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**CE 341 Lecture Notes
**

Geotechnical Engineering I

shear stress for equilibrium (-t) . Sign Convention normal stress (s ) (+s) (-s) (+s) (-s) shear stress (t ) (USC) (-t) (+t) (+t) Element must have both pos. and neg.

s 3 ) = “deviator stress” (results in shear stress) Principal Plane: plane on which principal stress acts • Two s principal planes are perpendicular s 1 1 t=0 Not necessarily s3 s3 horizontal And vertical! . then “isotropic stress” (thus no shear stress) (s 1 . Principal Stresses & Principal Planes Principal stress: normal stress on plane where shear stress is zero s 1 = maximum (major) principal stress s 3 = minimum (minor) principal stress s1 s 2 s 3 s 2 = intermediate principal stress (3D) If s 1 = s 2 = s 3.

.. s 3 ds sin a = s a sin a ds t a cos a ds dy = ds sin a s 1 ds cos a = s a cos a ds t a sin a ds . Derivation of Mohr’s Circle Consider a 2D element where s 1 ≠ s 3 s1 Sub-element: sa s s3 ds s3 dy t ta a dx s1 F h = 0 : s 3dy = s a sin a ds t a cos a ds F v = 0 : s 1dx = s a cos a ds t a sin a ds where dx = ds cos a Substituting.

s 3 ds sin a = s a sin a ds t a cos a ds sa s 1 ds cos a = s a cos a ds t a sin a ds ds s3 Divide by ds… dy s 3 sin a = s a sin a t a cos a ta a dx s 1 cos a = s a cos a t a sin a Solve simultaneously… s1 1 1 ta = s 1 s 3 sin 2a (Note: if s1 = s3. t a = 0) 2 1 1 2 s a = s 1 s 3 s 1 s 3 cos 2a 2 2 Rewrite (2)… 1 3 sa s 1 s 3 = 1 s 1 s 3 cos 2a 2 2 Square (1) and (3) and add together… 2 2 1 1 t = s a s 1 s 3 = s 1 s 3 2 a 2 2 .

2 2 1 1 t s a s 1 s 3 = s 1 s 3 2 a 2 2 y Is an equation for a circle in the form y 2 x x0 = r 2 2 r x0 x where y =t x =s t 1 x0 = s 1 s 3 2 1 r = s 1 s 3 2 ½(s1–s3) s s3 ½(s1+s3) s1 .

Typically only have stresses (+s ) in compressive regime… t t t s s s3 s1 s t t s s .. t Mohr’s Circle: graphical representation of state of stress on every plane in a 2D element ½(s1–s3) s s3 ½(s1+s3) s1 Typically only plot top half (+t ) in geotechnical practice...

Mohr’s Circle for effective stress (s ’ = s – u) t Circle for effective stress (s ’) Circle for total stress (s ) u s’ or s Shifts to left by pore pressure (u) We will see later that this is a less stable state of stress (soil is closer to failure conditions) .

Finding principal stresses if given stresses on perpendicular planes… sy tyx txy = -tyx txy sx > sy sx 2 s 1 = s x s y t xy2 s x s y 1 1 t 2 2 2 2 r = t xy2 s x s y 1 s 3 = s x s y t xy2 s x s y 1 1 2 2 2 tmax sx. tyx) 1/2sx+sy) . txy) 2 = t s x s y = s 1 s 3 1 1 t max 2 xy 2 2 sy s3 sx s1 s sy.

Example: Find principal stresses and max shear stress (Analytical Solution) sy = 3000 psf txy = -300 psf sx = 2100 psf 2 2 s 1 = s x s y t xy2 s x s y = 2100 3000 300 2 2100 3000 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 s 1 = 3091 psf 2 2 s 3 = s x s y t xy2 s x s y = 2100 3000 300 2 2100 3000 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 s 3 = 2009 psf 1 1 t max = s 1 s 3 = 3091 2009 = 541 psf 2 2 .

Graphical Solution: sy = 3000 psf draw to scale with x-scale = y-scale plot known points and construct circle txy = -300 psf “pick-off” principal stresses and max shear sx = 2100 psf .

g. tyx) of Planes” Methods .Finding stresses on any plane… Graphical solution (Reference Plane Method) 1) Establish angle a from a reference plane (e.. tyx 2) Locate reference plane in Mohr’s circle sa txy (center of circle to stress on ref plane) sx 3) Measure 2a from ref plane in same direction ta (CW or CCW) a 4) This intersects circle at state of stress on angled plane t Analytical solution: 1 Reference ta = s 1 s 3 sin 2a Plane 2 sx. ta) *See also “Pole Point” or “Origin sy. txy) 1 1 s a = s 1 s 3 s 1 s 3 cos 2a 2 2 sy s3 sx s1 s 2a sa. sy horizontal).

5 0.5 kPa (C) ta sa. ta) = (1.Example Graphical solution s1 = 2.5 sin 90 = 1 kPa 2 1 1 s a = s 1 s 3 s 1 s 3 cos 2a 2 2 1 1 s a = 2.5 0.5 kPa (C) sa s3 = 0. 1 kPa) a = 45 2a = 90 CCW Analytical solution: 1 ta = s 1 s 3 sin 2a Reference Plane 2 1 t a = 2.5 kPa 2 2 .5 cos 90 = 1.5 2.5 0.5.

7 CCW) txy = 300 psf 4) So major principal plane is 17 deg. s1 = 3091 psf . CCW from horizontal sx = 2100 psf s3 = 2009 psf 17 deg.Find orientation of principal planes: sy = 3000 psf 1) Let horizontal be reference plane 2) Find reference plane on circle tyx = -300 psf 3) Measure angle to principal plane (2a = 33.

Example: Find stresses on plane 30˚ as shown 40 psi 30˚ 20 psi 1) Let major principal plane be reference plane 2) Find reference plane on circle 3) Measure angle (2a = 60˚ CCW) 40 psi 35 8.7 30˚ 20 psi .

2) Find s 1 = 44 psi. or 44 psi 52.10) 4) Find reference plane on circle 5) Measure angle to minor principal plane (2a = 45˚ CCW) 6) So minor principal plane is 22. s 3 = 16 psi 3) Let plane 30˚ from horizontal be reference plane.5˚ CCW from horizontal. 52.5˚ CCW from reference plane. (s.5˚ 16 psi .Example: Find magnitude and orientation of principal stresses 20 psi 40 psi 10 psi -10 psi 30˚ 1) Plot known points and draw circle.t ) = (20.

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