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Animal Science and

Objective BA011.01: Summarize
the physiological needs of animals
for growth and reproduction.
Physiological Needs of Animals

Food/ Nutrients
Animals CANNOT produce their own food
Must consume other living organisms for energy
Converting sugars to chemical energy
Occurs in the mitochondria

Some nutrients can be absorbed through

environmental conditions- i.e.: sunlight
Physiological Needs of Animals

Usually absorbed by animals from the air
Occasionally absorbed through water or
other means (ex- fish)
All animals are AEROBIC
Aka- they will die without oxygen
Physiological Needs of Animals

Other than air, the single most important
factor in the survival of all animals
Animals can only last a few days at most
without water, though they can last days
without food.
Physiological Needs of Animals

Other Important Inorganic Nutrients

B12, A, E, C, etc.
Calcium, Phosphorus, etc.
Immune System Characteristics

Lymph System
In advanced animals
Utilizes white blood cells and antibodies to
attack any antigens in the blood of an
Vaccines help the body form antibodies
more quickly, while under less stress
Animal Science and
Objective BA011.02: Analyze the
impact of biotechnology on animal
disease prevention, diagnosis, and
Animal Disease Diagnosis

ELISA tests
Utilize antigens to determine the presence
of antibodies for a given pathogen in a
blood sample
Antibodies indicate the presence of a
particular pathogen being fought
The tests are usually produced from
antigens extracted from research animals
Animal Disease Diagnosis

Bacterial Infections
Are tested in animals by biotechnology by
culturing samples in an incubator
Different agar medias can be used to
determine the presence of different bacteria
upon examination after growth
Animal Disease Prevention and
Biotechnology has enabled researchers
to produce animals with genetic
resistance to many pathogens
Use gene segments from naturally resistant
Find the gene in sharks that makes them
resistant to cancer for use in humans
Produce animals with gene segments coding for
the production of proteins to attack potential
parasitic organisms
Animal Disease Prevention and
The production of antibodies in one
organism for use in another is an
important biotechnology technique used
in vaccines
Jumpstarts the immune system of an animal
Also used in humans
Animal Disease Prevention and
The utilization of genes coding for the
production of certain medical
compounds (including antibiotics) in a
variety of livestock enables
agriculturalists to
Provide preventative medication in semi-
controlled doses to populations on a large
Animal Science and
Objective BA011.03: Discuss the role
of genetic engineering and
biotechnology on improving animal
Biotechnology Techniques in Animal
Artificial Insemination
Process of extracting and diluting semen
from a male animal for use in a female
Allows for outstanding genetic
characteristics to be spread through a
population rapidly with minimal expense and
high success
One ejaculate can produce more than 60 semen
straws in cattle and horses
Biotechnology Techniques in Animal
Knockout Animals
Used to determine the function of specific
genes, by creating animals without these
Biotechnology Techniques in Animal
Rarely used in animals
Expensive and large amounts of tissue damage
Used for research or to preserve the most

outstanding traits and characteristics

Usually requires the use of specialized sex
cells, though recent advancements with
enucleation have led to applications for
cloning other cells
Biotechnology Techniques in Animal
In Vitro Fertilization
Process involving the removal of embryos
from a female for fertilization and insertion
into surrogate mothers for development
Expensive and chancy (embryos could be
rejected by the surrogates)
Many haploid cells and embryos may be

Biotechnology Techniques in Animal
In Vitro Fertilization
A more common method is transferring
fertilized eggs from a super-ovulated female
to other females
One female can produce many times more
Problems with Biotechnology in
Animal Reproduction
Genetic Diversity
Could possibly decrease with increased use
of biotechnology
Less diversity in breeds/ species
Most important negative aspect of increased use

of biotechnology
Problems with Biotechnology in
Animal Reproduction
Expense/ Technical Knowledge
Some processes can easily be completed
on the farm
Many techniques still require expensive
laboratory equipment or facilities.
Animal Science and
Objective BA011.04: Evaluate the
function of hormones in animal
growth and body regulation
Function of Animal Hormones

Control animal growth and behavior

Initiate physiological responses
necessary for the reproduction of
Located in specialized glands throughout
the body
Pituitary gland, thyroid gland
Function of Animal Hormones
Anabolic Steroids
Specialized hormones that are partially
responsible for muscle growth and
Even with prolonged use, steroid use in
animals has little effect on muscle and bone
USDA and FDA have approved the use of low
levels of hormones in beef cattle, dairy cattle,
and hogs
Examples of Animal Hormones

