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Vivek.

S
JTO, RTTC, Hyderabad
Telecom Network

User or
Access or
Core
Network Network Network
Broadband Telecom Network
Content
Broadcaster Servers

Internet / Telecom
Provider

Broadcast Internet
Network High speed
Core Core Network
IP, ATM, SDH,
Network MPLS, WDM

Headend Node

LMDS WiMAX POTS ISDN


MMDS WiFi, GSM Access xDSL fibre HFC
GPRS UMTS Network FTTH

User
Terminal
IEEE View of Wireless Network Technologies
WWAN
> 50 km
802.20 (proposed)

WiMAX WMAN
<50 km
75 Mbit/s
802.16d/e

Wi-Fi WLAN
<100 m
11-54 Mbit/s
802.11a/b/ g

WPAN
<10 m
802.15.1 (Bluetooth)*
802.15.3 (UWB) **
802.15.4 (ZigBee)*** * Bluetooth: ~1 Mbit/s
** UWB: 100 Mbit/s
*** ZigBee: 20-250 kbps
Source: ITU, Birth of Broadband, September 2003 and Pyramid Research
Broadband Wireless Access
Technologies
WPAN
Bluetooth
WLAN
WiFi
WMAN
WIMAX
LMDS / MMDS
FSO
WWAN - Cellular Mobile Telephony
GSMGPRS,EDGE
3G-UMTS
CDMA 2000 1x RTT EVDOEVDV
Spectrum Map of Various Wireless
Technologies
1Gbps
data rate

UWB

100Mbps
802.11a/g WLAN
10Mbps 802.16a WiMAX 802.20 WWAN
WMAN
802.11b WLAN
1Mbps 3G/4G
Bluetooth
100kbps
2G/2.5G Cell
Phone Service
10kbps RFID
Sensor
Network
Personal Local Metropolitan Wide distance
Area Area Area Area
Network Network Network Network
(<10m) (<100m) (1 to 48km) (>48km)
Bluetooth: IEEE 802.15

Wireless LAN technology (10 meters)


PAN
2.4 Ghz band with 1+ Mbps speed
Frequency hopping spread spectrum
Always On connectivity
3 Voice channels of 64 Kbps each
UWB can provide 400 Mbps speed
Spectrum
UNII
International US International Japan
Licensed Licensed Licensed ISM
ISM Licensed

1 2 3 4 5 GHz

ISM: Industrial, Scientific & Medical Band Unlicensed band


UNII: Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure band Unlicensed band

WiFi / WiMAX considering both licensed and


unlicensed options
Bluetooth
Short-range wireless technology.

Designed for:
Interconnecting computer and peripherals.

Interconnecting various handhelds.


Home Wireless Network
What is Wireless LAN / WiFi
WiFi Standards
IEEE 802.11
Initial release
1 to 2 Mbps
Operates in 2.4 GHz band
Uses either FHSS or DSSS encoding scheme
IEEE 802.11a
Capable upto 54 Mbps
Operates in 5 GHz band
Uses OFDM encoding scheme

IEEE 802.11b
Upto 11 Mbps
Operates in 2.4 GHz band
Uses only DSSS encoding scheme.

IEEE 802.11g
Upto 54 Mbps
Operates in 2.4 GHz band
WiFi Ranges
Wi-Fi in Metro Access (Outdoor)

2 different approaches:
Wi-Fi with directional antenna
Wi-Fi with a mesh-network topology
Increasing 802.11 Range Using
Directional Antennas
802.11 Last Mile Networks

Proprietary
Solutions
Wi-Fi Subscriber Station
With High-Gain Antenna
Internet

Ethernet Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi Telco core
network
Or private
Internal Access
(fiber)
Point with hub network

