Animal Science and

Objective BA011.01: Summarize
the physiological needs of animals
for growth and reproduction.

Physiological Needs of Animals

 Food/ Nutrients
 Animals CANNOT produce their own food
 Must consume other living organisms for energy
 Respiration
 Converting sugars to chemical energy
 Occurs in the mitochondria

 Some nutrients can be absorbed through
environmental conditions- i.e.: sunlight

Physiological Needs of Animals

 Oxygen
 Usually absorbed by animals from the air
 Occasionally absorbed through water or
other means (ex- fish)
 All animals are AEROBIC
 Aka- they will die without oxygen

Physiological Needs of Animals

 Water
 Other than air, the single most important
factor in the survival of all animals
 Animals can only last a few days at most
without water, though they can last days
without food.

. etc. Phosphorus. A.Physiological Needs of Animals  Other Important Inorganic Nutrients  Vitamins  B12. C. etc.  Minerals  Calcium. E.

while under less stress .Immune System Characteristics  Lymph System  In advanced animals  Utilizes white blood cells and antibodies to attack any antigens in the blood of an organism  Vaccines help the body form antibodies more quickly.

Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011. and management .02: Analyze the impact of biotechnology on animal disease prevention. diagnosis.

Animal Disease Diagnosis  ELISA tests  Utilize antigens to determine the presence of antibodies for a given pathogen in a blood sample  Antibodies indicate the presence of a particular pathogen being fought  The tests are usually produced from antigens extracted from research animals .

Animal Disease Diagnosis  Bacterial Infections  Are tested in animals by biotechnology by culturing samples in an incubator  Different agar medias can be used to determine the presence of different bacteria upon examination after growth .

Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment  Biotechnology has enabled researchers to produce animals with genetic resistance to many pathogens  Use gene segments from naturally resistant organisms  Find the gene in sharks that makes them resistant to cancer for use in humans  Produce animals with gene segments coding for the production of proteins to attack potential parasitic organisms .

Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment  The production of antibodies in one organism for use in another is an important biotechnology technique used in vaccines  Jumpstarts the immune system of an animal  Also used in humans .

Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment  The utilization of genes coding for the production of certain medical compounds (including antibiotics) in a variety of livestock enables agriculturalists to  Provide preventative medication in semi- controlled doses to populations on a large scale .

Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.03: Discuss the role of genetic engineering and biotechnology on improving animal breeding .

Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding  Artificial Insemination  Process of extracting and diluting semen from a male animal for use in a female animal  Allows for outstanding genetic characteristics to be spread through a population rapidly with minimal expense and high success  One ejaculate can produce more than 60 semen straws in cattle and horses .

Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding  Knockout Animals  Used to determine the function of specific genes. by creating animals without these genes .

though recent advancements with enucleation have led to applications for cloning other cells .Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding  Cloning  Rarely used in animals  Expensive and large amounts of tissue damage  Used for research or to preserve the most outstanding traits and characteristics  Usually requires the use of specialized sex cells.

Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding  In Vitro Fertilization  Process involving the removal of embryos from a female for fertilization and insertion into surrogate mothers for development  Expensive and chancy (embryos could be rejected by the surrogates)  Many haploid cells and embryos may be destroyed .

Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding  In Vitro Fertilization  A more common method is transferring fertilized eggs from a super-ovulated female to other females  One female can produce many times more offspring .

Problems with Biotechnology in Animal Reproduction  Genetic Diversity  Could possibly decrease with increased use of biotechnology  Less diversity in breeds/ species  Most important negative aspect of increased use of biotechnology .

Problems with Biotechnology in Animal Reproduction  Expense/ Technical Knowledge  Some processes can easily be completed on the farm  Many techniques still require expensive laboratory equipment or facilities. .

Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.04: Evaluate the function of hormones in animal growth and body regulation .

thyroid gland .Function of Animal Hormones  Control animal growth and behavior  Initiate physiological responses necessary for the reproduction of animals  Located in specialized glands throughout the body  Pituitary gland.

dairy cattle. steroid use in animals has little effect on muscle and bone  USDA and FDA have approved the use of low levels of hormones in beef cattle. and hogs  HORMONE USE IN POULTRY IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED .Function of Animal Hormones  Anabolic Steroids  Specialized hormones that are partially responsible for muscle growth and development  Even with prolonged use.

