Presented by
Md Aquib Haider
B.TECH, 4TH YEAR(8TH Semester)

 The  purpose  of  industrial  training  is  to  expose 
Engineering students to the world of work so that they 
can  relate  theoretical  knowledge  with  application  in 
industry.  From  the  industrial  training  program,  the 
students  will  also  develop  skills  in  work  ethics, 
communication, practical and theory. 

CONTENTS  Industrial Training Objective  Company Overview  Company Vision  Company Operations  Introduction to Optical Fibre  Disadvantages of Optical Fibre  Application of Optical Fibre  OFC Laying  HDPE duct and different HDPE ducts  Blowing operation .

 Laser Source.  . Blowing Machines.    Znn  Engineering  Private  Limited  a  Private  incorporated  on 25 September 2012.  Power  Meter. It is classified as Non­govt company  and  is  registered  at  Registrar  of  Companies.  Equipment  &  Test  Instruments  are  : HDD/JCB  Machines. Compressors and  Duct Rods.  Splicing  Machines.COMPANY OVERVIEW  Znn  Engineering  Private  Limited  is  equipped  with  latest  machinery  for  laying  of  HDPE  Ducts  through  Trenchless  Technology. Company is having sufficient number of Tools  &  Tackles. Our  Machinery.  Optical  Time  Domain  Reflectometer.  equipment  and  test  instruments  to  execute  Optic  Fibre  Projects.

  The  goal  is  to  induct  the  latest  technology  and  machinery to complete the Optic fibre projects in  an  affordable  and  efficient  way.  through  Optic  Fibre  by  providing  world class quality solutions.COMPANY VISION  Their vision is to deliver successful completion of  optic  fibre  related  projects  and  solutions  which  exceed  the  expectations  of  our  customers. .  The  ultimate  goal  of  ZNN  is  to  unite  the  people  and  to  bring  the  world  closer  by  providing  access  to  high  bandwidth  ie.


ROW permissions & Liaison with various agencies Network Designing of Optical Fibre Routes & Commissioning  Excavation of trenches manually and with JCB  Laying of cable Ducts through Horizontal Drilling  Blowing of Optic Fibre Cables  Splicing of Optical Fibre cables with Fusion Splicers  Testing of Optical Fibres with Optical Time Domain Reflectometer  Testing of Optical Fibres with Power Meter & Laser Source  Commissioning of optical fibre cables.COMPANY ACTIVITIES  Route Survey & feasibility report for laying of optical fibre cables. .

OPTICAL FIBRE  An Optical fibre ( or fiber) is a glass or plastic fibre that carries light along its length.  Light is kept in the “core” of optical Fibre  Cladding is for the protection of fibre .  It has two main component layers: A Core & a cladding.

. • Duct Proving – to ensure no blockage in the duct. • HDD trenching (Horizontal Directional Drilling process). • Laying of the duct – as per the specific requirement of the client.OFC LAYING-1     Various activities involved in this operation are as under: • Open Trenching (excavation of earth) from 1 to 1.6 meters depth.

OFC LAYING-2 • Testing of the OFC kept in drums – Pre­installation test. . • Splicing  &  jointing  of  OPGW  (Optical  Parallel  Ground  Wire).  after stringing of the OFC in the Towers. • Splicing/termination  of  the  OFC  at  nominated  junctions  and  in  Sub­Stations as per the specification of the client. • Blowing  of  the  Optical  Fiber  Cable  into  the  duct  by  using  Air  Compressors.

.OFC LAYING-3 • Point to point testing of the joints with OTDR  (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer). • Generation of various Test Reports. • Final  Link  Test  to  establish  the  connectivity  from one end to the other end of a particular  stretch.

and has a wide variety of applications such as in bottle caps and chemical resistant piping  As HDPE provides a excellent passage for telecom cable i.  It is sometimes called "alkathene" or "polythene" when used for pipes  HDPE is resistant to many different solvents.e optical fibre cable with minimum distortion .HDPE CONDUIT  High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum.

