ISE3214 Facilities Planning

Chapter 4
Personnel Requirements

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 1

• If no people are to be accommodated by the facility, facility
logistics is a relatively simple task.
• Variation makes facility logistics design complex ― and people
tend to be a great source of variation.
• Safety, health, and environmental considerations must be
incorporated in facility design, along with federal ADA compliance
and barrier-free requirements.
• The employee-facility interface includes, among other things,
employee parking, employee’s personal belongings, restrooms,
locker rooms, food service, health services, security, offices, and
ingress and egress, e.g., aisles, hallways, doors, elevators,
stairways.
• Aesthetics in facilities become important because of the presence
of people and the importance of morale.
Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 2

• How management views the employee-facility interface is a
fundamental consideration in facility design.
• Some organizations place a high priority on how the facility
“looks,” whereas other organizations view the appearance of the
facility to be relatively unimportant.
• Form versus function is a key consideration in incorporating
personnel requirements in the facility design.
• Space standards exist for many aspects of the employee-facility
interface. Knowing the number of people to be included in the
facility, as well as the job requirements of the people, allows
calculations to be made regarding space and layout details.
• See the figures and tables in the chapter.
Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 3

Chapter 5 MATERIAL HANDLING Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 4 .

Importance of Material Handling • In a typical factory. material handling accounts for: MH 55% 25% of Employees Factory Space 87% Production time Product 70% 15% Cost Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 5 .

Material Handling Right amount Definitions MH is the art and Right material science of moving. and Right time controlling material Right condition PROVIDE Right place Right position Right sequence Right cost Right methods Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 6 . protecting. storing.

and underage costs • The right amount is not always zero! Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 7 . overage.Right Amount (inventory) • Lot sizes and load sizes • Stock and issue quantities • Active and reserve stocks • Safety and hidden stocks • JIT versus JIC (insurance) • Balancing replenishment.

Right Material (identification) • Labeling • Standardized parts • Part numbering system • Order picking errors • Segregating “look alikes” Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 8 .

Right Time (scheduling) • Calendar vs stopwatch • Responsiveness • Customer service • Too soon vs too late • FedEx and Toyota Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 9 .

Right Condition (quality) • Damage • Preprocessing • Verification • Protection • Packaging Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 10 .

Right Place (location) • Assigned locations • Locator system • Randomized vs dedicated storage • Centralized vs decentralized storage • Ergonomics Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 11 .

Right Position (orientation) • Automated transfer • Label/identification Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 12 .

combine. and change sequence Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 13 .Right Sequence (planning) • Assembly lines • Production scheduling • Palletizing and packing • Eliminate. simplify.

not a cost producer Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 14 .Right Cost (economics) • Bottom line! • Minimizing material handling cost: wrong objective! • Maximizing net benefits: right objective! • Material handling: a benefit enhancer.

Right Method (selection) • Requirements-driven vs solution-driven • Material characteristics and flow requirements • Analysis vs intuition • Specification Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 15 .

Efficiency (Doing Things Right!) Effectiveness (Doing the Right Things!) Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 16 .

Material Handling (Doing the Right Things!) Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 17 .

Material Handling • Generations – Manual material handling – Mechanized material handling – Automated material handling – Integrated material handling – Intelligent material handling • Dimensions – Moving material – Storing material – Protecting material – Controlling material Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 18 .

consumption and disposal. MHIA – Material Handling Industry of America. systems and related controls used to achieve these functions. goods and products throughout the process of Subjects manufacturing. distribution.org/learning/glossary/M#material-handling Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 19 .Glossary http://www.mhia.New (MHIA) Material Handling Definition Material Handling is the movement. control and protection of Operations materials. a consortium of material handling equipment suppliers Source: MHIA website . storage. mechanical equipment. Business Processes The focus is on the methods.

Objectives of Material Handling • Efficient material flow • Reduce MH cost • Improve facilities utilization • Safety and working conditions • Facilitate manufacturing process • Increase productivity Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 20 .

Definition Highlights • Art and science • Right stuff in the right way • Efficient Storage and Movement • Movement of “parts” with machines • Methods/Controls of movement to meet facility objectives • Throughout the supply chain Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 21 .

MH Examples Hospitals Mass Transportation Mail Delivery Construction Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 22 .

