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MAE 5350: Gas Turbines

Lecture 1: Introduction and Overview

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department


Florida Institute of Technology

D. R. Kirk
LECTURE OUTLINE
Introduction
What is an air-breathing engine
Key questions
Propulsion Options
Rocket Propulsion Overview and Basic Operation
Air-Breathing Propulsion Overview and Basic Operation
Momentum Exchange Physics
Air-Breathing Engine Components
Nomenclature
Component Functionality
Engine Types
Turbojet (+ afterburner), Turbofan, Turboprop, Ramjet, Scramjet
Examples of Current Aircraft Engines

Introduction to Propulsion Performance Parameters


ROCKET VS. AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION

Take mass stored in a vehicle and Capture mass from environment and set
throw it backwards that mass in motion backwards
Use reaction force to propel Use reaction force to propel vehicle
vehicle
Only fuel is carried onboard
All fuel and oxidizer are carried
onboard the vehicle Oxidizer (air) is harvested
continuously during flight
AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION

Gas turbine engines power every modern aircraft and will for foreseeable future
Gas turbines used for land-based power application, rocket engine turbo-pumps,
marine applications, ground vehicles (tanks), etc.
Many technical challenges to be addressed (Fuel Economy, Emissions, Noise)
Fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, combustion, controls, materials, etc.
One of most complicated, parts, extreme environment device on earth
Enormous market: vast research and development $$
Development time of engine > development time of aircraft (5:3)
Market is so competitive that engines are sold for a loss
DESIGN DRIVER: FUEL ECONOMY

American Airlines Stock Price: Last 5 Years

American Airlines CEO explains AA bankruptcy:


http://money.cnn.com/video/news/2011/11/29/n_amr_american_bankruptcy.cnnmoney/
FUEL CONSUMPTION TREND
U.S. airlines, hammered by soaring oil prices, will spend $5
billion more on fuel this year or even a greater sum, draining
already thin cash reserves
Airlines are among the industries hardest hit by high oil prices,
which have jumped 38 percent in just 12 months.
Airline stocks fell at the open of trading as a spike in crude-oil
futures weighed on the sector

JT8D
Fuel Burn

JT9D PW4084
Future
Turbofan
PW4052

NOTE: No Numbers

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020


Year
FUEL COST DRIVEN EXAMPLE
With fuel now largest component of operating costs, air carriers are turning
to fuel-saving measures that once seemed hardly worthwhile
Upswept wingtips to increase range and improve aerodynamics
Taxi to and from runway on one engine to save fuel
Does it make sense to actually fly slower?
Do you polish an airplane or paint it?
Airlines have new program to wash their aircraft/engines
Other cost saving measures
1st and 2nd bag check fee (and many others new fees)
Remove all pillows from MD-80s
CHEMICAL EMISSIONS
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
AIRCRAFT NOISE
AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE NOISE
COMMERCIAL ENGINES

707 757

727 767

737
777

747
787
TRENDS TO BIGGER ENGINES

1958: Boeing 707, United States' first commercial jet airliner 1995: Boeing 777, FAA Certified

Similar to PWJT4A: T=17,000 lbf, a ~ 1 PW4000-112: T=100,000 lbf , a ~ 6


VARIOUS NUMBER OF ENGINE CONFIGURATIONS

2 Engines 3 Engines

4 Engines 6 Engines
SR-71: J-58 TURBO RAMJET
DRONES IN THE NEWS
X-51
LAND-BASED POWER GENERATION
LARGEST GAS TURBINE ENGINE: SGT5-8000H
Power 340 MW
Extrapolated mass flow based on
SGT100-SGT1000 series: 900 kg/s
Average of SGT100-SGT1000,
Assume pc: 15
Assumed tc (isentropic, g=1.35): 2
Assume 24 burners (consistent with
SGT5-series)
Combustor total CFM: 216,000
CFM per burner: 9,000

