EV 301 Engineering Hydrology

Introduction to Hydrology

Dr. Ali Sobhanmanesh

THEORIES

Definition of hydrology

Scope & importance of hydrology

Definition of Hydrology • The term ‘hydrology’ is derived from two Greek words ‘hydro’ and ‘logas’ meaning ‘water’ and ‘science’ respectively. what happens to the rain is the basis of the definition of the science of hydrology. which deals with the mechanics of water . • Hydrology is the science that treats waters on the earth. their chemical and physical properties and their environment including their relation to living things. • It should not be confused with hydraulics. circulation. • In short. their occurrence. distribution.

Determining the groundwater development and characteristics. . and properties of waters of the earth and their reaction with their environment. . • The scope of hydrology is wide.Estimating the water yield from a drainage basin. circulation.Estimating the maximum probable flood that may occur and its frequency. . distribution. Introduction to Hydrology • Hydrology is the science of water concerned with the origin. but the most vital knowledge obtained from this field helps in: . • The domain of hydrology embraces the full life history of water on the earth.Estimating the maximum intensity of storm and its frequency. .

it’s chemical and biological characteristics and behavior. that is using the knowledge of hydrology science to complete water source projects. Also involves researches to evaluate and approximate the available amount of water. . Hydrology Engineering: • Research tending towards the practical aspect. according to the context of time and space. Hydrology Parts In general hydrology is divided into 2 parts: Hydrology Science: • Research tending towards the aspect of water occurrence theory.

taking a heavy toll of life and eroding and carrying thousands of tons of rich and fertile soil into the sea. at times. the most valuable natural resource because human race or life will not survive in its absence. this natural source. assumes the form of a very destructive agent destroying valuable property. indeed. • It is necessary that an attempt be made to gain a better understanding of he occurrence and behaviour of water on earth. . • However. Importance of hydrology: • Water is.

and out of this tiny percentage.76% Saline water Freshwater World water inventory Over 97% of water on Earth is saline water. Introduction to Hydrology (Recap) World Water Inventory 97. over 60% is contained in glaciers and permanent snow cover. . About 3% is fresh water.24% 2. hence not suitable for direct daily uses.

Hydrological Cycle • Hydrology concerned with the circulation of water and its constituents through the hydrologic cycle. . where it collects in streams and runs back to the sea. • The cyclic movement of water from the sea to the atmosphere and hence by precipitation to the earth. • This endless circulation has neither beginning nor end.

Lithosphere: Rocks below the hydrosphere Lithosphere . Water Circulation Phases • The circulation of water penetrates the Atmospheric three phases of the earth system: 1. Atmosphere: The gaseous envelop above the hydrosphere 3. Hydrosphere: Bodies of water that cover the surface of the earth hydrologic Hydrosphere cycle 2.

involves the processes and pathways by which water evaporates from the earth’s surface to the atmosphere and returns to the surface as precipitation or condensation.The circulation of water on earth. .

Some precipitation falls as snow and can accumulate as ice caps and glaciers. • Rising air currents take the vapor up into the atmosphere where cooler temperatures cause it to condense into clouds. • Evapotranspiration is water transpired from plants and evaporated from the soil. • Snowpacks can thaw and melt. which can store frozen water for thousands of years. grow. and fall out of the sky as precipitation. • Air currents move clouds around the globe. cloud particles collide. . and the melted water flows over land as snowmelt. Hydrological Cycle Processes • solar energy: Water evaporates as vapor into the air.

with stream-flow moving water towards the oceans. Not all runoff flows into rivers. which store huge amounts of freshwater for long periods of time. Some water infiltrates deep into the ground and replenishes aquifers. • Runoff and groundwater are stored as freshwater in lakes. • Some groundwater finds openings in the land surface and comes out as freshwater springs. . where the precipitation flows over the ground as surface runoff. • Much of it soaks into the ground as infiltration.water bodies (and the ocean) as groundwater discharge. • Some infiltration stays close to the land surface and can seep back into surface. Hydrological Cycle Processes • Most precipitation falls back into the oceans or onto land. • A portion of runoff enters rivers in valleys in the landscape.

