ISE3214 Facilities Planning and

Material Handling

Production Flow Systems

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 1

ACILITY DESIGN
ANALYSIS/TOOLS

Schedule
Design

2

GATHERING SCHEDULE INFORMATION

• Schedule design impacts
– Machine selection
– Number of machines
– Number of shifts
– Number of employees
– Space requirements
– Storage equipment
– ….

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 3

Material Handling, Chp. 3

MAJOR TYPES OF PRODUCTION
SYSTEMS

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 4

• Integrating all parts together can determine what type of facility is being designed and lead to conclusions on the layout/flow Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 5 .WHERE DOES ALL THIS LEAD TO? • Building blocks for facility planning & design – Layout – Location – Material Handling – Storage. etc.

Similarly. and/or people. the flow of material tends to dictate the design of manufacturing and assembly facilities. the most important “building blocks” for a facility are flows -. • The flow of people tends to dictate the design of offices.MATERIAL FLOW SYSTEMS • Arguably. energy. • The principal of minimizing total flow represents theClass work simplification Overview and ISE3214 Introduction approach 6 .the flows of goods. information. materials. energy.

Minimizing multiple flows by planning for the flow between two consecutive points of use to take place in as few movements as possible. or people directly to the point of ultimate use and eliminating intermediate steps 2. or people to be combined with a processing step. information. Combining flows and operations wherever possible by planning for the movement of materials. information. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 7 . Eliminating flow by planning for the delivery of materials. preferably one 3.The work simplification approach to material flow 1.

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 8 . Eliminate manual handling by mechanizing or automating flow 4. Minimize manual handling by minimizing travel distances 3. Minimize material handling by reducing the flow density through containerization. Eliminate unnecessary movements of material by reducing the number of manufacturing steps 2.The principle of minimizing the cost of flow 1.

Flow Patterns: Top-Down Approach Flow BETWEEN departments Flow WITHIN departments Flow WITHIN workstations Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 9 .

Flow BETWEEN Departments • Often used to evaluate overall flow in a facility • An important consideration in flow between the departments: Location of pick up and delivery for each station • Entrance and exit positions are often fixed and has great impact on the design Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 10 .

Flow Patterns: Top-Down Approach Flow BETWEEN departments Flow WITHIN departments Flow WITHIN workstations Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 11 .

(b) spine flow. and (d) tree flow Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 12 . (c) loop flow.Mechanized Flow within Product and Process Departments Flow patterns within product and process departments tend to Be: (a) line flow.

Flow within Product and Process Departments • Spine flow: Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 13 .

Flow within Product and Process Departments • Loop flow: Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 14 .

Flow within Product and Process Departments • Tree flow: Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 15 .

Flow WITHIN Departments (Product. GT layouts) End-to-end Front-to-front Back-to-back Circular Odd-angle One operator per WS Multiple WS per operator What about flow WITHIN Process departments? Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 16 .

Flow patterns are dictated by the orientation of workstations to aisles. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 17 . similar or identical machines are grouped in the same department. Flow occurs between aisles and workstations.Process Departments • In a process department. A minimal amount of flow occurs between workstations.

Flow Patterns: Top-Down Approach Flow BETWEEN departments Flow WITHIN departments Flow WITHIN workstations Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 18 .

and habitual Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 19 . natural.Flow WITHIN a Workstation Ergonomic considerations Work design Motion studies Flow should be simultaneous. symmetrical. rhythmical.

production planning departments can be classified as a) product. or d) process planning departments. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 20 . b) fixed materials location.DEPARTMENTAL PLANNING • Depending on the product mix and production volume mix among products. c) product family (or group technology).

TYPES OF PRODUCTS/SYSTEMS 21 .

FIXED PRODUCT LAYOUT • People and equipment go to the product • Combine all workstations with the staging area – Product not moved – Equipment moved to product – Low equipment utilization Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 22 .

) Lathe Press Grind W S a t r o e r h a o g u e s e Weld Paint Assembly Equipment is brought to the location of the item being constructed or manufactured.. or a ship. building an office building.FIXED PRODUCT LAYOUT (cont. an airplane. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 23 .g. e.

Promotes job enlargement by allowing individuals or teams to perform the “whole job”. can accommodate changes in product design. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 24 .FIXED PRODUCT LAYOUT (cont. Highly flexible. 4.Independence of production centers allowing scheduling to achieve minimum total production time. and product volume.Continuity of operations and responsibility results from team. Material movement is reduced. 3. 2.) • Advantages 1. 5. product mix.

General supervision required. Equipment duplication may occur. 5. 4. Higher skill requirements for personnel. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 25 . Increased movement of personnel and equipment. 3. Low equipment utilization. 2. Cumbersome and costly positioning of material and machinery.FIXED PRODUCT LAYOUT (cont.) • Limitations 1. 6.

operations performed in serial • High output volume. low variety – Low material handling costs – Not flexible but can be automated Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 26 .PRODUCT LAYOUT • Flow line.

PENCIL MANUFACTURING http://www.com/watch?v=KS2zQXq7AFY 27 .youtube.