Full-scale, single-burner testing can


be accomplished

Trends:
If combustor inlet temperature is
lower, CFM is lower
If combustor inlet pressure is
http://www.powergeneration.siemens.com/en/products/gasturbinesseries/largescale/sgt5_8000h/index.cfm
higher, CFM is lower
GE 9H: HOW LARGE IS THE DEVICE?
FURTHER EXAMPLES
WHY AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION
Propulsion Goal: Create a Force to Propel a Vehicle (N.S.L)

2 Choices for Propulsion

1. Take mass stored in a vehicle and throw it backwards Use reaction force to
propel vehicle
Rocket Propulsion (MAE: 4262)
All fuel and oxidizer are carried onboard vehicle

2. Capture mass from environment and set that mass in motion backwards
Use reaction force to propel vehicle
Air-Breathing Propulsion (MAE: 4261)
Only fuel is carried onboard
Oxidizer (air) is harvested continuously during flight

Airplanes are very sensitive to environment in which they operate


Rockets are highly insensitive to operational environment
HOW ALL ROCKET WORKS
Chemical F Rocket Propulsion: Produces thrust by ejecting
Energy stored matter

Propellants combined in combustion chamber


where chemically react to form high T&P gas

Thermal
Gases accelerated and ejected at high velocity
Energy
through nozzle, imparting momentum to engine

Thrust force is reaction experienced by structure


due to ejection of high velocity matter
Kinetic
Energy
Same phenomenon pushes garden hose
backward as water flows from nozzle, gun recoil

QUESTION:
F m eVe Pe Pa Ae Could a rocket engine exert thrust while
discharging into a vacuum (with not atmosphere
F m eVe to push against)?
HOW AN AIRCRAFT ENGINE WORKS
Chemical Thermal Kinetic
Energy Energy Energy

F m eVe m oVo Pe Pa Ae
F m Ve Vo
Flow through engine is conventionally called THRUST
Composed of net change in momentum of inlet and exit air
Fluid that passes around engine is conventionally called DRAG
SUMMARY: ESTIMATES FOR THRUST

F m Ve Rocket

F m Ve Vo Air-Breathing Engine

Points to remember:
Mass flow for rocket is propellant carried onboard (fuel + oxidizer)
Mass for air-breathing engine is fuel carried onboard and air harvested
from environment as airplane flies

Rockets usually require far higher thrust levels than airplanes


Airplanes usually fly for far greater durations than rockets
ENGINE OVERALL LAYOUT
CROSS-SECTIONAL EXAMPLE: GE 90-115B
Compressor
Nozzle
Fan

Turbine

Inlet Combustor

Why does this engine look the way that it does?


How does this engine push an airplane forward, i.e. how does it generate thrust?
What are major components and design parameters?
How can we characterize performance and compare with other engines?
EXAMPLE OF MILITARY ENGINE:
TURBOJET OR LOW-BYPASS RATIO TURBOFAN
Extreme Temperature Environment

Compressor Combustor Turbine Afterburner


MAJOR GAS TURBINE ENGINE COMPONENTS
1. Inlet:
Continuously draw air into engine through inlet
Slows, or diffuses, to compressor

2. Compressor / Fan:
Compresses air
Generally two, or three, compressors in series
Raises stagnation temperature and pressure (enthalpy) of flow
Work is done on the air

3. Combustor:
Combustion or burning processes
Adds fuel to compressed air and burns it
Converts chemical to thermal energy
Process takes place at relatively constant pressure
MAJOR GAS TURBINE ENGINE COMPONENTS
4. Turbine:
Generally two or three turbines in series
Turbine powers, or drives, the compressor
Air is expanded through turbine (P & T )
Work is done by the air on the blades
Use some of that work to drive compressor
Next:
Expand in a nozzle
Convert thermal to kinetic energy (turbojet)
Burning may occur in duct downstream of turbine (afterburner)
Expand through another turbine
Use this extracted work to drive a fan (turbofan)

5. Nozzle:
Flow is ejected back into the atmosphere, but with increased momentum
Raises velocity of exiting mass flow
2. COMPRESSORS: WHERE IN ENGINE? PW2000
Fan
Compressor

