Cellular Wireless Communications

Abhay Karandikar
Electrical Engineering Department
IIT Bombay
Evolution of Cellular System

3GPP2

3GPP
d

Rc
d
R
R  3  2 Rc
A
A

A
A
A

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GSM System Architechture
Network Subsystem
Radio Subsystem
Operation Support Subsystem
GSM System Hierarchy

GSM Network

MSC Region MSC R.

.
Location Area BSC Location Area .
. .
BSC
.
.
Location Area
MSC R.
Operations and Maintenance Center

OMC
GMSC

BTS
BSC
MSC

HLR Home Location Register

BTS BSC VLR Visitor Location Register

MS Equipment Identity Register
EIR

AUC Authentication Center
BTS

MS
Multiple Access in GSM
Uplink Frequency Band
890 to 915 MHz

Downlink Frequency Band
935 to 960 MHz

960MHz

124
.

200KHz
. Downlink
. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
.
8 users per channel, about 1000 actual
speech/data users can be supported

935MHz 2
1
Uplink
915Hz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Downlink
124
. delay
.
. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

. Uplink

2
890Hz
1

The MS does not transmit at the same time as it receives
Mobile Station ( MS )

Mobile Equipment
SIM
International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IME)
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (Mobile Telephone
number)
Radio Network
BTS
High Frequency transmitter / receiver
Implements complete radio interface
Modulation/coding/channel estimation/equalization

BSC
Handles essential control and protocol intelligence
Handover protocol is executed in BSC
Traffic Channel Structure for full rate
Coding

slots 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 ..

Bursts for user 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 26
allocated in slot T T T T T T T T T T T T S T

T – Traffic
S – Signaling
S’– Contains information about the signal strength in neighboring cells.
Traffic Channel for half-rate Coding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 ……..

Burst for one 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ….. 13 14 15 ….. 26
user T T T T S T

Burst for 1 2 3 4 …… 26
another user T T S
Why 26 burst Traffic Channel ?

There is a need for mobile to send information about
signal strength from surrounding cells to the network
Capacity required to send the measurement
information is 1/24th of the capacity required to send
the voice information
Signaling Channel
‘ Control Channel ’
‘ Associated Control Channel ‘
‘ Slow Associated Control Channel ‘
Adaptive Frame Synchronization

Timing Advance
MS Advances its burst transmission by a time corresponding to
and from propagation delay
The delay is signaled using 6 bit number
64 steps (0 to 63) for the timing advance
Each step advances by one bit duration (3.7µs)
The adjustment corresponds to the round trip time
64 steps allows compensation over a maximum propagation time
of 31.5 bit periods (113.3 µs ≈ Maximum distance of about 35km)
Timing Advance Explained

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (Sent by BS on downlink)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

One way
(Received by BS on uplink)
propagation Two way propagation
relay delay

(Received by MS on
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
downlink)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

(Sent by MS on uplink)
Logical Channels
Traffic Channels (TCH)
Signaling Channels
Broadcast Channel (BCH)
Common Control Channel (CCH)
Dedicated/Associated Control Channel (DCCH/ACCH)
BCH
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)
Synchronization Channel (SCH)
CCH
Random Access Channel (RACH)
Paging Channel (PCH)
Access Grant Channel (AGCH)
Control Channel
Functions
To help the mobile find where the control channels are
To provide information about speech and control channel repetition
cycle
To provide information on parameters in the cell
To provide information on surrounding cells
To provide paging information
To allow random access attempts from the mobile
D/ACCH
Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)
Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)
Transmission Bursts
Normal Burst
Synchronization Burst
Frequency Correction Burst
Dummy Burst
Access Burst
Burst of GSM TDMA

FB 3 142 fixed bits 3 8.25

SB 3 39 data 64 bit training 39 data 3 8.25

Dummy 26 bit
3     3 8.25
Burst training

41 bit training
Access 3 36 data 3 68.25
seq.
Burst
Normal Burst

Tail bits

26 bit
3 57 data bits     57 data bits 3 8.25
training

Stealing flags
Control Channel (Downlink)
51 cycle bursts (2 X 26 – 1)
Third burst on the Control Channel provides content
information
Basic structure of Control Channel
FS XXXXXXXX FS XXXXXXXX FSXXXXXXXX
F - Frequency Correction Channel (occurs every 10th
burst)
S – Synchronization Channel
Full Rate Speech Coding
Coder for 20 ms segments – 260 bits at the output
13 Kbps
Unequal error protection
260 bits
182 bits are protected
78 bits are not protected
Error Coding
Class 1a – 3 parity bits from 50 bits
Class 1b – 132 bits are not parity checked but fed to
conventional encoder
Class 2 – 78 bits are not protected

78 132
260 bits

Class 1a, 50 bits Class 1b, 132 bits Class 2, 78 bits

50 3 132 4 78 Tail bits
Parity bits

r = 1/2, k = 5 378 78

456 bits

456 bits in 20 m sec ̴ 456/0.02 = 22.8 kbps
Interleaving
Block interleaving
Code words are written line by line to a matrix and read Column by
Column
8 ( Column ) X 57 (row) Matrix
Diagonal interleaving
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8
Discontinuous Transmission
Average Speech activity is 50%
Transmitter is turned off whenever there is no speech
Reduces Co-Channel interference and saves battery
Voice Activity Detector ( VAD )
Comfort Noise Generation ( CNG ) at the receiver
Functional Blocks of VAD
VAD
Background noise is stationary over relatively long periods
Measure the derivations from the spectral characteristics of the
background noise
Comfort Noise Generation
Comfort noise characteristics matched to the transmitted noise
Down - link
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Short
Measurement
Ta Window
2.3ms + Ta

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Up - link

Downlink
Idle
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Long Measurement Window = 6.9ms + Ta

Idle
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Up - link
240 ms
1 26 1 26
51 1 11 21 31 41 51

1 26 1 26 1 26
1 11 21 31 41 51 1 11 21

1 26 1 26 1 26
31 41 1 11 21 31 41 1

1 26 1 26 1 26
11 21 31 41 1 11 21

1 26 1 26 1 26
31 41 1 11 21 31 41 1

1 26 1 26 1 26
11 21 31 41 1 11 21 31

1 26 1 26 1 26
41 1 11 21 31 41 1

1 26 1 26 1 26
11 21 31 41 1 11 21 31
F S B B B Frequency Synchronization

F S B B B Time Synchronization

F S B B B BCCH

R R R R Request (random access)

C C C C Grant

D D D

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