Ethernet Wi-Fi Access Point


With High-Gain antenna

Customer Premise
(Home, Business or HOTSPOT)
WiFi as Metro Access
Mesh Networking
Meshing allows wireless connectivity between
access points Proprietary
Lower implementation cost Solutions
Fault tolerance
AP to AP Communication is not
Standardized and hence are not
interoperable, The ratification of
802.11s will standardize the Wi-Fi
Mesh-network topology. The
802.11s standard is estimated
To be ratified in 2007.
WIMAX Technology
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access
Works in 10-60 GHz and 2-11 GHz
Provides fixed, portable, and eventually
mobile, wireless broadband connectivity
It can also provide POTS services
Speed upto 75 Mb/s
Designed to develop an air interface based
on a common MAC protocol
Designed a flexible MAC layer and
accompanying Physical layer
WiMAX - IEEE802.16
Air Interface:
OFDM, OFDMA, 64QAM, 2048 sub-carriers,
NLOS

Bands
2.3GHz, 2.4 GHz, 2.5-2.7 GHz, 3.5 GHz and 5-6
GHz
Bandwidth or Channel Sizes:
3 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 6 MHz, 7 MHz, 10 MHz, 14 MHz
and 20 MHz

Data rates:
56Mbps- 63 Mbps in a 14 MHz Channel
Maximum 74.7 Mbps in a 20MHz channel
WiMAX
Fixed
Access Portable
Small to Access
Mid size
Business

WiMAX Base Station


(Towers or rooftop antennas)
CPE

Mobile Network
Backhaul
Residential
SOHO

HotSpot
Backhaul WiFi/802.11 Cellular
Hotspot
WIMAX Architecture

27
WiMAX - Last Mile Broadband
Video
PSTN
Cellular Mobile
Telephony BTS
Internet
Enterprise Cellular
Customer backhaul

High Speed
Content &
Core Network Application
Mobile Providers
Broadband
User
BBRAS

Home User /
SOHO
EnterpriseCustomer
/Fixed outdoor
DSLAM BACKHAUL APPLICATION

Up to 20kmts

Ethernet Ethernet
CANOPY CANOPY CANOPY

Wi-Max
BTS
Wi-Max Wi-Max DSLAM
DSLAM CPE CPE Location-2
Location-1
Ethernet
Switch

BRAS INTERNET
BACKBONE
WIMAX
Last Mile Networks

WIMAX
Subscriber
Station

POTS

Wi-Fi

Access
Point

Ethernet Core Network


WiMAX Base Station
PSTN

Customer Premise Internet


(Home/Business/SOHO/HOTSPOT)
APPLICATIONS OF WIMAX
Multiple broadband users from a single
CPE (with different SLAs) Rural BB
Leased lines
MPLS VPN support
Backhaul of WiFi
Backhaul of DSLAM
IEEE 802.16 standards
802.16 Air interface for fixed BWA systems at 10-66 GHz
Common MAC definition

Multiple PHY definitions, with baseline PHY supporting

operation in 10-66 GHz, Single Carrier QAM Modulation.


Point-to-multipoint (PMP) operation

2 to 134 Mbps

Constrained to line-of-sight

Few KMs of range


IEEE 802.16 Standards
802.16a 2.5, 3.5 GHz licensed bands
Point-to-multipoint BWA system

OFDM 256 point FFT waveform

TDM/TDMA scheduled downlink/uplink frames

Near LOS operation and fixed outdoor antenna

Max. Range 50 Km

Typical coverage ~ 5km - Indoor antenna in case of

802.16d
~15 km with outdoor antenna in case of 802.16a

802.16b License-exempt bands, with a focus on


5.8 GHz Band
WirelessHUMAN

(Wireless High-Speed Unlicensed Metropolitan Area


IEEE 802.16 Standards

802.16e 2.5, 3.5 GHz Licensed band


CPE native in mobile PC
It will offer mobility within a fixed service area of the
service provider at varying speed
OFDMA for taking care of Multipath Metro
Environment
802.20
Complete mobility with roaming from one network to
other network.
Work under progress
The WiMAX Vision