Purpose of fan is to increase efficiency of turbojet engine


Much of air bypasses core of engine
TURBOFAN ENGINES

Engine Core
TURBOFAN ENGINES
Bypass Air

Core Air

Bypass Ratio, B, a:
Ratio of by pass air flow rate to core flow rate
Example: Bypass ratio of 6:1 means that air volume flowing through fan and
bypassing core engine is six times air volume flowing through core
TRENDS TO BIGGER ENGINES

1958: Boeing 707, United States' first commercial jet airliner 1995: Boeing 777, FAA Certified

Similar to PWJT4A: T=17,000 lbf, a ~ 1 PW4000-112: T=100,000 lbf , a ~ 6


HOW LARGE IS THE 777-300 ENGINE?

11 ft 7 in (3.53 m)

11 ft 3 in (3.43 m)

Engine is largest and most powerful turbofan built (11 ft 3 in (3.43 m) in diameter)
In this case, 737 cabin is a mere 3% wider than 777 engine
2 SPOOL DEVICE: PW2000

Low Pressure Compressor (wlow)


High Pressure Compressor (whigh)
3. COMBUSTOR (BURNERS): LOCATION

Commercial
PW4000

Combustor

Military
F119-100

Afterburner
4. TURBINES: LOCATION

Low Pressure Compressor (wlow)


High Pressure Compressor (whigh)

High and Low Pressure Turbines


NOISE SUPPRESSION
5. NOZZLES: PW119 (F22 ENGINE)
MILITARY ENGINES: P&W F119
AFTERBURNER TESTING
COMMERCIAL AND MILITARY ENGINES
(APPROX. SAME THRUST, APPROX. CORRECT RELATIVE SIZES)

GE CFM56 for Boeing 737


T~30,000 lbf, a ~ 5

P&W 119 for F- 22, T~35,000 lbf, a ~ 0.3


THRUST VS. PROPULSIVE EFFICIENCY

Ve V0
Important for both fighter and

T m commercial aircraft

T/W usually more important for


military aircraft (maneuverability)

Large mass flow means high W


Conflict Fighter DV

2
propulsive
Extremely important for commercial
aircraft, much less so for fighter
Ve
1 Efficiency critical for commercial
Low DV, high mass flow
V0
ENGINE STATION NUMBERING CONVENTION
2.0-2.5: Fan
0: Far Upstream 3: Combustor

4: Turbine
1: Inlet 2.5+: Compressor

5: Nozzle

One of most important parameters is TT4: Turbine Inlet Temperature


Performance of gas turbine engine with increasing TT4
MAE 4261 REPRESENTATION OF AN ENGINE

Freestream Combustor
0

Inlet Compressor Turbine Nozzle

1
2 5
3 4
TYPICAL PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION THROUGH ENGINE
BOEING 747-400 AT TOUCHDOWN
BOEING 747-400 AT ROLLOUT

Thrust Reverse on Landing


SIMPLE THRUST REVERSE MODEL: HOMEWORK #2

a
x
Thrust Reverser
Vane
TWO OTHER LAYOUTS

UDF: GTF:
Unducted Fan Concept Geared Turbofan
http://www.flug-revue.rotor.com/FRHeft/FRHeft07/FRH0710/FR0710a.htm
http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/propulsion/q0067.shtml
HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE ENGINE (HETE) FTT50FTA30

1 ft

Ideal and non-ideal cycle analysis


Combustor scaling with Da (tflow/tchem), catalyst, porous metal
Detailed component design (variable stators, electric generator, spin test rig,
altitude test rig)
MICRO TURBOMACHINERY

1 cm
EXAMPLES OF GAS TURBINE COMPONENTS
Example of Film-Cooled
1st Turbine Blade

Cooling
Holes

Why film cooling?