Hydrological Cycle Processes The various processes in a hydrological cycle are as follows: • Precipitation • Evaporation and Transpiration • Infiltration • Groundwater flow • Runoff • Floods • Stream flow .

Once infiltrated. Most precipitation occurs as rain. • Infiltration: The flow of water from the ground surface into the ground. but also includes snow. the water may infiltrate into the ground. evaporate into the air. fog drip. hail. . • Runof: The variety of ways by which water moves across the land. or be extracted for agricultural or other human uses. sleet. This includes both surface runoff and channel runoff. etc. Hydrological Cycle Processes • Precipitation: Condensed water vapor that falls to the earth surface. become stored in lakes or reservoirs. As it flows. the water becomes soil moisture or groundwater.

. though together they are specifically referred to as evapotranspiration. and is replenished slowly.g. The source of energy for evaporation is primarily solar radiation. so it can remain in aquifers for thousands of years. • Groundwater tends to move slowly. • Subsurface water may return to the surface (e. Hydrological Cycle Processes • Subsurface Flow: The flow of water underground (in the aquifers). • Evaporation often implicitly includes transpiration from plants. • Evaporation and transpiration: The transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere. as a spring or by being pumped) or eventually seep into the oceans.

Qo = input flow rate. ΔS is storage change. . output flow rate. Water Balance The total amount of water available to the earth is finite and conserved. in regions and local catchments. the distribution of this water is continually changing on continents. From the conservation of mass.storage For a discrete system with a time duration Δt. S. water balance for any storage can be expressed as QI −QO =dS / dt (1) QI. Although the total volume of water in the global hydrologic cycle remains constant. Eq(1) can be expressed as: VI −Vo =∆S (2) VI and Vo are input volume and output volume.

R = surface runoff. ET = evapotranspiration. Gin = groundwater input to the basin/storage. .Water Balance General hydrological equation The change in storage. Gout = infiltration into ground. ∆S can thus be found by using a basic mass balance equation as follows: ∆S = (P + Gin) – (R + ET + Gout) P = precipitation.

Water Balance Input Flow – Output flow = Change in Storage (P + Gin) – (R + ET + Gout) = ∆S .

determine the storage at the end of the third month.1 A reservoir has the following inflows and outflows (in ) for 3 months. If the storage at the first month is 50. Month 1 2 3 Inflow 4 6 9 Outflow 8 11 5 . Introduction to Hydrology (Recap) •Practice 1.

Examples & Problem Solving .

concepts. note or write down what is given and what you are required to find. Perform calculations making sure that you are using the correct units. Devise a strategy to find the solution. Draw clear diagram or sketches wherever possible. and equations are needed to solve the problem. 5. Read the problem carefully. 2. Suggestions for Problem Solving 1. 4. Check whether your results are reasonable . Determine what principles. 3.

4 mm • 1 foot = 0. transpiration and infiltration rate are measured as inches or millimeters per day or longer time periods.Common Units • Flow rate in stream and rivers are usually recorded as cubic meters per second (m3/s. • Volumes are often measured as cubic meters. • Precipitations are commonly recorded in inches or millimeters.254 meter = 25.003785 m3 • 1 m3 = 1000 liters • 1 mile = 1.609 km • 1 hectare = 10000 m2 • 1 Acre = 4047 m2 . and liters. cumecs) or cubic feet per second (cfs). • Some common conversions: • 1 inch = 0. i.. • Rainfall rates are usually represented in inches or centimeters per hour. • Evaporation.e.3048 meter • 1 gallon = 0. gallons.

.

.

Example 1. Water Reduction .32 x 105 m3.2 An underground reservoir received inflowing and outflowing water at the rate of 10 and 15 m3/s respectively within 24 hour. Determine the change in the storage within the specified time period. Answer: -4.