Egyptian Maintenance Company

Flange management

Course contents

Module 1
Piping Specifications.

Module 2

Module 3

Module 4
Flange Bolting.

Module 5
Management system .

Page  2

Plant piping Specifications
 The Piping Specification is a document prepared during the design phase of any project. It provides the
appropriate selection, specification and material grade of pipe and piping components for a given
 For all subsequent maintenance and repair on a section of pipe, the piping specification remains as the
key to correct material selection.
 Before commencing any job, reference to the piping specification is essential to specify and use the
correct materials. For the job check that you are using the latest revision of the specification.
 Do not rely on “what was installed before must be right” as this is not always the case! If a discrepancy
is found, it should be reported.
 Note that a piping specification only applies to the defined plant, site or installation. for example each
have their own piping specifications and they are NOT inter- changeable.
 To use the piping specification, reference must first be made to the Process and Instrument Diagram.
Identify the section of pipe in the P&ID and a line number will be quoted, e.g.:
 8”-WF-1007-1A1E which is interpreted as follows:
 8” - The nominal pipe size of the line.
 WF - The service code. This refers to the contents of the pipe. In this instance, WF refers to Fire
 1007 - The pipeline number which is a unique number allocated to a specific section or run of pipe
during the design stages.
 1A1E - The piping specification number. This is a short-hand reference into the piping specification
document, and is also unique to that document. The letter normally refers to the pressure rating of the
Page  3

Page  4

There the correct type of gasket.Piping Specifications  Having determined the piping specification number. blind flanges. Page  5 . valves. gaskets and supports used to convey distribute and control flow of fluid. pipe material. fitting . pipe wall thickness and much more will be specified for the job in hand.flanges.  Piping must also contain the conveyed fluid and accommodate internally and externally imposed loads and thermal movements. bolts.  Piping is an assembly of components that include pipe. Pipeline specification. spectacle blinds. turn to the appropriate page in the piping specification document. the correct grade of stud bolts.

ASTM Material Groups & Specifications Page  6 .

Killed carbon steels: used for corrosion conditions within a temperature range of -29 °C to -46 °C. Cement lined: used for high corrosion conditions . 7. Page  7 .6 3. 6. Carbon steels: used for normal corrosion conditions within a temperature range of -29 °C to 426 °C. example: ASTM A 106-GR. Non metallic: used for better corrosion resistance at low pressure and normal temperature conditions. example: ASTM A333-GR. example: ASTM A312-TP 316L (18cr-8Ni-2mo) 5. Plastic lined: Used for chemical resistance. Alloy steels: used for higher temperature and higher corrosion rates. Cast irons: used for underground utilities. example: grey cast iron. 1. such as seawater.low pressure and normal temperatures. limited to maximum service temperature of 100°C.B 2. ductile iron. 8.Materials . Limited to a maximum temperature of 100°C. Stainless steels: groups of steels having a minimum of 10. sewers and process drainage systems. example: ASTM A335-P9 (9cr – 1 mo) 4.5%chromium used for excessive corrosion conditions. example: GRP (glass reinforced plastic) – polyethylene.

Commonly used Material Page  8 .

Commonly used Material Page  9 .

the outside diameter of NPS 14 and larger pipe is the same as the size designator in inches. It indicates standard pipe size when followed by the specific size designation number with out an inch symbol.10 . 6.).  Nominal pipe size (NPS) is a dimensionless designator of pipe size. . However. NPS 14 pipe has an outside diameter equal to 14 in. 4. Refer to ASME B36. NPS 2 indicates a pipe whose outside diameter is 2. For example. The inside diameter will depend upon the pipe wall thickness specified by the schedule number. The NPS 12 and smaller pipe has outside diameter greater than the size designator (say. 2. . Page  10 .Pipe size. .375 in. For example.

Page  11 .

Page  12 .

Page  13 .