Turbine inlet temperatures > melting temperatures of turbine blade materials
Air provides a thin, cool, insulating blanket along external surface of turbine blade
RAMJETS AND SCRAMJETS
SCRAMJET PROPULSION: X-43 MACH 10!
X-43A DETAILS
NASA'S X-43A SCRAMJET BREAKS SPEED RECORD

NASA's X-43A research vehicle screamed into the record books again Tuesday,
demonstrating an air-breathing engine can fly at nearly 10 times the speed of
sound. Preliminary data from the scramjet-powered research vehicle show its
revolutionary engine worked successfully at nearly Mach 9.8, or 7,000 mph, as it
flew at about 110,000 feet.
NASA's X-43A scramjet program successfully smashed its own world speed
record for aircraft by flying at nearly 10 times the speed of sound. The flight
proves its radical, air-breathing engine can function at speeds of nearly 12,000
kilometers per hour.
Aviation history was made today as NASA successfully flew its experimental X-
43A research vehicle, a forerunner of craft that could well offer alternate access to
space in the future.
AIRCRAFT ENGINE BASICS
All aircraft engines are HEAT ENGINES
Utilize thermal energy derived from combustion of fossil fuels to produce
mechanical energy in form of kinetic energy of an exhaust jet
Momentum excess of exhaust jet over incoming airflow produces thrust
Thrust = Force = Time Rate Change of Momentum

In studying these devices we will employ two types of modeling


1. Fluid Mechanic
Relate changes in pressure, temperature and velocity of air to physical
characteristics of engine
2. Thermodynamic (Cycle Analysis)
Thermal mechanical energy from thermal is studied using
thermodynamics
Study change in thermodynamic state of air as passed through engine
Geometry of engine NOT important, but rather processes are important
THERMODYANMICS: BRAYTON CYCLE MODEL
ENGINE SURGE EVENT
Surge: Violent reverse flow situation:
Burning combustion gases driven upstream through compressor and out of engine
Usually accompanied by downstream fire
Engine must maintain structural integrity and be able to be shut down
ENGINE TESTING: BIRD STRIKE

http://100.rolls-royce.com/facts/view.jsp?id=215
http://www.aviationexplorer.com/a6_engine_ingestion.htm
Supplemental Slides:
Aircraft Engine Manufacturers
AIRCRAFT ENGINE MANUFACTURERS
3 Major Aircraft Manufacturers in World Today (Commercial and Military)

1. Pratt and Whitney (USA)


2. General Electric (USA)
3. Rolls Royce (GB)

Applications for Gas Turbines


Commercial and Military Aircraft Engines, Helicopters
Chemical Rocket Engines
Industrial (marine turbines, yachts, assault ships, etc.)
Power Plants

Interesting Note:
Companies sell product at a $$ loss
Profit is made many years later on refurbishment, spare parts,
maintenance
COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT ENGINES: JT8D

