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Personal Consequences

Repetti and Wood (1997) examined the

effects of work stress on the relationships
between 30 working mothers and their
preschool children

RESULT: Mothers spoke less often to their

children and had fewer expressions of
Dated: Sept. 28, 2015
Personal Consequences
Stress has been labeled the silent killer because it
can quietly chip away at a persons immune system
Examples: escalating blood pressure, heart attacks,
strokes, Rheumatoid arthritis
Research suggests that 50% to 70% of all illnesses can
be attributed at least in part to stress

About 59 percent of Filipino workers are experiencing

more stress-related illness.
Personal Consequences
Depression is a persistent feeling of sadness or
loss of interest, and another health problem
associated with stress.
Long- term stress can eventually lead to clinical
depression, which often requires medical
Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to
managing it.
Organizational Consequences

Job Performance
Studies show that, in general, high levels
of stress reduce performance on many
However, moderate levels of stress can
actually improve productivity, increase
energy levels, and heighten creativity.
Organizational Consequences
The state of being overwhelmed by stress
Usually experienced by motivated
professionals faced with high work
Workers who become emotionally
exhausted and no longer feel they have a
positive impact on other people or their
Organizational Consequences
Signs of Burnout
Less energy
Lower productivity
Consistently late for work
Complaining & negativity
Decreased concentration
Dread of coming to work
Feelings of little impact on coworkers or organization
Feeling overwhelmed
Tension & frustration
Organizational Consequences
Absenteeism and Turnover
Results in loss of productivity and subsequently revenues
Highest during times of burnout and increased stress as
employees struggle to deal with physical and emotional
Stress-illness relationship best explains absenteeism (Heaney and
Clemans, 1995)
Work-related stress in the Philippines is causing an increase in
absenteeism to about 52 percent
Hackett and Bycio (1996), found that stress was lowered
immediately following a day of absences but taking a day off
had no longer-term effects.
Organizational Consequences
Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Most incidents of domestic and other types of violence occur after
an individual has been drinking or using drugs.
There are an increasing number of violence occurring in the
workplace that are carried out by employees who have abused
drugs and alcohol.

It is estimated that 5 million Filipinos drink on a fairly regularly basis, and

that 39.9% of the population drink on an irregular basis.
Around 20.51% of barangays in the Philippines have drug-related
cases, according to the February 2015 data from the Philippine Drug
Enforcement Agency (PDEA)
Organizational Consequences
Employee Assistance Programs
Many companies have set up EAPs to which they refer
employees suspected of:
a. Drug and alcohol abuse, as well as
b. Those who are depressed and experiencing other problems
Use professional counselors to deal with employee problems
Stress Management Programs
Organizations also offer stress management programs which:
a. Can be used to teach people how to cope with stress
b. Teaches them positive and healthy behavioral responses
Organizational Consequences
Health-Care Costs
Organizations that at one time paid the full cost for health insurance
benefits are passing the increases on to the employees
This additional financial burden to some employees can be a new source
of stress
The answer is to reduce the number of ailments causing stress, thereby
decreasing the need to seek medical attention.

Book 4 of the Labor Codes of the Philippines

Art. 166- The State shall promote and develop a tax-exempt employees
compensation program whereby employees and their dependents, in the
event of work-connected disability or death, may promptly secure adequate
income benefit and medical related benefits
Art. 168- Coverage in the State Insurance Fund shall be compulsory upon all
employers and their employees not over sixty (60) years of age
- changing ones behavior to healthfully respond to stress,
should occur before, during, and after stress (Tyler, 2003).
Planning for Stress
a. Exercise
b. Laughter
c. Diet
d. Smoking reduction
e. Sleep
f. Support Network
g. Self-empowerment
h. Coping skills
Stress Reduction Intervention
Organizations have made efforts to ensure that
their employees maintain a balance between
work and private life.
Designed to help employees reduce their stress
levels and increase their mental and physical
Motivated by the fact that employees with
outside concerns are less productive than
employees without such concern.
Easing the Child Care Burden
Organizational child care programs usually fall into one of three

a. On-site care (on-site child care facility)

- A child care center that is located on the site of the organization
employing the parent.
b. Voucher systems
- Child-care policy in which an organization pays all or some of its
employees child-care centers by providing the employee with
c. Referral service
- A system of child care in which an employer maintains a list of
certified child-care centers that can be used by its employees