A third standard.5 (American National Standards Institute) and BS 1560 (British Standards). If necessary to do so. Flange Standards & Flange types For process and utilities pipe work. all pressure sizes 2” and larger. Flange type Service conditions 1 Welding neck For high pressure process conditions 2 Socket weld For low pressure process and utilities 3 Screwed For small pressure utility condition and small sizes 4 Slip on For large sizes and limited pressures 5 Lap joint For special corrosive conditions 6 Blind For all pressure process and utilities 7 Orifice For instrumentation reasons . Flanges of different standards are not normally joined. No. API 6A (American Petroleum Institute) specifies flanges for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment. Page  14 . engineering advice must first be sought to ensure the compatibility of the mating flanges. the two commonly used flange standards are ANSI B16.

Flange types Page  15 .

Flange types Orifice flange ASME B 16.36 Page  16 .

Flange facing  Flat face (FF)  Raised face (RF)  Ring joint (RJ)  Lap joint (LJ)  Tongue and groove (T&G)  Male and female (M&F) Page  17 .

Flange facing . Page  18 .

47 these are combinations of pressure and temperature design conditions.  For higher pressure / temperature rating.Flange pressure / temperature ratings  As per ASME B16.  There are seven classes of pressure/temperature rating in ASME B16. API 6A Code (well head flanges) classes 3000&5000&10000 PSI shall be used.47 they are classes 150 300 400 600 900 1500 & 2500.5 / ASME B 16. combined with flanges materials.5 / ASME 16. Page  19 .

5 and materials specification ASTM A-105 Page  20 .Temperature and pressure ratings of flanges conforming dimensions ASME B16.

ASME B16.5 Flange Rating Chart Page  21 .

Type .Type .6BX 69.7 MPA (3000 psi)  API 6A .6BX 34.Type .Type .Type . API 6A  As per API 6A .8 MPA (2000 psi)  API 6A .Type .5 MPA (15000 psi)  API 6A .8 MPA (2000 psi)  API 6A .6BX 13.API flanges.6BX 20.7 MPA (3000 psi)  API 6A .6B 34.Type .6B 13.6BX 138.6BX 103.0 MPA (20000 psi) Page  22 . Classes of flanges as below  API 6A .5 MPA (5000 psi)  API 6A .Type .5 MPA (5000 psi)  API 6A .0 MPA (10000 psi)  API 6A .Type .6B 20.

is then necessary to identify the flange by visual observation and physical measurement. .80. 900. API 605 or ASME B16. usually in inches. In the case of existing example “ Weld Neck. e.e. the flange specification will be hard a) Type and Facing: i. whether the flange is for stamped on the flange. API nominal bore and the class of the flange. BS 1560. b) Physical Measurement: required to identify the  d) Standard: i.g.g. stated and will be as quoted in the piping Compare these figures with standard flange specification.47. data as found. 30. 120. 1500.5. ANSI B16. Page  23 . Schedule 10. 2500 etc. Check 6A. stud bolt Pitch Circle  e) Material: a material specification must be Diameter (PCD) and the flange thickness. 40. Class 150.  f) Pipe Schedule: only for Weld Neck. plant. e. Socket Weld. c) Flange Pressure Class: a) Visual Observation: required to identify the required for all flanges. 160. Composite Lap Joint and Swivel Ring flanges where the flange bore must match that of the pipe. RTJ” or “Socket Weld.e. Flange specification and Identification Flange specification Flange Identification A flange is specified by the following information: Normally. the number of stud bolts. stud bolt diameter. the information may not be legible and it RF”. 300. etc. type of flange and type of gasket used. b) Nominal Pipe Size: required for all flanges.

It should be clean. Table 3 are not allowed for critical applications. The permissible imperfections in flange surface finish specified in ASME B16.Do’s and Don’ts Do’s a) Always visually inspect the surface finish of the flange for injurious defects. other defects may mean component replacement. RTJ grooves must be kept clean. small scratches should be removed by polishing. Page  24 . nicks or burrs. Raised Face and Flat Face flanges should also be checked for flatness with a straight edge. to bring flanges which are clearly misaligned together. c) Check the phonographic or concentric groove on the face of Raised Face and Flat Face flanges. b) All rust and burrs must be removed. never use a tool which may damage the surface finish. This may overstress adjacent pipework and will make sealing of the radial defects for example will be virtually impossible to seal against.5. b) Do not use unnecessary force or pulling.Pipe Flanges . corrosion free and undamaged. degreased and free of any defects. Don’ts a) When cleaning a flange face. A soft wire brush is recommended.

