Ground Improvement

Techniques

Introduction  definition  scope Objective Types 2.Course 1.0 Hydraulic modification Dewatering Preloading .

0 Physical Modification (stabilization of soil)  Using course or fines  cement modification Lime modification Bitumen Modification 5.3.0 inclusion and Confinement of soil Grouting Ground Freezing .0 Mechanical modification  Shallow compaction Deep Compaction 4.

Stone Column Application of geosynthetic  reinforced earth .

GIT why? .

. Definition of Ground Improvement • Ground treatment is the controlled alteration of the state. nature or mass behaviour of ground materials in order to achieve an intended satisfactory response to existing or projected environmental and engineering actions.

g. Main Improvement Techniques: • temporary e. or use of diaphragm walls for ease of construction with longer term benefits • long-term e. . dewatering or ground freezing. vibro-replacement.g. where the treatment is integral to the permanent works. soil nailing. some forms of grouting. where the improvement is only during the application • short-term e. curtain grouting of a dam.g.

• Increase shear strength. canal • Reduce liquefaction potential . bearing capacity • Increase volume stability i. control and exclusion of groundwater to aid safety and buildability • Reduction of susceptibility to erosion and improving life-span.e. advantages • Reduction and control of deformation & settlement • Reduction. water loss in dam reservoir.e. reduction in shrinkage and swelling potential of soil • Reduce permeability i.

e. the same ground but made stronger. denser. i. . i.e. through the incorporation of other materials. the ground becomes a composite material with enhanced load-carrying or deformation characteristics. i. the ground becomes a different material by inclusion of other materials • Change of response. more durable • Change of nature. stiffer. Effect on the Ground • Change of state.e.

Main Improvement Techniques: • by vibration • by adding load • by structural reinforcement • by structural fill • by admixtures • by grouting • by specialist dewatering .

◊◊◊ = Main benefit ◊ = Secondary benefit Benefit Higher Less/ more Faster Ground water Reduced Increased Improved Technique Bearing Even Settlement control Liquefaction Erosion slope / face Capacity settlement potential resistance stability Vibro-replacement ◊◊◊ ◊◊◊ ◊ ◊◊◊ ◊ Dynamic Compaction ◊◊◊ ◊◊◊ ◊◊◊ ◊ Pre compression ◊◊◊ ◊◊◊ Vertical Drainage ◊◊◊ ◊◊◊ ◊◊◊ ◊ Reinforcing soil / soil nailing ◊ ◊ ◊ ◊◊◊ Structural fill ◊ ◊◊◊ ◊ Lime/cement admixture ◊◊◊ ◊ ◊ ◊◊◊ ◊ ◊ Permeation grouting ◊ ◊ ◊◊◊ ◊ ◊◊◊ Cavity grouting ◊ ◊◊◊ ◊ Ground freezing ◊◊◊ ◊◊◊ Slurry cut off trench & pumping ◊◊◊ ◊ ◊ Well pointing .

Dynamic Compaction Plant Specialist Rig to reduce noise and environmental disturbance .

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stone column .

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Importance: • Due to the scarcity of land .best site selection is being quite difficult so the new theme of engineering is. . accept the site whatever the condition but change the condition. properties such that it can meet the ideal requirement for proposed structure.

.Change mind for better engineering • For better performance • For longer life span of structure • For higher safety under worse situation too • To replace heavy and deeper foundation by small or shallow one Adopt new idea because engineer are for changes and efficient construction in this beautiful world not for classical approach and thumb rule continuation.

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