Examples of Animal Hormones  Bovine Somatotropine (BST)  Naturally occurring hormone in dairy cows that controls the process of milk production  Extra BST produced by bacteria can be injected into dairy cattle to increase milk production .

Examples of Animal Hormones  Hormones important in sexual reproduction and characteristics  Estrogen  Produced in large quantities in females  Feminine characteristics  Controls the menstrual cycle  Testosterone  Common in varying levels in males  Can lead to aggression.castration .

.Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA012.01: Practice biotechnology techniques utilized in animal breeding.

Performing Artificial Insemination  Analyzing the breeding potential of an animal  Utilizes EPDs  Likelihood that an offspring will possess the same beneficial characteristics of the parent .

movement of individual sperm cells  Viability.Performing Artificial Insemination  Semen Collection/ Analysis  Semen is collected from male animals either by hand or through the use of an artificial vagina  Sample is analyzed to measure concentration and test motility/ viability  Motility.# or % of active and functional sperm cells in a sample .

semen can be diluted and stored for long periods of time  Semen can remain viable for over 30 years  Sperm can be sexed.Performing Artificial Insemination  Semen Collection/ Analysis  Sample is then divided into 80+ straws and flash frozen for long term storage  Extension solutions. but it requires expensive equipment utilizing lasers: can measure larger amounts of genetic material in female sperm cells .

artificial insemination is useless because fertilization won’t happen .Performing Artificial Insemination  Monitoring and Prepping the Female  Female is monitored to predict time of ovulation  Can use hormones to induce ovulation in an entire population or herd  “Standing” is a good sign that ovulation is close  If timing is not correct.

Performing Artificial Insemination  Thawing Semen  Straws should be stored in a container using liquid nitrogen to maintain subzero temperatures  Straws should be quickly removed from the container. shaken. an immediatedly placed in a water bath at 99 F for 15 seconds  Shaking removes water from the exterior to avoid breaking the seal .

Performing Artificial Insemination  Inseminating the Female  Most methods utilize a specialized gun to deliver the semen from the straw to the female  The inseminator (that’s the person) inserts the gun into the vagina of the female. through the cervix. to release the semen into the uterus  The other hand of the inseminator is gloved and inserted into the rectum to palpate the location of the cervix and guide the gun through without damage .

Performing In Vitro Fertilization & Embryo Transfer  Gathering Eggs  In Vitro.Eggs are fertilized in the uterus of the female  Female given hormone to induce super-ovulation  During ovulation.Eggs are usually removed from the ovaries in large quantities through simple surgery  Embryo Transfer. the female is inseminated (results in many viable embryos)  A special catheter is used to take out the fertilized eggs from the womb and into surrogate mothers .

Performing In Vitro Fertilization & Embryo Transfer  Benefits of In Vitro Fertilization  Requires the smallest amount of semen  Ensures the production of viable embryos. which can be stored indefinitely  Often used in cloning because the sperm or egg can be genetically manipulated prior to fertilization .

Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA012.02: Trace the process of cloning in animals .

Cloning History  First animal cloned was a tadpole in 1957  First animal cloned from diploid cells was Dolly the sheep in 1996  In 2002. a private company claimed to have successfully cloned the first human child .

Animal Cloning Process  The simplest method is the division of fertilized eggs (embryos)  All methods are expensive and result in large losses of developing embryos  Dolly was the only success out of 300+ attempts .

Animal Cloning Process  Most require the use of sex cells to obtain genetic material  Under normal conditions. diploid cells in animals rarely differentiate  Dolly was cloned from DNA removed from a mammary cell placed into an enucleated egg .

remove DNA. and reinsert DNA .Animal Cloning Process  Tools  Micromanipulator is the most important tool  Used to divide cells. enucleate cells.

Animal Cloning Issues  Most animal clones produced are not “true clone” since their production utilizing enucleated eggs DOES NOT alter all nucleic acids  Clones retain the mitochondrial DNA of the original egg .

and exhibit different mental/physical characteristics depending on ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS . be a different size. yet have different color patterns.Animal Cloning Issues  Environmental factors limit the effectiveness of clones in producing exact physical replicas of animals  Clones may have identical DNA.