2004 2005 2006

Fixed Outdoor Fixed Indoor & Portable Mobile


Solution Characteristics Solution Characteristics Solution Characteristics
Fixed location Consumer self install, CPE Native in Mobile PC
Installed outside of auto provisioning User can roam within the
subscribers house Portable can move service area at varying
Requires truck roll CPE to another location speeds
in service area Always Best Connected
Applications
Applications (Simplified Network
E1/T1 Level Service for
Enterprises Last Mile Broadband Selection)
access for consumers Applications
Backhaul for Hotspots
Portable broadband Mobile Broadband
Fractional E1/T1 for access access for consumers
SMEs
Limited residential
broadband access (rural
areas)
Usage Scenarios
Fixed Nomadic Portable Simple Full Mobility
Mobility

User Mobility None None 5 km/hr >60 with >120 km/hr


during a >120 km/h
session with
degradation
Session No No Best Effort <150 ms on <50ms
Continuity layer 2
Stationary IP apps IP apps on IP apps on IP apps on IP apps on
Applications on DSL DSL. DSL DSL DSL
Applications N/A N/A Email, web, Email web, VoIP, Video
for Mobile video video streaming and
Operation streaming streaming telephony
internet
gaming, plus
simple mob
apps.
Multiple Base No No Optional Optional Yes, plus fast
Station cell switching
IEEE 802.16 MAC layer

Operates at MAC sub-layer of Data Link


Layer
MAC layer is further subdivided into
three layers
Convergence sub-layer (CS)
Common part sub-layer (CPS)
Privacy sub-layer
802.16 Physical Layer

Data rates determined


by exact modulation Channel Bit Rate Bit Rate Bit Rate
and encoding Size (Mbps) (Mbps) (Mbps)
schemes (MHz) QPSK 16-QAM 64-QAM

20 32 64 96
TDD and FDD 25 40 80 120
supported in 802.16 to 28 44.8 89.6 134.4
accommodate burst
profiling
802.16a PHY Features
256 point FFT OFDM modulation
Reduces multi-path interference in outdoor LOS and
NLOS environment
75 Mbps maximum data rate per 20 MHz carrier

Adaptive Modulation and variable forward error


correction encoding per RF burst
Ensures robust RF link while maximizing the number
of bits/ sec for each subscriber unit at optimal range
TDD and FDD duplexing support
802.16a PHY Features

Flexible channel sizes 1.75 MHz, 3.5 MHz,


5 Mhz, 7 MHz, 10 MHz etc with 20 MHz
Maximum
Provides flexibility necessary to operate in many
different frequency bands with varying channel
requirements around the world
Designed to support smart antenna
Smart antennas are fast becoming more
affordable, and as these costs come down their
ability to suppress interference and increase
system gain will become important for BWA
deployment
Multipath Environment

The use of several parallel


WiMAX
sub carriers of OFDM Base
enables much longer symbol Station
duration, which makes the
signal more robust to multi-
path dispersion.
Thus OFDMA is most suitable
and robust technology in
multi-path environment

WiMAX
CPE
Adaptive Antenna System
(Smart Antennas)
Beam Shaping
Adaptive antenna system (AAS)
equipped base stations can create
beams that can be steered, focusing
the transmit energy to achieve greater
range. When receiving, they can focus
in the particular direction of the receiver.
this helps eliminate unwanted interfere-
nce from other locations.
WiMAX - AMC
Adaptive Modulation and Coding
As distance increases, system
falls back on lower order
modulation scheme for that user.
This helps in achieving greater range
but on reduced data rate

QPSK QAM 16
QAM 64
System Components
Base Station
Controller
Macro Base station
Micro Base station
RF Units
CPE
Outdoor Unit
Indoor Self-Install
PC Card (ODMs)
Laptop integrated (Intel)

