIC THINKING • ECONOMIC – INTEREST IN THE ACCUMULATION AND USE OF WEALTH • AESTHETIC – INTEREST IN BEAUTY. Aesthetic. Religious. Economic EXECUTIVES -. Political. FORM. AND ARTISTIC HARMONY • SOCIAL – INTEREST IN PEOPLE. Aesthetic. Theoretical.Economic.

PLEASURE NEXTERS 2000+ Under 30 Confident. dislikes authority Loyal to one’s career ACCOMPLISHMENT. RECOGNITION XERS 1985-00 Late 20s-40s Work/life balance Team-oriented. conservative Conforming. achievement-oriented Ambition. SECURITY BOOMERS 1965-85 40+ to 60+ Success. DOMINANT WORK VALUES TODAY ROBBINS (05) COHORT ENTERED WORKFORCE AGE DOMINANT VALUES VETERANS 1950-60 65+ Hard working. dislikes rules Loyal to relationships FRIENDSHIP. FREEDOM. financial success self-reliant but team-oriented loyal to self and relationships MONEY. HAPPINESS. loyal to the firm COMFORTABLE LIFE. COMFORTABLE LIFE .

MAGLINO’S VALUES FOR PEOPLE IN THE WORKPLACE ACHIEVEMENT GETTING THINGS DONE HELPING & CONCERN FOR OTHERS HONESTY TELLING THE TRUTH AND DOING WHAT YOU FEEL IS RIGHT FAIRNESS BEING IMPARTIAL ------------------------------------------- Are these values congruent between the leader and the followers? .

WHICH VALUES ARE REALLY IMPORTANT TO YOU? • PROFESSIONAL/CAREER • FINANCIAL • FAMILY • SOCIAL/FRIENDSHIP • COMMUNITY SERVICE • SPIRITUAL/RELIGIOUS • PHYSICAL/FITNESS • INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT Can your most important (intense) values be supported by your organization (in your career)? Is there a good “fit” between your values and your company/organization? .

VALUES ACROSS CULTURES HOFSTEDE (80) n=116.000 POWER DISTANCE ACCEPTANCE OF HIERARCHICAL DIFFERENCES TOLERANCE OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM PERSONAL ACCOUNTABILITY vs GROUP COOPERATION AND COLLABORATION TO WHAT EXTENT IS INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM & INDEPENDENCE VALUED? UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE FEELING THREATENED BY AMBIGUOUS SITUATIONS? DO PEOPLE WANT STRUCTURE. STABILITY. & FULFILLING OBLIGATIONS IMPORTANT? . THE ACQUISITION OF MONEY AND MATERIAL GOODS OR ARE RELATIONSHIPS. THRIFT AND HARD WORK IMPORTANT? OR IS THE PAST. RULES & CLEAR PERFORMANCE MEASURES? ACHIEVEMENT / NURTURING (MASCULINITY / FEMININITY) ASSERTIVENESS. COMPETITION. RESPECT FOR TRADITION. SENSITIVITY AND CONCERN FOR OTHERS MORE IMPORTANT LONG-TERM / SHORT-TERM ORIENTATION (COFUCIAN DYNAMISM) DO YOU LOOK TO THE FUTURE: IS PERSISTENCE.

ORIGINAL HOFSTEDE FINDINGS POWER DISTANCE 16 46 54 68 81 104 Austria USA Japan France Mexico Malaysia UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE 8 46 65 82 92 112 Singapore USA Germany Mexico Japan Greece INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM 6 30 46 67 71 91 Guatemala Mexico Japan Germany France USA MASCULINITY / FEMININITY 5 43 62 66 69 95 Sweden France USA Germany Mexico Japan CONFUCIAN DYNAMISM 10 29 31 80 96 Pakistan USA Germany Japan Hong Kong .

FINDINGS JAVIDAN & HOUSE (01) DIMENSION LOW MODERATE HIGH UNCERTAINTY Russia USA Austria AVOIDANCE Bolivia Mexico Germany Hungary Israel Denmark POWER Denmark France Russia DISTANCE Netherlands England Spain South Africa Brazil Thailand INDIVIDUALISM Singapore Hong Kong Greece COLLECTIVISM Denmark Egypt Hungary Japan USA Germany ASSERTIVENESS Sweden Ireland Spain (Masculinity?) New Zealand Philippines USA Switzerland Egypt Greece HUMANE Germany Hong Kong Indonesia ORIENTATION France Taiwan Malaysia (Nurturing?) Spain Sweden Egypt FUTURE Russia Slovenia Denmark ORIENTATION Argentina Egypt Canada (Long-term?) Poland Ireland Netherlands .O. THE G.B.E.L.

ATTITUDES FISHBEIN (67) EVALUATIVE STATEMENTS WHICH REFLECT HOW ONE FEELS ABOUT SOMETHING (objects. INFORMATION BEHAVIORAL EXPRESSED BEHAVIOR. BASED ON KNOWLEDGE. . people. OR INTENTION TO TAKE ACTION Attitudes are less stable than values. attitudes are important because they affect job behavior and satisfaction. or events) CONSIST OF THREE COMPONENTS: AFFECTIVE FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS COGNITIVE RATIONAL BELIEFS. FACTS. In organizations.

COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY vs DISSONANCE FESTINGER (57) EXPLAINS THE LINKAGE BETWEEN ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR CONSISTENCY DISSONANCE When the 3 elements… Are in Harmony Conflict We feel… At Peace and Content Uncomfortable Attitude change is… Not Likely Possible ---------------------------------------------------- ATTITUDE CHANGE IS MOST LIKELY WHEN THE ELEMENTS ARE IMPORTANT TO YOU. YOU HAVE SOME CONTROL OVER THEM. THEY APPEAR TO CONFLICT. YOU CAN: Change your behavior (stop polluting the river) Conclude the dissonant behavior isn’t so important after all (I have to make decisions in the best interest of the company. AND THERE AREN’T LARGE REWARDS TO YOU FOR HOLDING THIS ATTITUDE/BEHAVIOR. besides it’s within legal limits) Change your attitude (there isn’t anything wrong with this pollution) Seek out more consonant elements (the benefits to society of our products outweigh the cost of this minor pollution) .

and why people conform to “norms” . REASONS ATTITUDES ARE EXPRESSED KELMAN (61) COMPLIANCE TO GET REWARDS TO AVOID PUNISHMENT IDENTIFICATION TO MAINTAIN RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEOPLE WE ADMIRE INTERNALIZATION BECAUSE WE BELIEVE IT IS CORRECT IT’S THE “RIGHT THING TO DO” This model also helps us understand why people behave as they do.

YOUR ATTITUDE WILL BE STRONGLY LINKED TO YOUR SUBSEQUENT BEHAVIOR DISCREPANCIES IN THE ATTITUDE  BEHAVIOR LINK ARE MOST LIKELY WHEN: THERE ARE STRONG SOCIAL PRESSURES APPLIED EXTERNALLY. IF YOU’VE HAD DIRECT PERSONAL EXPERIENCE WITH THE SITUATION. If you talk about it enough. DOES THE ATTITUDE REFLECT AN IMPORTANT (FUNDAMENTAL) VALUE? SPECIFIC ATTITUDES AND SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS ARE STRONGLY LINKED. AND/OR THERE ARE LARGE REWARDS FOR “GOING ALONG” WITH THE CROWD. THE ATTITUDE-BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIP DOES ATTITUDE  BEHAVIOR? (Sometimes attitudes don’t seem to predict behavior very well). . “Do you intend to stay/quit in the next six months” is clearly more specific than “…are you satisfied with your work?” FREQUENTLY REMEMBERED (AND EXPRESSED) ATTITUDES ARE MOST LIKELY TO PREDICT BEHAVIOR. you’ll act on it.

6% satisfied. RESEARCH SHOWS… Happy workers aren’t necessarily productive workers…the reverse may be true Productive workers tend to be the happiest workers At the individual level: (Productivity  Satisfaction) At the organizational level. increase productivity and contain costs through heavier workloads. by 2002 = 47 % satisfied Decline may be due to attempts to restructure. JOB SATISFACTION AND PRODUCTIVITY • JOB SATISFACTION IS AN ATTITUDE Conference Board Study 1990 = 58. by 2002 = down to 50. Another factor may be the feeling that workers have less control over their work today than in the past. meager raises and cut benefits.4 % 35-44 yr old group 1995 = 61 % satisfied. “happy organizations” are the most productive ones! (Satisfied workers  Productive Organizations) . In other words. tend to be more effective than firms with fewer satisfied workers. the firms with the most satisfied workers (aggregated). tighter schedules.

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS & SATISFACTION SATISFIED WORKERS ARE MORE LIKELY TO “GO THE SECOND MILE” BUT THIS CAN BE EXPLAINED BY PERCEPTIONS OF “FAIRNESS” We don’t voluntarily do more than our jobs require if we think we’re not fairly treated. Poor performers may be forced to leave. ABSENTEEISM. . JOB SATISFACTION. NEGATIVE CORRELATION (-.40) Absenteeism is impacted by the liberal use of “sick day” benefits Even highly satisfied workers may not come to work…to enjoy this benefit! TURNOVER AND JOB SATISFACTION A NEGATIVE CORRELATION. TURNOVER. AND OCBs ABSENTEEISM AND JOB SATISFACTION A CONSISTENT.20 to -. STRONGER THAN WITH ABSENTEEISM Turnover is related to work performance as well as job satisfaction. regardless of their level of job satisfaction. Outstanding performers may also leave to seek even better job opportunities elsewhere.

JOB SATISFACTION AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION SATISFIED WORKERS ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE FRIENDLY. UPBEAT. SIGNS OF EMPLOYEE DISSATISFACTION COMPLAINTS AND GRIEVANCES INSUBORDINATE TALK AND FREQUENT ARGUMENTS STEALING ORGANIZATIONAL PROPERTY SHIRKING WORK RESPONSIBILITIES (they don’t do it) ACTIVELY LOOKING FOR A NEW POSITION ELSEWHERE CHRONICABSENTEEISM AND LATENESS REDUCED EFFORT AN INCREASE IN ERRORS/MISTAKES ON THE JOB SUDDEN RESIGNATION . CUSTOMERS ARE MORE LIKELY TO ENCOUNTER FAMILIAR FACES AND RECEIVE EXPERIENCED SERVICE. AND RESPONSIVE TO CUSTOMER NEEDS THAN LESS-SATISFIED WORKERS. BECAUSE SATSIFIED WORKERS ARE LESS PRONE TO TURNOVER.