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The present continuous tense

The present continuous tense is used to describe actions or conditions


that are taking place at the present time, and for a period of time
which includes the present time. Time markers generally used for
present time are: now, this moment, these days, nowadays, or
simply use the continuous tense in a sentence.
The formula of present continuous tense: Subject + verb to be (is,
am, are) + verb (type I) + ing.
Examples:
1.The virus diseases are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi.
2. Farmers in Kayu Aro are growing potatoes, carrots and other
vegetables.
3. The extension officer is presenting the methods of making
compost.
4. Budi is doing intercropping between lettuce and baby corn.
5.I am cultivating my land by using hand-tractor.
The past continuous tense
The past continuous tense is seldom used alone in a sentence. This
type of tense is usually used in combination with an event in the past,
which is stated or simply implied.
The formula of past continuous tense: Subject + verb to be (was,
were) + verb (type I) + ing.
Examples:
1.For an action happening in the past:
- Tono was spraying the rice field with insecticides.
2. For two actions happening at the same time in the past:
- Tono was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the
weeds.
3. For two actions happening in the past, one was continuing while
the other interrupted:
- Tono and his wife were working the rice field when the flood
suddenly came yesterday.
The present perfect tense
The present perfect tense is normally used in two situations as the following:
1. For a completed action or state at an indefinite time in the past. The time
markers usually used are: just, already, yet, not yet, etc.
2. For an action or state that has continued for a period of time, from the point
in the past until the present time (past-to-present). The time markers used are:
since, for, so far, up to now, in all (time), until now, etc.

The formula of present perfect tense: Subject + have/has + verb (type III).
Examples:
1. Ani has taken the Agricultural Extension course for nearly one semester.
2. Mr. Madjid has already sold his farm products in the local market with a
good price.
3. I have learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic
engineering since many years.
4. Anton and Susan have demonstrated the techniques of plant propagation
by vegetative methods.
5. Some horticultural products have been rotten during transportation from
field to market due to high temperature.
The past perfect tense
The past perfect tense is used to show an action that was completed
before a particular event that also took place in the past. In a sentence,
the past perfect tense is generally combined with a past tense, since both
refer to events in the past. The time markers usually used in this
combination are: before, after or when.
The formula of past perfect tense: Subject + had + verb (type III).
Examples:
1.Jono had sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for
cultivating the rice field.
2. Farmers in our village had cleared the weeds, bush and other
materials before they cultivated the land using a hand-tractor.
3. They sprayed the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their
tomato crops.
4. My uncle grew soybean after he had harvested the cabbages.
5. The birds had left when the farmer put up the scarecrow.
Sentence transformation for present and past continuous
tenses

To transform sentences in the form of present and past continuous tenses into a
negative, simply put the word not after the verb to be; and to transform the
sentences into an interrogative, you should place the verb to be in the front of the
statement (at the beginning of the sentence before the subject) or use the question
words.

Examples:
1. The virus diseases are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi.
- The virus diseases are not attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi.
- Are the virus attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi?
- What are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi?
2. Farmers in Kayu Aro are growing potatoes and carrots.
- Farmers in Kayu Aro are not growing potatoes and carrots.
- Are farmers in Kayu Aro growing potatoes and carrots?
- Who are growing potatoes and carrots?
3. The extension officer is presenting the methods of making compost.
- The extension officer is not presenting the methods of making compost.
- Is the extension officer presenting the methods of making compost?
- What is the extension officer presenting?
4. Tono was spraying the rice field with insecticides
- Tono was not spraying the rice field with insecticides.
- Was Tono spraying the rice field with insecticides?
- What was Tono spraying the rice field?
5. Tono was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds.
- Tono was not spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds.
- Was Tono spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds?
- Who was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds?
6. Tono and his wife were working the rice field when the flood suddenly
came yesterday.
- Tono and his wife were not working the rice field when the flood suddenly
came yesterday.
- Where Tono and his wife were working when the flood suddenly came
yesterday?
Sentence transformation for present
and past perfect tenses
To transform sentences in the form of present and past perfect tenses into a
negative, simply put the word not after the helping verbs (have, has, had)
+ verb (type III) or use the words did not + verb (type I);
and to transform the sentences into an interrogative, you should place the
helping verbs before the subject (and use the verb type III) or use the word
did before the subject (and use the verb type I) at the beginning of the
sentence; or use the question words.