Page  25 . Gaskets  Gaskets are used to create a static seal between two stationary members of a mechanical assembly and to maintain that seal under operating conditions which may vary dependent upon changes in pressures and temperatures.

How Gasket Prevent Leakage?  Does Two flanges seal without gasket?  If Yes then Why?  If No then Why not? Page  26 .

Pressure rating 150# (Vary from 150-2500 Class) Standard B16. Gasket Specification SPECIFICATIONS EXAMPLE Type of Gasket Full Face Gasket Material EPDM Size 3” (Vary from ½” to 24”) Temperature.21 (Non-metallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges) Page  27 .

Types of Gasket

Semi Metallic
Non metallic
Liquid Gasket or Sealant

Page  28

Metallic Gasket

Solid Metal Ring
Hollow Metal O-Ring
Corrugated Metal

ASME B 16.20
Page  29

Solid Metal Ring

 Shape: Octagonal and Oval
 Size: R, RX or BX number

 Material: SS-304/316/321/347/410/F-5, Soft iron ‘D’, Hasteloy Inconel &
 Maximum P-T rating: 150-2500 Class ANSI B16.5
 Standard: ASME B16.20
 Application: Flanges of ASME B 16.5, ASME B 16.47, or API 6A).

Page  30

Page  31

Hollow Metal O-Ring  Material: Various grades of Inconel and Stainless Steel  Maximum Pressure: High Vacuum to 700MPa  Maximum Temperature: Cryogenic to 1000C  Application: Mechanical Seals Page  32 .

Corrugated Metal  Material: Soft aluminum. Flanges. SS304/ 316L  Maximum T-P rating: Class 150-2000  Application: Valves. Monel. Inconel. Pumps. Vessels Page  33 . copper or brass. Metal Iron or soft steel. Heat Exchangers.

Semi Metallic Gasket  Spiral Wound  Jacketed Metal Gasket Page  34 .

5 & B16.47  Standard: ASME B16. Spiral Wound  Application: Flanges of ASME B16.20 Page  35 .

Page  36 .

Page  37 .

Page  38 .

Page  39 .

Gas mains. Autoclaves and other pressure vessels. Valve bonnets and duties involving high temperature and dry heat. Page  40 . Boilers and flues. Pumps. Jacketed Metal Gasket  Maximum P-T rating: Class 150-2500  Application: Heat exchangers.

Page  41 .

21 Page  42 . Non Metallic Gasket  Rubber Gaskets  Graphite Sheet Gasket  PTFE Sheet Gasket  Compressed Joint Sheet Gasket  Sealant Tapes ASME B 16.

Flouro carbon rubber (FKM) Viton ® (-15F – 450F) vi. Chloroprene Rubber (Neoprene ®) (-60F – 250F) iv. Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) (-60F – 250F) v. ETHYLENE PROPYLENE DIENE RUBBER (EPDM) (-70F-350F)  Maximum Pressure: 150psi Page  43 . Natural Rubber (-70F – 200F) ii. SILICONE RUBBER (VMQ) (-65F -500F) viii. CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHELENE RUBBER (CSM) Hypalon® (50F – 275F) vii. Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) (-65F – 250F) iii. Rubber Sheet Gasket  Material: i.

Page  44 .

Graphite Sheet Gasket • Material: Graphite with/ without metal inserts • Maximum Pressure: up to 250 Kg-F/cm2 • Maximum Temperature: -200-550C Page  45 .

316C  Application: Virtually pH 0-14 Page  46 . PTFE Sheet Gasket  Material: PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene)  Maximum Pressure: up to 124Kg-F/cm2  Maximum Temperature: -212.