. assembly line).. e.g.PRODUCT LAYOUT Lathe Drill Grind Drill A W S s a t Press Bend Drill s r o e e r m h a b o g Mill Drill u l e y s e Lathe Lathe Drill • Facility designed for direct flow for individual products (i. flow shop.e. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 28 .

4. 3. material handling is reduced. Since the machines are located so as to minimize distances between consecutive operations.PRODUCT LAYOUT (cont. smooth and logical flow lines result. short. and inexpensive. Simple production planning control systems are possible. hence. Since the layout corresponds to the sequence of operations.Little skill is usually required by operators at the production line.Total production time per unit is short. training is simple. small in-process inventories result. Since the work from one process is fed directly into the next.) • Advantages 1. Less space is occupied by work in transit and for temporary storage. 7. 2. 6. 5. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 29 .

as identical machines (a few not fully utilized) are sometimes distributed along the line. Comparatively high investment is required. A breakdown of one machine may lead to a complete stoppage of the line that follows that machine. 5. Supervision is general.PRODUCT LAYOUT (cont. The “pace” of production is determined by the slowest machine.) • Limitations 1. 2. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 30 .Since the layout is determined by the product. 3. a change in product design may require major alternations in the layout. rather than specialized. 4.

com/watch?v=V-9eMmfThD 8 Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 31 . • Products may use different tooling. high skill level – Highly customized work – Low productivity – High work-in-process inventory – Long cycle times – Complex planning – Workers must be experts • http://www.youtube.PROCESS LAYOUT • Organize departments based on process/equip.

EXAMPLE PROCESS LAYOUT Milling Lathe Department Department Drilling Department M M D D D D L L M M D D D D L L G G G P L L G G G P L L Grinding Painting Department Department L L Receiving and A A A Shipping Assembly 32 .

The diversity of tasks offers a more interesting and satisfying occupation for the operator. 2.Comparatively low investment in machines is required. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 33 . consequently. 4. Better utilization of machines can result. A high degree of flexibility exists relative to equipment or man power allocation for specific tasks.Specialized supervision is possible. 5.PROCESS LAYOUT (cont. 3. fewer machines are required.) • Advantages 1.

Comparatively large amounts of in-process inventory result. 3. 4.) • Limitations 1. Because of the diversity of the jobs in specialized departments. higher grades of skill are required. 6. 2. Since longer flow lines usually exist. 5. material handling is more expensive. Total production time is usually longer. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 34 . Space and capital are tied up by work in process.PROCESS LAYOUT (cont. Production planning and control systems are more involved.

GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Mix between product and process layouts • Products and machines are grouped into families based on analytical methods • Form cells that can be operated by less operators – Analytical analysis at beginning – Low WIP – Low congestion – Faster response and easier scheduling Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 35 .

GROUP TECHNOLOGY (cont. Usually dedicate some machines to specific products and place the rest in a process department. An example of a GT layout is a batch shop.) Lathe Drill Grind Assembly W S a t Mill Assembly Weld Paint r o e r h a o g Press Lathe Drill Press Assembly u e s e Grind Drill Assembly Drill Grind • A delicate mix between a process and a product layout. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 36 .

Increased machine utilization. Shorter travel distances and smoother flow lines than for process layout.GROUP LAYOUT (cont. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 37 . Team attitude and job enlargement tend to occur. 2.) • Advantages 1. Supports the use of general purpose equipment. 4. 5.Compromise between product layout and process layout. 3. with associated advantages.

GROUP TECHNOLOGY (cont. 5. General and specialized supervision required. Lower machine utilization than for process layout. Compromise between product layout and process layout. otherwise. 2.) • Limitations 1. Depends on balanced material flow through the cell. buffers and work-in-process storage are required. with associated limitations. 4. 3.Higher skill levels required of employees than for product layout. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 38 .

CELL LAYOUTS 39 .

I.P.LAYOUT SUMMARY Characteristic Product Process Group Fixed Position Throughput Time W. Skill Level Choice Mixed Product Flexibility Demand Flexibility Machine Utilization Worker Utilization Unit Production Cost Low High Medium Medium-High Medium-Low = bad = indifferent = good 40 .

and process layout in the general machining and finishing section is used. • A sample hybrid layout that has characteristics of group. process and product layout is shown in the following figure.HYBRID LAYOUT • Combination of the layouts previously discussed. • A combination of group layout in manufacturing cells. product layout in assembly area. TM DM TM TM z BM TM TM Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 41 .

not many setups) . generally large batch sizes.continuous processing (i. . . FLOW SHOP Job Shop: a production system that manufactures a high variety of products with a relatively low volume (for each product).dedicate some machines. generally small batch sizes..pooled resources (i.. “pure” Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 42 job shops or “pure” flow shops are not prevalent.JOB SHOP vs.e. use the same machine for many products) Flow Shop: a production system that manufacturers a small number of products with a relatively high volume (for each product).dedicated machines to each product Hybrid/Batch Shop: a production system that manufactures products using a mix of job shop and flow shop designs.most Production Systems are Batch Shop or Hybrid Shop. . . the rest are job-shop.e. .setups between different products .