Network Management
High Capacity Scalable BST
Multi Channel BST radios
Increase capacity over the same RF
infrastructure
Scalable pay as you grow solution
Modem
#1
Scalable Modem
Radio Unit Growth Radio Unit
Modem #2 IF
RF RF
#1 Mux
Modem
#3
Modem
1x3.5MHz Channel = 18 Mbps #4
Net Capacity 4x3.5MHz Channel = 72 Mbps Net
Capacity
Interfaces at BTS
The following interfaces shall be supplied on
each BS:
Name Number
10/100 mbps 100 baseT 2
full duplex interface
Gbps SX 2
V5.2 E1 Interfaces 10
G.703 E1 Interfaces 10
Base Station Controller
NPU Network Processing Unit card (1+1)
AU Access Unit card (4+2)
NIU Network Interface Unit - 12 x E1/T1 interface card (port
redundancy)
PIU Power Interface Unit card with redundancy
AVU Air Ventilation Unit controllable fans (9+1)
PSU Power Supply Unit (3+1)

PIU PSU
Network
Processing
Unit (NPU)

Access Unit (AU) or


Network Interface
AVU Unit (NIU)
RF Units
Smart antenna 2nd, 4th order diversity
Full duplex multi-carrier radio - connects to an external antenna
High system gain and interference robustness utilizing high
transmit power and low noise figure
Support for up to 10MHz channel bandwidth
Increased capacity - multiple RF channels per sector through IF
Mux
Cell coverage using a 60o, 90o or 120o sectorized antennas

Outdoor
Configuration
Micro Base Station
1U rack mounted base-
station controller RFU Integrated
with a Sector
Antenna
1,2 or 4 RF units
configurations
Two deployment
configurations:
Sectorial - single sector coverage
Omni-type - for area coverage
Micro Base Station
Customer Premises
Equipment (CPE)
CPE types:
Indoor self installed CPE (integrated antennas) Self Install
Integrated outdoor CPE
PC Card
Laptop integrated
Outdoor

CPE benefits:
Interoperability and multiple vendor Support PC Card

Low cost through mass production

Laptop
WiMAX supports 5 classes of
application
1 Multi-player Interactive Gaming

2 VOIP & Video Conference

3 Streaming Media

4 Web Browsing & Instant Messaging

5 Media Content Downloads


WIMAX Vision: Broadband Everywhere
3 1
2
FRACTIONAL E1 for RESIDENTIAL & SoHo
SMALL BUSINESS BACKHAUL for DSL LEVEL SERVICE
Mobile
HOTSPOTS
Backhaul 4
WMAN Nomadic Coverage --
E1+ LEVEL SERVICE 802.16d 802.16d > handoff from HOT SPOTS
ENTERPRISE H
H H

H H
H
H H
802.16e H
5 = wide area
coverage outside of
Hot Spots
INTERNET
BACKBONE
BWA Operator
Network Backbone Mobility
Salient features of BSNL WI-MAX
WIMAX IN 10 CITIES-
KOLKATA, CHENNA, HYDERABAD,
BANGLORE AHMEDABAD, PUNE,
HISSAR, ROHTA, PINJORE and KARNAL
VENDOR-MOTOROLA, APERTO, SOMA
FREQ. ALLOTTED- 2 FDD SPOTS OF 3.5
MHz.
FOUR SECTORS
7.5Mbps * 4 = 30 Mbps net throughput
BS CAPACITY-1000CPE, 50 SUBs/CPE
MODEL-PM 5000 BS, PM 300i CPE.
WIMAX BS
WIMAX CPE components
Management Traffic connected to PE router via 128kbps
MLLN circuit & data traffic to Tier-II
Frequency Spectrum for WiMAX (2.3 - 5.8) GHz

MMDS 3.5GHz band Low/Mid Upper


~2500-2690 3400-3600 UNII-band UNII-band
2700-2900 (802.11a) ~5725-5850
5150-5350
3300-3400
ISM (11b/g) WRC (new)
5470-5725
2400-2480
US WCS WiMAX profiles available
2305-2320
2345-2360 Other Bands