Compressed Joint Sheet Gasket  Material: Asbestos.300C Page  47 . non-Asbestos and Fiber  Maximum Pressure: up to 100 Kg-F/cm2  Maximum Temperature: -100 .

etc Page  48 . rubber. Sealant Tapes  Material: PTFE.

Liquid Sealant Gasket • Material: Silicon RTV • Maximum Temperature: -59C-329C Page  49 .

Installation of Gasket  Flange face cleaning  Flange face inspection  Flange alignment inspection Page  50 .

Page  51 .

Precautions for Gasket Page  52 .

Gasket’s Failure Consequences Page  53 .

Page  54 .

Installation of Gasket  Bolts lubrication  Bolts tightening Page  55 .

Page  56 .

Page  57 .

Stainless steel bolting has limitations at high pressure due to the relatively low strength of the stainless steel. For example. c) Austenitic stainless steel: Grade B8M bolts x Grade 8M nuts.  The piping specification will always specify the correct material grade of bolting to be used on a flanged joint. b) Low temperature alloy steel: Grade L7 bolts x Grade L4 nuts. normal alloy steel bolting (B7) on a low temperature service is not suitable as the bolting will be susceptible to brittle fracture.Bolt Material Grade  Choice of material grade is dependent on the duty of the line. If cutting bolts. Using incorrect bolting could have serious consequences. Common bolt specifications are abbreviated as follows: a) Normal alloy steel: Grade B7 bolts x Grade 2H nuts. always cut the end which is not stamped Page  58 .

All stud bolts that are supplied to site should always conform to specification.Bolt Thread The thread on all stud bolts used on flanged piping joints is a Unified Inch Series to either BS 1580 or ANSI BI.8 threads per inch (TPI) or the 8 UN series is used.  b) Bolt diameters 11/8 inch and above . two thread types are used:  a) Bolt diameters up to and including 1 inch .  For alloy steel and stainless steel bolting.a unified coarse (UNC) thread is used. The number of threads per inch depends on the diameter of the bolt. The thread is specified by quoting a certain number of threads per inch.1. Page  59 .

Bolt Thread Page  60 .

Page  61 .Bolt Coating/Plating  Bolting may be purchased with a variety of different coatings. The coatings are designed to protect the bolt material from corrosion. Typical bolt coatings and plating include zinc plating. cadmium plating and PTFE coating.

the bolt length must be long enough to suit the equipment. e. molybdenum disulphide).g.e.  Bolt Coating: As specified in the piping specification.  Material Grade: As specified in the piping specification.e. L7. consider the spade thickness and the additional gasket for selection of the stud bolt length.  Bolt Length: This is specific to the flange type. PTFE coated. zinc plating. class and size.  For flanges separated by a spade or spacer.Bolt Specification and Identification  Bolt Diameter: A flange of given class and size will have a specific bolt hole diameter and a bolt diameter to suit. 2H. L4.  Two exceptions to the standard bolt length are:  If the flanges are to be tightened using bolt tensioning equipment.  The nut material grade will be stamped on the end of the nut. Page  62 . etc.  Standard: Full bolt material specifications are given in further sections. etc. either B7. Bolt Lubricant: The screw thread of each stud bolt (and the mating faces of each nut and washer) must be coated with a thin film of an approved lubricant (i.  The stud bolt material grade will be stamped on the end of the stud bolt. i. etc.  Thread: Should be the Unified Inch Series as specified in the previous section.  Nuts: Should be “ heavy series” hexagon nuts. cadmium plating.

Page  63 .

Page  64 .

Bolting techniques The table below gives a guide to the accuracy of achieving the target bolt load:  Techniques: • Impact Wrenches ± 60% • Hand Spanners ± 60% • Manual Torque Wrenches ± 30% • Torque Multipliers ± 30% • Pneumatic Torque Multipliers ± 40% • Hydraulic Torque Wrenches ± 30% • Hydraulic Bolt Tensioners ± 10% Page  65 .