Examples:
1.Mr. Madjid has already sold his farm products in the local market.
- Mr. Madjid has not already sold his farm products in the local market.
- Has Mr. Madjid already sold his farm products in the local market?
- Where has Mr. Madjid already sold his farm products?
2. I have learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering since many years.
- I have not learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering.
- Have I learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering since many years?
- What have I learned since many years?
3. Some horticultural products have been rotten during transportation from field to market
due to high temperature.
- Some horticultural products have not been rotten during transportation from field to
market due to high temperature.
- Have some horticultural products been rotten during transportation from field to market
due to high temperature?
- What have been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high
temperature?
4. Jono had sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field.
- Jono had not sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice
field.
- Had Jono sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field?
- What had Jono sold before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field?
5. They sprayed the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops.
- They did not spray the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops.
- Did they spray the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops?
- What did they spray after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops?
6. The birds had left when the farmer put up the scarecrow.
- The birds had not left when the farmer put up the scarecrow.
- Had the birds left when the farmer put up the scarecrow?
-What had left when the farmer put up the scarecrow?
Assignment 1:
Please have a look at the following passage, then fill in the blanks with
appropriate words (based on the word in the bracket).

Modern Australian Farmers

My family and I .. (fly) from Jakarta to Sidney on Qantas Airlines last


year, and we .. (watch) a movie on the aircraft during the travel. This
movie shows us the lives of farmers in a small town in Western Australia.
There .. (to be) a man .. (stand) on nearby a shade. He ..
(wear) a blue shirt and a striping jumper. The man .. (watch) his
workers work in his farm by using modern equipments, such as tractors,
drying machine, silos. Some people .. (harvest) wheat crops using
harvesting tractors, while some others .. (unload) the harvested
wheat from tractors and .. (take) them to the silos for storage. While
their parents .. (work) on the field, the children .. (play) hide-
and-seek in the hay. They .. (run) here and there happily. I think
they .. (to be) really .. (enjoy) their lives as farmers.
A Buffalo Attack

I .. (watch) a TV program when I .. (hear) someone ..


(call) my name. It .. (to be) my friend, Jono. He .. (wear) a
red shirt with black trousers, and a cap .. (put) on his head. I
.. (think) he .. (to be) about to go to his farm and asked me to
accompany him. But suddenly, when he .. (walk) toward my
house, a big black buffalo .. (run) after him. Jono .. (to be)
very upset and he .. (shout) for help while .. (keep) on running
for his life. Fortunately, the buffalo .. (stop) chasing him and run
away. Jono .. (to be) not hurt but he .. (to be) very shocked.
My mother .. (give) him a glass of plain water. Then Jono and I
.. (spend) the whole day by watching TV while my mother ..
(preparing) meals.
Assignment 2
Try to construct 5 (five) sentences of each present
continuous, past continuous, present perfect and
past perfect tenses, then transform the sentences
into negative and interrogative forms.
Vocabulary list

Aphids sejenis serangga kutu Intercropping tumpang sari


Baby corn jagung semi (jagung Plant propagation perbanyakan
sayur)
tanaman
Bush semak belukar
Potatos kentang
Cabbage kubis
Carrots wortel Scarecrow orang-orangan di
Citrus jeruk sawah untuk mengusir burung
Clearing membersihkan (rumput, Silos silo (tempat menyimpan
belukar) hasil panen biji-bijian)
Compost pupuk kompos Vegetables sayuran
Cultivating membudidayakan
Virus virus
Genetic engineering rekayasa
Weeds gulma (tumbuhan
genetika
Hand-tractor traktor tangan
pengganggu)
Hay jerami Wheat gandum