Note : WPC has allotted two no of FDD frequencies of 3.5 MHz


(1) 3308.75 / 3358.75 MHz (2) 3312.25 / 3362.25 MHz
Free Space Optics (FSO)
Optical wireless P2P, LOS, broadband technology -
alternative to OFC system
Speed comparable to OFC

Up to 1.25 Gbps at distance of 6.4 Km in full-


duplex mode
Uses low-powered infrared (IR) beam sent
through open air by transceivers
Uses unlicensed higher frequency

Currently FSO uses two different wavelengths

Expected worldwide standard in near future


FSO Transmitter
Advantages of FSO
Several advantages of FSO
Significantly less expensive than fiber
optic or leased lines
Much faster installation, days or weeks
compared to months for fiber optic
cables
Transmission speed can be scaled to
meet users needs; from 10 Mbps to 1.25
Gbps
Security is key advantage; not easy to
intercept or decode
Disadvantages of FSO:
Primary disadvantage is: Impact of
atmospheric conditions on FSO
transmissions
Spatial variations in light intensity caused by
atmospheric turbulence that acts like prism to distort
FSO signals
Uses Spatial diversity technique
FSO overcomes scintillation by sending data in
parallel streams from several separate laser
transmitters separated by about 7.8 inches
Spatial Diversity
Other Disadvantages
Fog in the atmosphere
Increase transmitted power
Customize distance and products based on
weather statistics for particular cities
Place FSO transceivers less than 500 meters
apart in regions with heavy fog
Use a backup system along with FSO
Signal interference - Birds can block
signal
Solution is to block signal temporarily and
then raise to full power when obstruction
clears
Other Disadvantages
Problem of swaying of tall buildings
due to wind or seismic activity
Beam divergencetransmitted beam is
purposely spread to form large optical cone
when it arrives at receiving device
Active trackingfeedback mechanism uses
movable mirrors to adjust automatically and
control direction that beams are sent
LMDS
Local Multipoint Distribution System
28GHz and 31GHz ranges
Voice, data and video
~ 100Mbps
Line-of-sight technology
LMDS Applications
Central Office Video
PSTN

Internet
Content &
Application
Providers
Backhaul for
Hotspots

Data,PSTN
Video Access

Data,PSTN
LMDS Cell Site Video Access
LMDS Cells

Typical LMDS Cell


2 to 5 miles across

To CO

LMDS Cell Site


Factors determining LMDS Cell size
Line-of-sightLMDS requires direct
line
Tall buildings may obstruct line of
sight
Solution is to divide area into smaller
cells
Antenna heightplaced on taller
buildings can serve larger cells
without obstructions
LMDS Signal Obstruction

No Signal
Shadow
To CO Zone

LMDS Cell Site


Tall Building
Obstructs Signal
Divide LMDS Cells into Smaller
Cells

To CO

LMDS Cell Site


LMDS Cell Site
LMDS Antenna Height

To CO
LMDS Radio Hubs

LMDS signals broadcast from radio


hubs that connect to Core Network
Three pieces of equipment at
receiving site
12- to 15-inch diameter directional antenna
Digital radio modem
A network interface unit (NIU)
LMDS Hub and Remote Unit

LMDS Hub Unit LMDS Remote Unit


LMDS Access & Modulation techniques
LMDS uses two access methods
TDMA
FDMA
Modulation techniques vary among
carriers
QPSK or QAM or 16-QAM or 64-QAM
LMDS Modulation Methods
Name Modulation Method MHz for 2 Mbps
connection
BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying 2.8 MHz

