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Digital system

Registers

Flip-flop

Counters

Microprocessors

More accuracy

More versatility

Less distortion

Easy communicate

Possible storage of information

Number system:

The digit

The position of the digit in the number

The base of the number system

number system).

Decimal Number System

Base 10. Digits used: 0 to 9

Base 2. Digits used: 0, 1

Base 8. Digits used: 0 to 7

Base 16. Digits used: 0 to 9, Letters used: A- F

Binary addition/Subtraction:

Binary Subtraction:

Binary codes for decimal digits:

bits. This group is also called as binary code.

the binary number system's two binary digits, 0 and 1

Advantages:

Binary codes are suitable for the digital communications.

Binary codes make the analysis and designing of digital circuits if

we use the binary codes.

Since only 0 & 1 are being used, implementation becomes easy

Binary codes examples

Weighted Codes

Non-Weighted Codes

Binary Coded Decimal Code

Weighted Codes

Weighted binary codes are those binary codes which obey the

positional weight principle

four bits

Non-Weighted Codes:

As only one bit changes at a time, the gray code is called as a unit

distance code. The gray code is a cyclic code. Gray code cannot be

used for arithmetic operation

Binary to gray code conversion

Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) code

Each decimal digit is represented by a 4-bit binary number

Boolean Algebra Terminology:

Example equation: F(a,b,c) = abc + abc + ab + c

Variable

Represents a value (0 or 1)

Three variables: a, b, and c

Literal

Appearance of a variable, in true or complemented form

Nine literals: a, b, c, a, b, c, a, b, and c

Product term

Product of literals

Four product terms: abc, abc, ab, c

Sum-of-products

Equation written as OR of product terms only

Above equation is in sum-of-products form. F = (a+b)c + d is not

Boolean Algebra: Properties

Commutative Example uses of the properties

a+b=b+a

a*b=b*a Show abc + abc = ab.

Distributive Use first distributive property

a * (b + c) = a * b + a * c abc + abc = ab(c+c).

a + (b * c) = (a + b) * (a + c)

Complement property

(this one is tricky!)

Replace c+c by 1: ab(c+c) = ab(1).

Associative

Identity property

(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

(a * b) * c = a * (b * c) ab(1) = ab*1 = ab.

Identity

0+a=a+0=a

1*a=a*1=a

Complement

a + a = 1

a * a = 0

Boolean Algebra: Additional Properties

Null elements

a+1=1 Circuit

a

a*0=0

S

b

Idempotent Law c

a+a=a

a*a=a

a S

(a) = a b

c

DeMorgans Law

(a + b) = ab

(ab) = a + b

Very useful!

Truth Table Representation of Boolean Functions

Define value of F for each possible

a b F a b c F a b c d F

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

combination of input values 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

2-input function: 4 rows 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

(a) 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

3-input function: 8 rows 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1 1 0

4-input function: 16 rows 1 1 1 0 1 1 1

(b) 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 1

Q: Use truth table to define function 1 0 1 0

F(a,b,c) that is 1 when abc is 5 or a b c F

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

greater in binary 0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1 1 0 1

1 1 1 0

0 1 0 0

1 1 1 1

0 1 1 0

1 0 0 (c)

0

1 0 1 1

1 1 0 1

1 1 1 1

Standard Representation: Truth Table

How can we determine if two functions are the

same?

Used algebraic methods

Q: Determine if F=ab+a is same

But if we failed, does that prove not equal? No. function as F=ab+ab+ab, by converting

each to truth table first

Solution: Convert to truth tables

Only ONE truth table representation of a given F = ab + 'a F = ab +

ab + ab

function a b F a b F

Standard representation -- for given function, only 0 0 1 0 0 1

one version in standard form exists 0 1 1 0 1 1

1 0 0 1 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1

Digital Design

Combinational Logic Circuits

Outputs are only determined by the logical function of their

current input state, logic 0 or logic 1, at any given instant in time.

Outputs are dependant on both their present inputs and their

previous output state giving them some form of Memory

Logic Gates

Logic Gates

Logic Gates

Logic Gates

Logic Gates

C0MBINATIONAL CIRCUITS

Multiplexer

4:1 Multiplexer using 2:1

a b Y

0 0 D0

0 1 D1

1 0 D2

1 1 D3

De Multiplexer

Logic Gates implementation using muxes

Draw AND gate using 2:1 MUX ?

Draw AND gate using 2:1 MUX ?

Draw OR gate using 2:1 MUX ?

Draw NAND gate using 2:1 MUX ?

Draw NOR gate using 2:1 MUX ?

Draw XOR gate using 2:1 MUX ?

Draw XNOR gate using 2:1 MUX ?

Arithmetic Circuits

Half adder:

Arithmetic Circuits

Full adder:

Arithmetic Circuits

Half subtractor:

Arithmetic Circuits

Full subtractor:

Arithmetic Circuits

Let the 4-bit words to be added be represented by A = 1011 and B = 0011

Decoder

3:8 decoder

3x8 decoder

General encoder

4:2 Binary encoder

Priority Encoder

A priority encoder is an encoder that includes the

priority function

If two or more inputs are equal to 1 at the same

time, the input having the highest priority will take

precedence.

Inputs Outputs

D0 D1 D2 D3 x y V

0 0 0 0 X X 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 1

X 1 0 0 0 1 1

X X 1 0 1 0 1

X X X 1 1 1 1

Implementation of a full adder

with a decoder

Full adder with decoder

S(x, y, z) = (1, 2, 4, 7)

C(x, y, z) = (3, 5, 6, 7)

Full adder with decoder

S(x, y, z) = (1, 2, 4, 7)

C(x, y, z) = (3, 5, 6, 7)

Sequential Circuits

Asynchronous

Inputs Outputs

Combinational

Circuit

Memory

Elements

Synchronous

Inputs Outputs

Combinational

Circuit

Flip-flops

Clock

Flip Flop

Flip-flop has two stable states of complementary output values

SR Flip Flop

Clocked SR Flip Flop Circuit with Reset

preset Pr and clear Cl signals.

Output changes once these signals change, however

the input signals must wait for a change in clock

to change the output

Clocked JK Flip Flop

enables only one of its two input terminals, either SET or RESET to be

active at any one time thereby eliminating the invalid condition seen

previously in the SR flip flop circuit.

Other Flip Flop

T J D J

Q Q

f f f f

Q Q

K K

T Q D Q

f Q f Q

State Machines

Mealy Machine

Moore Machine

Mealy Machine:

state as well as the present input.

Moore Machine:

present state.

Mealy Machine Moore Machine

Output depends both upon Output depends only upon

present state and present the present state.

input.

Generally, it has fewer Generally, it has more states

states than Moore Machine. than Mealy Machine.

Output changes at the Input change can cause

clock edges. change in output change

as soon as logic is done.

Mealy machines react In Moore machines, more

faster to inputs. logic is needed to decode

the outputs since it has

more circuit delays.

Melay sequence detector

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