Page  66 .

rust-free nuts and stud bolts. Don’ts a) Do not use damaged or worn stud bolts.Bolting . b) Do not use nuts or bolts that do not fit correctly together.sequences .)  b) Allow for two threads to be exposed outside the nut once tight.  c) Only use clean.  d) Coat the stud. e) Nuts should not be assembled with the hard stamp or pad against the flange. the nut and the flange bearing surfaces with the selected bolt thread lubricant. this is good practice.a wrong assumption could have serious con. Different bolt coatings require different torques to achieve the same bolt tension. (Refer to the piping specification. d) Do not mix stud bolts with different coatings on a particular flange. The machined face should always come into contact with the flange. Page  67 .Do’s and Don’ts Do’s  a) Ensure that the correct size and material of bolting is used. c) Do not use bolting that cannot be correctly identified. bolts or nuts. The only exception is when a flange requires hydraulic bolt tensioning and the additional length of bolt to be exposed outside the nut will be specified. the nut thread. as some coatings are more lubricating than others.end. f) Do not use bolting which is not clearly marked with the correct material grade .

it is important to evenly tension the stud bolts. Page  68 .000 psi) will be affected by the following factors:  a) Nominal bolt diameter. Uneven or incorrect bolt tensions will not seat the gasket properly and the end result will be a flange that is likely to leak under test or in service. and for the type of lubricant to be used.  b) Bolt material grade. and the contact face of the nut on the flange.  Guidance on the torque required for the joint.Manual Bolt Tightening  Once a flanged joint has been prepared. c) Locate the gasket and lightly nip the bolts. Tested joints may leak in service due to temperature variations across the flange face which are not seen during testing. the joint may be assembled. must be obtained. the correct gasket obtained (as confirmed by reference to the piping specification). d) Tighten evenly to approximately one third of the final torque working on diametrically opposed bolts following the sequence shown in “ Typical “Criss-Cross” Bolt Tightening Sequence. Manual Bolt Tightening Procedure For successful jointing of a flange. use a torque wrench. The torque required to achieve a given bolt tension (recommended to be 50. The recommended manual flange bolt tightening procedure is as follows: a) Ensure that the flanges are parallel and axially aligned. the bolts and nuts cleaned or replaced (and material confirmed correct by reference to the piping specification). If required by the procedure. e) Repeat the tightening sequence in at least three more steps to the full torque. b) Lubricate the nut and bolt threads.  c) Bolt and nut face lubricant.

Manual torque wrench Page  69 .

Hydraulic torque wrench Page  70 .

Page  71 .

large diameter flanges and flanges on hazardous services are often made up using Hydraulic Bolt Tensioners. The advantage of tensioning (stretching) against tourqing is that the process is not dependent on the type of lubrication used and eliminates the effect of friction under the nut and between threads.Hydraulic Bolt Tensioning  High pressure flanges. several bolts can be tensioned at the same time. The hydraulic load is then released and the stud bolt remains tensioned. Only trained personnel carry out the bolt tensioning using equipment in good order. All the stud bolts will eventually be tensioned after successive “ passes” of the bolt tensioning equipment. In such cases. Page  72 .  Note that the use of the bolt tensioning equipment usually requires the stud bolts to protrude past the nut by an additional bolt diameter. hydraulic torque wrenches will then be used to tension the bolts.  Obstructions such as pipe supports and instrument tapping may prevent the bolt tensioning equipment from being fitted over the stud bolt. Accurate bolt tensions are therefore obtained.  Hydraulic Bolt Tensioning is a specialized activity.  The Bolt Tensioners operate by hydraulically “stretching” the stud bolt to a pre-defined limit after which the operator is then able to hand-tighten the nuts.  To pull down the flange evenly.

Hydraulic bolt tension Page  73 .