Smoothwall can be installed via trenching.HDPE DUCTS AS TELECOM DUCTS  Smoothwall HDPE is the most commonly used underground raceway and is typically packaged in continuous lengths on reels or coils allowing for fast installation with minimum joints.  FuturePath consists of multiple variations of MicroDuct in specific sizes all bound together with an oversheath for ease of placement. plowing and directional drilling. . All of the MicroDuct have internal longitudinal ribbing (1) and a permanent super-slick lining of Silicoreto reduce friction during cable placement.

depending upon the configuration chosen and the Fiber Cable Manufacturer’s design.HDPE DUCTS AS TELECOM DUCTS  FuturePath can be placed as a cable pathway which will allow the Network to grow as needed. Using reduced diameter Fiber Optic Cable (MicroCable). . FuturePath can accommodate up to 144 fibers in each MicroDuct. while placing only the cable required for immediate needs.

integral OFC ducts with the help of heavy air blowing pressure at 10 bar plus  The main driving force in the technology is blowing of air at high penetrating pressure. pressurized.BLOWING METHOD FOR LAYING OFC IN DUCTS  Blowing is the process of pushing the cable through pre- prepared. .

SPLICING OF OPTICAL FIBER  Fiber  optic  splicing  involves  joining  two    fiber  optic  cables  together.  The  other.  more  common  method  of  joining fibers is called termination or connectorization.  Fiber splicing typically results in lower light loss and  back  reflection  than  termination  making  it  the  preferred method when the cable runs are too long for  a  single  length  of  fiber  or  when  joining  two  different  types of cable together.  Splicing  is  also  used  to  restore  fiber  optic  cables  when buried cable is accidently severed  There are two methods of fiber optic splicing:­  → Fusion splicing  → Mechanical splicing .

the glass core is cleaned with ethyl alcohol.  Now for and efficient splicing. it is require that the both ends are at 90deg. finish .FUSION SPLICING  Fusion splicing is the process of fusing or welding two fibers together usually by and electric arc  Steps involved in fusion splicing:-  First of all the jacket and cladding of two fiber ends which are to be joined. removed with the help of a ‘stripper’.  After stripping the cladding.

 A  precision  fiber  cleaver  that  scribes  and    breaks(cleaves) the fibers to be  spliced precisely.  a  special  precision  diamond  cutter    is  used.  as  the  quality  of  the  splice  will  depend  on  the  quality  of  the  cleave.  Most  splicing  machines  comes with a recommended cleaver. . which is known as ‘cleaver’.FUSION SPLICING  For  this.

 Automatic fiber alignment The ends of the fibers are on moveable stages which are used to align the fibers and set the end gap automatically.  Heating Now. alignment and heating. .there are two steps within this step. FUSION SPLICING-FUSE THE FIRE  Fuse the fiber. an electric arc is produce within the splicer and then two fibers are fused together.

This method aligns the two fiber ends to a common centre line. aligning their cores so the light can pass from one fiber to another.MECHANICAL SPLICING  In mechanical splicing the fibers are precisely aligned and held in place by a self-contained assembly. not a permanent bong.    .

Simply position the fiber ends together inside the mechanical splice unit. . 3.strip the protective coatings. Protect the fiber. Preparing the fiber. etc.the process is identical to the cleaving for fusion splicing but the cleave precision is not as critical. The index matching gel inside the mechanical splice apparatus will help couple the light from one end to other.tubes.MECHANICAL SPLICING-STEPS  Four steps to performing a mechanical splice: 1. Cleave the fiber. 2. Mechanically join the fibers – there is no heat used in this method. strength members. 4. jackets. leaving only the bare fiber showing.the completed mechanical splice provides its own protection for the splice.

ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBRE  Thinner than the other tubes  Less expensive  Less number of repeaters  High Carrying Capacity  Provides a very large bandwidth  Less signal distortion  Non-Flammable  Light weight .

.DISADVANTAGES  OF  OPTICAL  FIBRE   Expensive over short distance  Very  high  installation  charges  &  demand  high skills.  Adding additional nodes is difficult.

APPLICATION OF OPTICAL FIBRE  Telecommunication  Local area network  Cable tv  CCTV  Optical Fibre Sensors .