Bovine Somatotropine (BST)

Naturally occurring hormone in dairy cows
that controls the process of milk production
Extra BST produced by bacteria can be
injected into dairy cattle to increase milk
Examples of Animal Hormones

Hormones important in sexual

reproduction and characteristics
Produced in large quantities in females
Feminine characteristics

Controls the menstrual cycle

Common in varying levels in males
Can lead to aggression- castration
Animal Science and
Objective BA012.01: Practice
biotechnology techniques utilized in
animal breeding.
Performing Artificial Insemination

Analyzing the breeding potential of an

Utilizes EPDs
Likelihood that an offspring will possess the
same beneficial characteristics of the parent
Performing Artificial Insemination

Semen Collection/ Analysis

Semen is collected from male animals either
by hand or through the use of an artificial
Sample is analyzed to measure
concentration and test motility/ viability
Motility- movement of individual sperm cells
Viability- # or % of active and functional sperm

cells in a sample
Performing Artificial Insemination

Semen Collection/ Analysis

Sample is then divided into 80+ straws and
flash frozen for long term storage
Extension solutions- semen can be diluted and
stored for long periods of time
Semen can remain viable for over 30 years

Sperm can be sexed, but it requires expensive

equipment utilizing lasers: can measure larger

amounts of genetic material in female sperm
Performing Artificial Insemination

Monitoring and Prepping the Female

Female is monitored to predict time of
Can use hormones to induce ovulation in an
entire population or herd
Standing is a good sign that ovulation is close

If timing is not correct, artificial insemination

is useless because fertilization wont
Performing Artificial Insemination

Thawing Semen
Straws should be stored in a container
using liquid nitrogen to maintain subzero
Straws should be quickly removed from the
container, shaken, an immediatedly placed
in a water bath at 99 F for 15 seconds
Shaking removes water from the exterior to
avoid breaking the seal
Performing Artificial Insemination
Inseminating the Female
Most methods utilize a specialized gun to
deliver the semen from the straw to the female
The inseminator (thats the person) inserts the
gun into the vagina of the female, through the
cervix, to release the semen into the uterus
The other hand of the inseminator is gloved
and inserted into the rectum to palpate the
location of the cervix and guide the gun through
without damage
Performing In Vitro Fertilization &
Embryo Transfer
Gathering Eggs
In Vitro- Eggs are usually removed from the
ovaries in large quantities through simple
Embryo Transfer- Eggs are fertilized in the
uterus of the female
Female given hormone to induce super-ovulation
During ovulation, the female is inseminated

(results in many viable embryos)

A special catheter is used to take out the fertilized

eggs from the womb and into surrogate mothers

Performing In Vitro Fertilization &
Embryo Transfer
Benefits of In Vitro Fertilization
Requires the smallest amount of semen
Ensures the production of viable embryos,
which can be stored indefinitely
Often used in cloning because the sperm or
egg can be genetically manipulated prior to
Animal Science and
Objective BA012.02: Trace the
process of cloning in animals
Cloning History

First animal cloned was a tadpole in

First animal cloned from diploid cells
was Dolly the sheep in 1996
In 2002, a private company claimed to
have successfully cloned the first human
Animal Cloning Process

The simplest method is the division of

fertilized eggs (embryos)
All methods are expensive and result in
large losses of developing embryos
Dolly was the only success out of 300+
Animal Cloning Process

Most require the use of sex cells to

obtain genetic material
Under normal conditions, diploid cells in
animals rarely differentiate
Dolly was cloned from DNA removed from a
mammary cell placed into an enucleated
Animal Cloning Process

Micromanipulator is the most important tool
Used to divide cells, remove DNA, enucleate
cells, and reinsert DNA
Animal Cloning Issues

Most animal clones produced are not

true clone since their production
utilizing enucleated eggs DOES NOT
alter all nucleic acids
Clones retain the mitochondrial DNA of the
original egg
Animal Cloning Issues

Environmental factors limit the

effectiveness of clones in producing
exact physical replicas of animals
Clones may have identical DNA, yet have
different color patterns, be a different size,
and exhibit different mental/physical
characteristics depending on