If this load increase yields the bolts or crushes the gasket. Note that excessive tightening may lead to bolt yielding. whilst the bolts remain at ambient temperature. or the wrong surface finish. Hence the bolt load increases. All of these will make the leak worse. For a flange at ambient temperature being heated by hot process fluids.Troubleshooting  Persistent leakage may be due to one or a combination of the following:  Inadequate or uneven bolt tension. gasket damage. etc. the flange may leak.  Hot or cold joints are generally more problematic than ambient joints. initially the inner part of the flange is heated and expands. This is one of the reasons why great care is required to obtain the correct bolt load when making up joints. If in doubt. when the bolts heat up and the load evens out. Page  74 . flange distortion.  Damage to the flange sealing faces. ask for help from a competent Supervisor or Engineer. particularly radial dents and scratches.

Hot Bolting  The removal and replacement of flange bolts on live piping and equipment is practiced for several reasons: A) for replacing corroded or damaged bolts.  The replacement must only be carried out under permit. Because it involves working on live equipment. c) to minimize the time spent freeing bolts during plant shutdown. B) for upgrading the material specification/grades of bolts. and under controlled conditions. each application must be specially reviewed beforehand. Page  75 . Detailed procedures must be in place for the control of hot bolting and must be observed.  The practice of removing and replacing or freeing and re-tightening bolts on live equipment is potentially hazardous and the utmost caution therefore needs to be exercised when planning and carrying these operations.

 Flanges should have a minimum of 8 bolts.  Maintenance history of the joint. The review should consider. the following:  Contents of the line or equipment. as a minimum.  Design and operating pressures and temperatures. b) A formal engineering review of the proposed Hot Bolting operation must be carried out to establish that there are no unacceptably high external loads and bending moments acting on the joint.Restrictions on Hot and Odd Bolting a) Marginal time savings during shutdowns on disjointing should not be considered sufficient incentive for Hot Bolting operations.  Possible upset conditions. Page  76 .  Position and type of expansion bellows fitted.  Position and functionality of piping supports.

should uncontrolled flange leakage occur.  Equipment containing toxic materials shall not be Hot Bolted. Table G for any given flange rating. Annex G. These operations should not be allowed if bolts and nuts show signs of corrosion.  Consideration must be given to the accessibility of the area and that adequate escape routes are available.5.Restrictions on Hot  Hot Bolting shall not be considered when the operating pressure exceeds 60% of that specified in ASME/ANSI B16. Page  77 . necking or are suspected of having cracks.  Complete inspection of the flange assembly should be conducted to verify the integrity of the flange and fasteners.

 This procedure shall provide a system to control and record gasket joints that have been parted and subsequently re-installed with new gaskets and re-tightened in a controlled manner. Flange management system  PURPOSE  The purpose of this procedure is to define the Quality Management Systems to control the Joint Integrity Program to ensure a Zero Leak Start Up.  All stages of Joint Integrity Programme is controlled and executed within the agreed work procedures.  This procedure will ensure all Gasket and / or Bolted Joints are properly and effectively managed and controlled through: Page  78 . standards and good engineering practices in order to achieve zero leaks on equipment and guaranteed reliable plant operation until the next shutdown.

Only a inspection is Inspector removes QA/QC Inspector complete and verifies tag once inspection can remove this tag. Details of the repair will also be noted. QA/QC is removed. repairs complete. Tag # Tag # Tag # REPAIRS REGISTER NO. All tags numbered alike per book Egyptian LNG Egyptian LNG Egyptian LNG Tag # Tag # Tag # Maintenance Acceptance Maintenance Acceptance Maintenance Acceptance Certification Certification Certification DATE : DATE : DATE : EQUIP NO : EQUIP NO : EQUIP NO : TECHNICIAN: DETAILS OF REPAIR: INSPECTOR: READY FOR INSPECTION INSPECTOR: READY FOR ASSEMBLY FLANGE INSPECTION FLANGE INSPECTION PROCESS REQUIRES REPAIR PROCESS FLANGE INSPECTION PROCESS This tag indicates that This tag indicates This tag indicates the joint is ready for maintenance dept that a component of closure or assembly. have opened joint the joint requires QA/QC Inspector in preparation for repair before the tag signs tag after inspection. is complete. Page  79 .

Page  80 .

Page  81 .

Page  82 .

Mohamed Gafar .Thank You Prepared By Eng.