Engine Models
JT8D-7/7A
JT8D-9/9A
JT8D-15/15A
JT8D-17/17A
JT8D-17R/17AR
JT8D-217C
JT8D-219
Airplanes Powered
Boeing 727
Boeing 737-100/-200
McDonnell Douglas
DC-9
Boeing MD-80
COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT ENGINES: JT8D
P&W introduced JT8D to commercial aviation in February 1964 (Boeing's 727-100)
8 models of JT8D standard engine family cover thrust range from 14,000 to 17,400
pounds and power 727, 737, and DC-9 aircraft
More than 11,800 JT8D standard engines produced, over one-half billion hours of
service operation. New Program emphasis is on compliance with noise regulations
For -200 models, a new low-emissions combustion system, or E-Kit, has been FAR 25
certified. Reduces NOx by 25 percent, unburned hydrocarbons by 99 percent and
smoke by 52 percent relative to current models
The -200 is also the exclusive power for the Super 27 re-engining program, in which
Pratt & Whitney, in cooperation with Goodrich Aerostructures, is offering 727
operators a solution to achieve Stage 3/Chapter 3 compliance with improved
performance. Involves replacing two outboard engines with new JT8D-217C/219
models and adding noise suppression equipment. The Super 27 can increase range up
to 1,200 nautical miles and permits carrying up to 30 more passengers or up to 10,000
pounds in additional cargo.
Engine Characteristics
Fan tip diameter: 39.9 - 49.2 in
Length, flange to flange: 120.0 - 154.1 in
Takeoff thrust: 14,000 - 21,700 lb
Bypass ratio: 0.96 - 1.74
Overall pressure ratio: 15.4 - 21.0
Fan pressure ratio: 1.92 - 2.21
COMMERCIAL ENGINES: P&W 4000 SERIES
COMMERCIAL ENGINES: P&W 4000 SERIES
P&W 94 inch P&W 100 inch P&W 112 inch
Engine Models Engine Models Engine Models
PW4052 PW4164 PW4074
PW4056 PW4168 PW4077
PW4060 PW4168A
PW4077D
PW4062 Airplanes Powered
PW4084
PW4062A Airbus A330-300
PW4152 Airbus A330-200 PW4084D
PW4156A PW4090
PW4156 PW4098
PW4158 Airplanes Powered
PW4460 Boeing 777-200/-300
PW4462
Airplanes Powered
Boeing 747-400
Boeing 767-200/-300
Boeing MD-11
Airbus A300-600
Airbus A310-300
P&W 4000 SERIES: 94 INCH FAN
Pratt & Whitney's PW4000 94-inch fan model is the first in a family of high-thrust
aircraft engines
Certified thrust ranging from 52,000 to 62,000 pounds, it powers the Airbus A310-300
and A300-600 aircraft and Boeing 747-400, 767-200/300 and MD-11 aircraft. For
twin-engine aircraft, the PW4000 is approved for 180-minute ETOPS (Extended-range
Twin-engine Operations).
Entered service in 1987. Advanced, service-proven technologies, such as single-crystal
superalloy materials and its Full-Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) for
superior fuel economy and reliability. The engine's attractiveness is further enhanced by
excellent performance retention, long on-wing times and low maintenance costs.
Meets all current and anticipated emissions and noise regulations with margin. For a
further reduction in emissions, especially NOx, TALON (Technology for Advanced
Low NOx) combustor technology is now available as an option. Derived from the 112-
inch fan model, TALON has segmented, replaceable liner panels for maintainability
and air blast fuel nozzles for excellent fuel atomization and mixing
Engine Characteristics
Fan tip diameter: 94 in
Length, flange to flange: 132.7 in
Takeoff thrust: 52,000 - 62,000 lb
Flat rated temperature: 86 or 92 F
Bypass ratio: 4.8 to 5.1
Overall pressure ratio: 27.5 to 32.3
Fan pressure ratio: 1.65 - 1.80
P&W 4000 SERIES: 100 INCH FAN
PW4000 100-inch fan engine is first derivative model in PW4000 family.
Developed specifically for Airbus Industrie's A330 twinjet, certified from 64,500
to 68,600 pounds of thrust.
PW4168 features the industry's lightest weight and most advanced nacelle.
Incorporates a number of service-proven technologies in materials, aerodynamics
and controls to enhance performance, reliability and durability. The engine was the
first in aviation history to qualify for ETOPS (Extended-range Twin-engine
Operations) prior to entering service. It is now approved for 180-minute ETOPS.
Meets all present and anticipated noise and exhaust emissions regulations.
PW4000 100-inch engines have accumulated more than three million hours of
revenue service and are the leading engine on the A330
Engine Characteristics
Fan tip diameter: 100 in
Length, flange to flange: 163.1 in
Takeoff thrust: 64,500 - 68,600 lb
Bypass ratio: 5.1
Overall pressure ratio: 32.0
Fan pressure ratio: 1.75
P&W 4000 SERIES: 112 INCH FAN
PW4000 112-inch fan engine is second derivative model in PW4000 engine family.
The PW4084, certified at 86,760 pounds thrust, was the launch engine for Boeing's 777
super twinjet. It entered service in June 1995 with United Airlines, already qualified for
180-minute ETOPS (Extended-range Twin-engine Operations). First engine to operate
with approval for 207-minute ETOPS. The PW4090, certified at 91,790 pounds of
thrust, entered service on the Boeing 777-200ER airplane in March 1997. The most
recent model, the PW4098, was certified in July 1998. The PW4098, at 99,040 pounds
of thrust, is available for 777-200ER and 777-300 models.
For transportability, the engine can be shipped in a 747F as a complete engine. Also,
the fan case is easily separated from the engine's core for split shipment without
disturbing the bearing compartments.
Engine Characteristics
Fan tip diameter: 112 in
Length, flange to flange: 191.7 in
Takeoff thrust: 74,000 - 98,000 lb
Bypass ratio: 5.8 to 6.4
Overall pressure ratio: 34.2 - 42.8
Fan pressure ratio: 1.70 - 1.80
GE 90 FAMILY: MOST POWERFUL ENGINES IN WORLD

