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LEATCH: Low Energy

Adaptive Tier Clustering


Hierarchy
Wireless Sensor
Networks

13-May-
17
Outline
Introduction
Challenges and design issues in WSNs
LEACH protocol
Algorithm
Limitations
Proposed protocol LEATCH
Basic Idea
Algorithm

Performance evaluation
Simulation setup
Results
Proposed protocol LEATCH
Basic idea
o Hierarchical clustering
o Setup phase
Super cluster
Mini cluster
o Data transfer phase
TDMA
Ends after one round
o Repetition of above phases
Super-Clustering
Setup phase
o BS broadcasts message at start
o Super cluster formation
Nodes send candidate message to BS
=K

K : number of SCH
: current residual energy
: Initial energy
d : distance between node and sink
SCHs broadcast messages to local nodes
Nodes join SCH based on signal strength
Mini-Clustering

Inside a cluster
o Mini cluster formation
o SCH computes
=q

q : number of MCH
: current residual energy
: Initial energy
density : number of nodes in cluster
Elected MCHs broadcast messages to local nodes
Nodes join MCH based on signal strength
MCH broadcasts TDMA schedule
Node goes to sleep mode till its slot

Steady state phase


o Node to MCH
o MCH to SCH
o SCH to BS
Performance Evaluation
Simulation setup Parameter Value
o OMNET++ Nodes 300
Area 200x200
o Metrics
BS position (0,0)
Energy consumption
Einitial 0.3 J
Of network per round
SCH and MCH in networks 5%
Lifetime
Nodes alive at end
Average delay
Average of the waiting time relative to all the sent packets
Percentage of covered nodes
the number of covered node in each round.
Results
Delay
o On average L-1
o LEACH
Random clustering
Large number of nodes in a cluster
(L-1)+1
o LEATCH
Small clusters
Fewer nodes
(L-1)+2
Results
Energy
o LEACH
Direct distant communication
No consideration of energy
o LEATCH
Less distance
Takes residual energy into account
Clustering
Results
Lifetime
o LEACH
Probabilistic CH
Distant communication
o LEATCH
CH based on current residual
energy
Less distant communication
Results
Covered nodes
o LEACH
Single level clustering
Not scalable
o LEATCH
2-level clustering
Density based mini-clusters
High probability of covering maximum
nodes