Environmental 5.Material Handling Principles 1. Automation 4. Life Cycle Cost Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 23 . Standardization 7. Systems 3. Unit Load 10. Ergonomic 9. Space Utilization 2. Planning 6. Work 8.

Customer Service and Profitability Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 24 . The Ten Principles of Material Handling The Key to Greater Productivity.

performance objectives and functional specification of the proposed methods are completely defined at the outset. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 25 .PLANNING PRINCIPLE • All material handling should be the result of a deliberate plan where the needs.

together they define the method (how and who).PLANNING PRINCIPLE • Definition: A plan is a prescribed course of action that is defined in advance of implementation. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 26 . In its simplest form a material handing plan defines the material (what) and the moves (when and where).

• Success in planning large scale material handling projects generally requires a team approach involving suppliers. computer and information systems. and end user specialists from management. engineering. consultants when appropriate. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 27 . finance and operations.PLANNING PRINCIPLE Key Points • The plan should be developed in consultation between the planner(s) and all who will use and benefit from the equipment to be employed.

and material handling methods. and future requirements and goals.PLANNING PRINCIPLE Key Points • The material handling plan should reflect the strategic objectives of the organization as well as the more immediate needs. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 28 . • The plan should promote concurrent engineering of product. process design. process layout. as opposed to independent and sequential design practices. physical and economic constraints. • The plan should document existing methods and problems.

modularity and throughput. controls and software should be standardized within the limits of achieving overall performance objectives and without sacrificing needed flexibility . equipment.STANDARDIZATION PRINCIPLE • Material handling methods. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 29 .

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 30 .STANDARDIZATION PRINCIPLE • Definition: – Standardization means less variety and customization in the methods and equipment employed.

STANDARDIZATION PRINCIPLE Key Points • The planner should select methods and equipment that can perform a variety of tasks under a variety of operating conditions and in anticipation of changing future requirements. flexibility and modularity must not be incompatible Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 31 . • Standardization applies to sizes of containers and other load forming components as well as operating procedures and equipment. • Standardization.

WORK PRINCIPLE • Material handling work should be minimized without sacrificing productivity or the level of service required of the operation. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 32 .

weight or count per unit of time) multiplied by the distance moved. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 33 .WORK PRINCIPLE • Definition: The measure of work is material handling flow (volume.

• Consider each pickup and set-down. as distinct moves and components of the distance moved. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 34 . combining. shortening or eliminating unnecessary moves will reduce work. operation sequences and process/equipment layouts should be prepared that support the work minimization objective.WORK PRINCIPLE Key Points • Simplifying processes by reducing. • Process methods. or placing material in and out of storage.

gravity should be used to move materials or to assist in their movement while respecting consideration of safety and the potential for product damage. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 35 . • The shortest distance between two points is a straight line.WORK PRINCIPLE Key Points • Where possible.

ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLE • Human capabilities and limitations must be recognized and respected in the design of material handling tasks and equipment to ensure safe and effective operations. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 36 .

ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLE • Definition: Ergonomics is the science that seeks to adapt work or working conditions to suit the abilities of the worker. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 37 .

• The material handling workplace and the equipment employed to assist in that work must be designed so they are safe for people. • The ergonomic principle embraces both physical and mental tasks. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 38 .ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLE Key Points • Equipment should be selected that eliminates repetitive and strenuous manual labor and which effectively interacts with human operators and users.

such as a pallet. regardless of the number of individual items that make up the load.UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLE • Definition: A unit load is one that can be stored or moved as a single entity at one time. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 39 . container or tote.

unit loads • Deserve special attention because of their importance to: – Material handling efficiency – Cost – Equipment selection • Product controls unit load which controls equipment selection – Vice versa: equipment/storage controls unit load Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 40 .

Design the Handling/Storage System Design the Unit Load Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 41 .Unit Load and Handling System The unit load is an integral part of the material handling system and a “simultaneous” determination should be made.

picking.a unit load. and movement as a single mass http://www.edu/index.vt.htm Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 42 . defined • A single item or group of items arranged so as to permit storage.unitload.

for our purposes. we can define the unit load as that which is “handled” or “moved.” It can be an individual item or a collection of items that are moved together.Unit Load Design • Several definitions are provided in the text. However. • Methods of moving a unit load – Lifting under the mass – Inserting the lifting element into the body of the unit load – Squeezing the load between two lifting surfaces – Suspending the load Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 43 .

UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLE • Unit loads shall be appropriately sized and configured in a way which achieves the material flow and inventory objectives at each stage in the supply chain. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 44 .

• Load size and composition may change as material and product moves through stages of manufacturing and the resulting distribution channels.UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLE Key Points • Less effort and work is required to collect and move many individual items as a single load than to move many items one at a time. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 45 . • Large unit loads are common both pre and post manufacturing in the form of raw materials and finished goods.

continuous flow and just-in-time delivery. • Unit loads composed of a mix of different items are consistent with just-in-time and/or customized supply strategies so long as item selectivity is not compromised. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 46 . • Smaller unit loads are consistent with manufacturing strategies that embrace operating objectives such as flexibility. smaller unit loads.UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLE Key Points • During manufacturing. yield less in-process inventory and shorter item throughput times. including as few as one item.

more examples: Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 47 .

Unit Load Formation Equipment Plastic Pallets Plastic Skid Boxes Part Holder Engine Stand Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction .

Unit Load Formation Equipment Part Holders Plastic Skid Boxes Order Picking from Bins to Totes Universal Pallet Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction .

Unitizers

Examples
– Stretchwrap
– Shrinkwrap
– Palletizers
• Manual palletizing
• Robotic pick and place palletizers
• Conventional stripper plate palletizers

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction

Check out examples at
http://www.orionpackaging.co
m/videos//

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction

Shrink wrap

http://www.ipack.com/solutions/video-model-25tw-shrink-wrap-
machine-wrapping-trays-eggs/

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction

palletizing.Palletizers Sample videos Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction http://www.com/resource-center/video-gallery .

why use unit loads?

• The larger the load = less cost per unit moved

$/unit

Quantity

• So conclusion: maximize unit loads
• BUT

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 54

a tradeoff to max unit loads

• Max unit loads
– Less trips
– More packing time required
– Need to wait for products to finish before moving

• Non-max unit loads
– More trips
– Can move more frequently
– Less packing time

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 55

which is better – low cycle time/low trips

• Depends on your facility practices but…
• Large loads
– Need larger/heavier equipment
– Less trips
– Larger WIP
– Needs wider aisles & high floor load capacities
• Small loads
– Used for JIT/Lean facilities
– Less complicated material handling equipment
– More trips
– Cycle time decreases
Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 56

considerations for unit loads • Space requirements • Overhead requirements: Cost • Time required to pack and unpack unit load • Empty container movement Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 57 .

and clear stacking heights Overhead Issues: Cost. door sizes.How to Determine the Unit Load Space Issues: Size of carrier Size and weight of items Space for storing loaded/unloaded container Aisle widths. supply and maintenance Equipment used for moving Environmental regulations Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 58 .

Equipment and method for handling 3. size. Methods to form and break down Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction . Type. and configuration 2. weight.Unit load design Unit load design involves determining for the load the following: 1.

the size of the handling unit usually decreases.As a product flows through the supply chain. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 60 .

4 34 MH time < unit processing Idle time Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 61 . fewer moves 18 26 M1 Unit Load = 2 units Small unit loads: lower cycle time.Unit Load and Cycle Time Lot size = 16 units M1 Unit Load = 16 units Machining = 1 min/unit MH Operations 1 and 2 M2 16 34 MH = 2 min/trip M1 Unit Load = 8 units MH Large unit loads: longer cycle M2 times. MH lower WIP. more frequent M2 6 20 handling M1 Unit Load = 1 unit MH To achieve single unit M2 production.

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 62 .

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Unit Load Disadvantages Time spent forming and breaking down the unit load Empty containers/pallets may need to be returned to their point of origin Cost of containers/pallets and other load restraining materials used in the unit load Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 68 .

Dimensions (length x width) (stringer length x deckboard length) Pallet Characteristics Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction .

.

.

SPACE UTILIZATION • Definition: Space in material handling is three dimensional and therefore is counted as cubic space. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 72 .

cluttered and unorganized spaces and blocked aisles should be eliminated.SPACE UTILIZATION Key Points • In work areas. the objective of maximizing storage density must be balanced against accessibility and selectivity. • In storage areas. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 73 . • When transporting loads within a facility the use of overhead space should be considered as an option.

assembly.SYSTEM PRINCIPLE • Material movement and storage activities should be fully integrated to form a coordinated. storage. order selection. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 74 . production. unitizing. operational system which spans receiving. shipping. transportation and the handling of returns. inspection. packaging.