GE Aircraft Engines was specified by Boeing to develop a 115,000 pound-thrust


GE90 derivative engine for all longer-range 777-200LR and -300ER derivatives.

Derivative engine represents the successful culmination of GE's strategy in the


early 1990s to build a new centerline engine for the Boeing 777 family. Since its
initial testing, the GE90-115B has set numerous aviation records including
reaching a sustained record 122,965 lbs. of thrust during initial ground testing at
GE's outdoor test facility
P&W / G.E. GP7000 FAMILY
WORLDS LARGEST PASSENGER AIRLINER: A380-800

A380-800 Wing span 79.8m (261ft 10in), length 73m (239ft 6in). Height 24,1 m (79ft 1in)
P&W / G.E. GP7000 DETAILS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Joint effort between Pratt & Whitney and General Electric
GP7000 is derived from some of the most successful widebody engine programs in
aviation history (GE90 and PW4000 families)
Industry leading ETOPS reliability from service entry
Over 250 million hours of performance
Built on GE90 core and PW4000 low spool, but with many new technologies
Best of GE Aircraft Engines and Pratt & Whitney technologies
Two-spool simplicity for reliability and maintainability
Best payload capability, performance and performance retention.
Quietest and lowest emissions in its class.
Engine Characteristics
Fan tip diameter: 116 in
Length, flange to flange: 187 in
Takeoff thrust: 70,000 lb
Flat rated temperature: 86 F
Bypass ratio: 8.7
FUEL CONSUMPTION TREND
U.S. airlines, hammered by soaring oil prices, will spend $5
billion more on fuel this year or even a greater sum, draining
already thin cash reserves
Airlines are among the industries hardest hit by high oil prices,
which have jumped 38 percent in just 12 months.
Airline stocks fell at the open of trading Tuesday as a spike in
crude-oil futures weighed on the sector

JT8D
Fuel Burn

JT9D PW4084
Future
Turbofan
PW4052

NOTE: No Numbers

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020


Year
MILITARY ENGINES: P&W F100
P&W F100 DETAILS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Powers all current F-15 figher aircraft and F-16 fighter aircraft in 21 countries. More
than 6,900 engines produced and over 16 million flight hours.
F100-PW-229 is the most mature Increased Performance Engine (IPE) available and is
the engine of choice for air forces worldwide. It is the only IPE engine operationally
matured in both the F-15E and F-16 Block 52 aircraft. Using technology developed
from the F119 and F135 engine programs for the F/A-22 Raptor and F-35 Joint Strike
Fighter, the current production PW-229 incorporates modern turbine materials, cooling
management techniques, compressor aerodynamics and electronic controls.
In addition to offering the most technologically advanced IPE available, Pratt &
Whitney offers a comprehensive range of maintenance management programs and
engine overhaul services to meet all customer requirements. These programs provide
customers with low-cost maintenance solutions and superb operational readiness.
Engine Characteristics
Thrust: 23,770 - 29,160 lb
Weight: 3,740 lb
Length: 191 in
Inlet Diameter: 34.8 in
Maximum Diameter: 46.5 in
Bypass Ratio: 0.36
Overall Pressure Ratio: 32 to 1
MILITARY ENGINES: P&W F119
P&W F119 DETAILS AND SPECIFICATIONS
P&W F119 turbofan engine. In the 35,000 pound thrust class, engine is a dual spool,
counter-rotating turbofan that enables aircraft operation at supersonic speeds for extended
periods.
F119 is equipped with a number of advanced technologies. Three-stage fan has shroudless
titanium fan blades and is powered by a single-stage low-pressure turbine. The engine's core
has an aerodynamically efficient six-stage compressor driven by a single-stage high-
pressure turbine featuring the next generation of single-crystal superalloy blades with
improved cooling management. Robust, but compact, high-pressure compressor features
integrally bladed rotor disks for improved durability and three-dimensionally designed
airfoils.
Convergent/divergent nozzle vectors thrust 20 degrees either up or down. Nozzle position
management is automatically controlled by the full-authority digital electronic control
(FADEC), which controls hundreds of other engine and aircraft operating parameters.
F/A-22 full operational capability is expected in 2005.
Engine Characteristics
Type: Twin-Spool, Augmented Turbofan
Thrust: 35,000 Pound Thrust Class
Engine control: Full-Authority Digital Electronic Control
Compression system: Twin Spool/Counter Rotating/Axial Flow/Low Aspect Ratio
Combustor: Annular
Turbine: Axial Flow/Counter-Rotating
Nozzle: Two Dimensional Vectoring Convergent/Divergent
JSF ENGINE CONCEPTS: VSTOL
A GOOD PLACE FOR MARKET NEWS
Singapore Airlines places US$7.35 bln Boeing order

