EDUARDO P. PANINGBATAN, JR.

PhD
Professor of Soil Physics

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Parent Material Organic 5. Climate Processes 2. SOIL FORMATION Soil is formed from the weathering of rocks and minerals Factor Pedogenic 1. Time matter Leaching Soil Texture and Structure formation Rock weathering Continued weathering . Relief Addition of 4. Vegetation Weathering 3.

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. B and C Horizons.Hypothetical Soil Profile showing the A.

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Lowland Soil Upland Soil Upland Crops Lowland Crops • Upland rice • Paddy Rice • Corn • peanut • vegetables .

• Adequate amount air in the soil * O2 for root respiration • Favorable environment for root growth * favorable temperature.Plant need of a Soil The soil should be able to provide the plants:  Adequate amount of available nutrients * 16 essential nutrient elements • Sufficient amount of water to satisfy enormous amount of evapo- transpiration needs * Water requirement of most crops is 500 ml water / gm dry matter * 1 ha of corn will require about 5 million liter water per cropping. free from toxic materials and pathogens * firm but with low impedance to root growth .

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• Soil is particulate and porous Soil Solid mineral matter and organic matter Physical Component of a Soil .

inorganic matter organic matter 20% water air 45% 30% 5% Pore Space (50 %) Soil Solids (50%) Fig. Soil Composition showing the approximate volumetric proportion of the constituents. . 1.

inorganic matter organic matter 20% water air 45% 30% 5% .

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.Soil Structure .The pattern of arrangement of individual soil particles into aggregate and the aggregate into a soil mass.

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• an indicator of soil structure “Lower values of Bulk density is associated with higher porosity and good soil structure. .

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3 g/cm3 Normal soil > 1.1.3 g/cm3 Compacted soil.0 g/cm3 Very loose soil . poor soil structure < 1.Some bulk density values and their interpretation 1.0 .