The Third Wave:  

Globalization and
Non-State
Feminism
Dr. Laura Brunell
Department of Political Science
Gonzaga University

The Third Wave
 Terminology comes from waves of
democratization in world history

 And from waves of women’s social
movement activism

 My thesis: the confluence of third wave
feminism and the third wave of
democratization creates specific kinds of
leadership opportunities for women

First Wave Democratization and First Wave Feminism  1600s-1900  European Enlightenment  Liberalism  Constitutional Monarchies and Republics  Voting Rights for All?  Women Excluded until 20th Century .

Africa  Expanded notions of citizenship and civic participation in the developed world  Europe – Social Rights. Social Democracy  US . Asia. Second Wave Democratization  Post-WWII  Decolonization in Latin America.Civil Rights Movement .

pre-schools . childcare. right to return to job. state funded nurseries. housing. Second Wave Democratization and Feminism in Western  Aftermath of Europe WWII  Consensus on Social Democracy  Social Rights including right to work. child allowances. reduced schedules. healthcare  Implications for women: Paid leave for maternity.

Second Wave Feminism in Europe In addition to social rights:  Greater access to political office  Advantages of the Parliamentary system  Party-based quotas  Stronger role for party in recruitment  Women work their way up the party ranks  Ministries or Offices for Women  State Feminism in Europe .

Second Wave Feminism in the US  1963 Betty Friedan’s The Feminist Mystique  Sexual Politics  The Personal is Political  Building Women’s Organizations .

emilyslist.org/ . Second Wave Feminism in the US  Consciousness raising  Legal strategies  Service provision through feminist organizations  Getting more women elected http://www.

Liberia. Latvia. Jamaica. Sao Tome and Principe . San Marino  Women heads of government: Bangladesh. Ireland. New Zealand. Germany. Philippines. Mozambique. Women in Politics Today  Women are heads of state today: Finland.

Women in Parliaments Today  Do women make a difference?  Weldon findings  Independent women’s movement AND state structure for women .

 Strong. autonomous women’s movement AND  State institutions designed to promote the status of women . Policy and the Problem of Violence Against Women. Do women make a difference?  Laurel Weldon (2002) Protest. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

e. Fortune magazine  Beer and Brunell on Gender Differences in Language in Congressional Vote for 1991 Gulf War . Do Women Have Different Leadership Style?  Skeptical  Anecdotal evidence.g.

women acted more as facilitators. Do Women Have Different Leadership Style?  Lyn Kathlene’s study of CO legislators  Women’s bills were more comprehensive and innovative  Thus. they generated more opposition  In committee. men as controllers  Men speak up sooner .

” the rise of identity politics  Post-industrial values  Quality of life  Personal autonomy  Identification with sub-culture/communities of difference . Third Wave Democratization  Latin America  Eastern Europe  Within existing “advanced industrialized democracies.

” the expression of female sexuality . emphasis on multi-culturalism  Different experiences of Black. Third Wave Feminism In US. gender  GLBT issues  Re-claiming. Chicano. Asian women  Intersections of race. re-casting “femininity. class.

facing death by stoning under Shariah law in Nigeria. sex trafficking  Other issues facing women in developing world. sex tourism industry  Rise of human trafficking. women living under Taliban.g. Third Wave Feminism  Shift to Global Issues  Impact of globalization on women. facing genital cutting in other parts of Africa  Global movement against violence against women . especially women in developing countries in sweatshops. e..

Third Wave Feminism New Opportunities for Women’s Leadership  Turn away from the state as nation- state loses power  Shift to international organizations and agreements such as the UN and CEDAW  Shift in level of organizing to the trans-national feminist organization .

asp .org/about. Trans-National Feminism: Opportunities for Women Leaders  The Feminist Majority  Devoted to watch-dogging US gender policy but also has on-going campaign to publicize status of women in Afghanistan  And a campaign against sweatshops http://www.feminist.org/other/sweatshop s/  http://feministmajority.

hrw. Trans-National Feminism: Opportunities for Women Leaders  Human Rights Watch  Section on Women  http://www.o rg/women/ .

cfm Quotas for Women in Politics: http://www.htm Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance http://www.int/gender/index.org/system.htm http://www.cfm .quotaproject.org/statistic s.idea.onlinewomeninpolitics.ipu. Resources Statistics on Women in Politics: http://www.org/english/home.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Current_fem ale_heads_of_government Fortune article on Women in Power: http://money.htm .org/wiki/List_of_women_heads _of_state List of Women Heads of Government: http://en.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_ar chive/2003/10/13/350932/index. Resources List of Women Heads of State: http://en.wikipedia.

 Beer.” Meanings of War and Peace. Other Sources  Kathlene. Francis and Laura Brunell. 1992. B2. College Station. Lyn. 2001. 1992. TX: Texas A&M University Press.” Chronicle of Higher Education. November 18. . “Women’s Words: Gender and Rhetoric in the Gulf War Debate. “Studying the New Voice of Women in Politics.