SYSTEM PRINCIPLE • Definition: A system is a collection of interacting and/or interdependent entities that form a unified whole. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 75 .

SYSTEM PRINCIPLE Key Points • Systems integration should encompass the entire supply chain including reverse logistics. manufacturers. It should include suppliers. • Inventory levels should be minimized at all stages of production and distribution while respecting considerations of process variability and customer service. distributors and customers. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 76 . • Information flow and physical material flow should be integrated and treated as concurrent activities.

• Customer requirements and expectations regarding quantity. quality. and on-time delivery should be met without exception. for determining their location and status within facilities and within the supply chain and for controlling their movement. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 77 .SYSTEM PRINCIPLE Key Points • Methods should be provided for easily identifying materials and products.

decrease operating costs and to eliminate repetitive or potentially unsafe manual labor. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 78 . increase responsiveness.AUTOMATION PRINCIPLE • Material handling operations should be mechanized and/or automated where feasible to improve operational efficiency. improve consistency and predictability.

AUTOMATION PRINCIPLE • Definition: Automation is a technology concerned with the application of electro-mechanical devices. electronics and computer-based systems to operate and control production and service activities. It suggests the linking of multiple mechanical operations to create a system that can be controlled by programmed instructions. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 79 .

• Computerized material handling systems should be considered where appropriate for effective integration of material flow and information management. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 80 .AUTOMATION PRINCIPLE Key Points • Pre-existing processes and methods should be simplified and/or re-engineered before any efforts at installing mechanized or automated systems.

• Treat all interface issues as critical to successful automation. including equipment to equipment. and control communications. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 81 . equipment to operator.AUTOMATION PRINCIPLE Key Points • All items expected to be handled automatically must have features that accommodate mechanized and automated handling. equipment to load.

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 82 .ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE • Environmental impact and energy consumption should be considered as criteria when designing or selecting alternative equipment and material handling systems.

ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE • Definition: Environmental consciousness stems from a desire not to waste natural resources and to predict and eliminate the possible negative effects of our daily actions on the environment. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 83 .

empty containers and other by-products of material handling. combustibility and other risks. • Materials specified as hazardous have special needs with regard to spill protection. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 84 . • Systems design should accommodate the handling of spent dunnage. pallets and other products used to form and protect unit loads should be designed for reusability when possible and/or biodegradability as appropriate.ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE Key Points • Containers.

LIFE CYCLE COST PRINCIPLE • A thorough economic analysis should account for the entire life cycle of all material handling equipment and resulting systems. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 85 .

Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 86 . or to put in place a new method.LIFE CYCLE COST PRINCIPLE • Definition: Life cycle costs include all cash flows that will occur between the time the first dollar is spent to plan or procure a new piece of equipment. until that method and/or equipment is totally replaced.

reuse value. and ultimate disposal. setup and equipment programming. system testing and acceptance. installation. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 87 . maintenance and repair. and the estimated cost of maintenance and spare parts should be included in the economic analysis. training. operating (labor.). • A plan for preventive and predictive maintenance should be prepared for the equipment. utilities.LIFE CYCLE PRINCIPLE Key Points • Life cycle costs include capital investment. etc.

Other factors of a strategic nature to the organization and which form the basis for competition in the market place should be considered and quantified whenever possible. • Although measurable cost is a primary factor.LIFE CYCLE PRINCIPLE Key Points • A long-range plan for replacement of the equipment when it becomes obsolete should be prepared. it is certainly not the only factor in selecting among alternatives. Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 88 .

Material Handling Systems Design Define the objectives & scope Analyze the requirements Generate alternative designs Evaluate alternative designs Select the preferred design Implement the preferred design Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 89 .

Material Handling Equations Material Characteristics + Flow Requirements = Material Flow System Requirements Material Flow System Requirements + Material Handling Methods = Material Handling System Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 90 .

Material Handling Systems Equation Why? What? Where? When? How? Who? Which? Preferred Materials + Moves + Methods = Material Flow Systems characteristics requirements Material Flow System Requirements Class Overview and ISE3214 Introduction 91 .