August 25, 2004 04:13:57 (ET)

SINGAPORE, Aug 25 (Reuters) - Singapore Airlines Ltd. ((SIAL.SI)), the world's


second-largest airline by market value, said on Wednesday it had ordered 31
Boeing Co (BA,Trade) long-range 777-300ERs worth about US$7.35 billion in a
fleet renewal programme.
The aircraft will be powered by engines from General Electric Co (GE,Trade), Asia's
most profitable airline said.
The national carrier had asked airframe manufacturers Boeing Co (BA,Trade) and
Airbus SAS ((EAD.DE))((EAD.PA)) to bid for new plane orders it may place later
this year.
Boeing, the No. 2 maker of jetliners, is in a dogfight for market share with No. 1
Airbus.
The planes will cover the medium-haul and regional needs of the 57 percent
government-owned airline over the coming years.
ONLINE REFERENCES
http://www.aircraftenginedesign.com/enginepics.html
http://www.pratt-whitney.com/
http://www.geae.com/
http://www.geae.com/education/engines101/
http://www.ueet.nasa.gov/StudentSite/engines.html
http://www.aeromuseum.org/Education/Lessons/HowPlaneFly/HowPlaneFly.html
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal109/NEWHTF/HTF532.HTM
http://www.aircav.com/histturb.html
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bljjetenginehistory.htm
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blenginegasturbine.htm
http://www.gas-turbines.com/primer/primer.htm
SIEMENS POWER GENERATION: ORLANDO

The SGT-300 Industrial Gas Turbine for Power SGT-800 Industrial Gas Turbine 45MW
Generation (ISO) 7.90MW(e)
The SGT-800 combines reliable, robust industrial
The SGT-300 is available with a Dry Low Emissions design with the high efficiency and low emission
(DLE) combustion system, providing extremely low levels of the latest turbine technology. It allows you to
NOx levels with gas and liquid fuels and a full dual implement rapid, low-cost solutions for combined
fuel capability. The SGT-300 design is uniquely heat and power production. Moreover, it's
simple, employing a single twin bearing rotor with environmentally sound, compact and easy to install.
heavy duty casings. This allows full site maintenance
to be carried out. Designed for continuous, heavy-duty operation, the
SGT-800 is the obvious choice where reliability,
The generator set package is very compact, providing environmental concerns and low life-cycle costs are
a small footprint and a high power-to-weight ratio. key factors. In combined cycle installations, this
The single-shaft configuration provides excellent load turbine affords very competitive life-cycle costs. It
acceptance and rejection characteristics, allowing also offers high efficiency in simple cycle operation.
robust and reliable operation in all applications. And its powerful heat production capability in
cogeneration installations makes it the ideal choice for
the process industry.