DQPSK Differential QPSK 1.4 MHz

QPSK Quaternary Phase Shift Keying 1.4 MHz

8PSK Octal Phase Shift Keying 0.8 MHz

4-QAM Quadrature amplitude modulation, 4 states 1.4 MHz

16-QAM Quadrature amplitude modulation, 8 states 0.6 MHz

64-QAM Quadrature amplitude modulation, 64 states 0.4 MHz


LMDS Spectral Efficiency

Modulation Spectral
Efficiency
4-QAM 1.5 b/s/Hz
16-QAM 3.5 b/s/Hz
64-QAM 5 b/s/Hz
Advantages of LMDS

Advantages
Lower cost for both user and carrier
than wired alternatives
Increased service area
More Capacity With 1300MHz,
carriers can support 16,000 telephone
calls and 200 video channels
simultaneously
Disadvantages of LMDS

Disadvantages
Requires line-of-sight between buildings
Affected by precipitation
Susceptible to interference from rain
and fog
Multichannel Multipoint
Distribution System

Launched in 1998 (US) - Wireless voice /


Internet / video
1.5 Mbps downstream
300 Kbps upstream
Distances up to 35 miles
MMDS Pizza Box Antenna
MMDS Layout

Mounted MMDS hub uses point-to-multipoint


architecture
By using lower frequencies, MMDS signals
travel longer distances - up to 35 miles
Pizza box (13x13inch) directional antennas
mounted at Customer premises
Antenna to MMDS modem Cable
Modem connected to PC / LAN
Second Generation MMDS

Work is underway
Will use Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing (OFDM)
Stronger signal will eliminate line-of-
sight requirement, increase coverage in
cell, and simplify antenna installation
Speeds may reach up to 9 Mbps
downstream and 2.0 Mbps upstream
Advantages of MMDS
Signal strength lower interference than
that of LMDS
Cell size seven times larger than area
covered by LMDS transmitters
Cost MMDS is less expensive than
LMDS
Disadvantages of MMDS

Requires direct line-of-sightmakes installation


difficult and eliminates locations blocked by
taller obstructions
Shared signalsdecreased speed and
throughput since users share same radio channel
SecurityUnencrypted transmissions may be
intercepted and read
Limited marketsavailable in limited areas in USA
Evolution of cellular mobile telephony

2G
GSM
CDMA
2.5G
GSM(GPRS/EDGE)
CDMA 2000 1x RTT
3G
UMTS (WCDMA),
CDMA2000 1x EVDO
EVDV
Mobile Speeds
2G
GSM/CDMA (9.6-14.4) Kbps
2.5G
GPRS 115 Kbps
EDGE 384 Kbps
CDMA 2000 1x RTT 170 Kbps
3G
EVDO 3.1Mbps
EVDV 3.1 Mbps
UMTS (144 2048) Kbps
HSDPA 14 Mbps
Review
1. The popular WPAN technology is_________
2. The maximum possible speed of bluetooth is
_________
3. The range of WLAN is _______
4. What is the widely used WLAN technology?
5. What is WiFi standard number?
6. What is the mostly used encoding scheme in
WiFi?
7. The latest version of WiFi is ______
8. WiFi is most popular because of its operation in
_______band
9. 802.11g supports maximum data rate of
____Mbps
10. What is range of WMAN?
11. What are the different WMAN technologies?
12. WIMAX stands for_____________
13. MMDS stands for_____________
14. The maximum possible speed of WIMAX is _________
15. WIMAX cannot be used as backhaul connectivity to
DSLAMs (True / False)
16. In what areas, BSNL can for WIMAX?
17. WIMAX base station can be connected to PSTN / Tier-
2 broadband switch?
18. WIMAX cannot provide VPN service (True / False)
19. WIMAX can provide SLAs to subscribers (True / False)
20. WIMAX supports AMC (True / False)
21. UMTS stands for_______
22. The maximum possible speed of BSNL 3G is _______
23. What is EVDO?
24. EVDO can support a maximum of ________
25. Multimedia services can be offered by EVDO / 3G /
WIMAX (True / False)
Thanks